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Are Women Coached by Women More Likely to Become Sport Coaches? Head Coach Gender and Female Collegiate Athletes’ Entry into the Coaching Profession

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Abstract

A plethora of research on barriers facing women in the coaching profession exists, but less attention has been devoted to female student-athletes’ transition into coaching. Some research suggests that female athletes who are coached by women are more likely to become coaches. In the present study, existing research is extended by examining the relationship between collegiate female basketball players’ post-playing career behavior and the gender of their collegiate head coach. Two research questions are addressed: (1) Are female collegiate Division-I basketball players who are coached by female head coaches more likely to enter the coaching profession than athletes who are coached by men? And; (2) If female basketball players do enter coaching, are those who were coached by women more likely to persist in coaching? Collegiate head coach gender did not emerge as a significant predictor of athletes’ likelihood to enter coaching, but logistic regression indicated that athletes who did enter coaching were 4.1-times more likely to stay in coaching if they had a female head coach. This study extends the scarce and outdated body of research on the potential salience of same-sex coaching role models for female athletes and provides baseline data on collegiate athletes’ entry rate into coaching, lending support to advocacy aimed at reversing the current stagnation of women in the sport coaching profession.

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... Por último, se encontró una diferencia significativa en la edad, con una media más baja entre las entrenadoras, que puede estar mostrando justamente que la profesión para ellas aún está en desarrollo (Wasend & LaVoi, 2019), por lo tanto, hay una menor cantidad de entrenadoras con más años de experiencia. ...
... El contexto sociocultural crea barreras asociando al deporte y liderazgo con características tradicionales masculinas, valorando los deportes masculinos sobre los femeninos y privilegiando el comportamiento de entrenadores hombres. Muchas veces, esta falta de apoyo ubica a la mujer en un lugar de menor percepción de eficacia en su rol de entrenadora porque internaliza estos estereotipos (Wasend & LaVoi, 2019). Por otro lado, dado que diferentes estudios muestran que en función de su género los deportistas perciben de diferente manera las conductas de sus entrenadores (Raimundi, Celsi, & Otero, 2020;Raimundi, Celsi, Otero, et al., en prensa) y también hay un efecto diferente respecto del género de los profesores (Castillo et al., 2018), será necesario desarrollar futuros estudios que permitan profundizar estos aspectos. ...
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El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes de los entrenadores y entrenadoras hacia las mujeres y hacia los hombres y su relación con la percepción del clima motivacional que crean en sus equipos. Participaron 93 entrenadores y entrenadoras (varones 65%, n = 6 0 ; mujeres 35%, n = 3 3 ) de entre 19 y 65 años ( M = 3 2 , 5 ; DT = 10,4), quienes respondieron un cuestionario sociodemográfico, los cuestionarios de Sexismo Ambivalente (hacia la mujer y hacia el hombre) y el Cuestionario de Clima Motivacional Empowering y Disempowering creado por el Entrenador. Se realizaron comparaciones de grupo, análisis de conglomerados y correlaciones entre las variables estudiadas. Los resultados mostraron que no existe una diferencia significativa entre las actitudes sexistas en función del género. Sin embargo, al considerar la relación entre la autopercepción de las actitudes sexistas y el clima que crean en sus entrenamientos y competencias, se encontraron diferencias en función del género de los entrenadores. Las actitudes sexistas intentan mantener los roles de género tradicionales, con actitudes discriminatorias (hostiles) y con otras ocultas tras la protección (benevolentes). Estas actitudes se relacionan con climas motivacionales disempowering, que pueden ser obstaculizadores para el desarrollo positivo de los y las deportistas.
... Based on the experiences of women coaches, increasing opportunities for mentorship and support is a prominent and effective recommendation for helping to support women and bolster their representation and recognition as valued members in coaching. Women coaches who have formal and informal mentoring relationships during all stages of their career were more likely to continue in coaching, and progress to a higher level (Banwell et al., 2019;Wasend and LaVoi, 2019;Norman et al., 2021). ...
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Mentorship programs have been shown to help under-represented women navigate their environments, but little research has been done on mentorship programs in sport coaching in Canada. The first of its kind in Canada, the Black Female Coach Mentorship Program (BFCMP) created by the Black Canadian Coaches Association in partnership with the Coaching Association of Canada caters to an historically excluded population: Black, Biracial, and Indigenous women coaches. The research aimed to understand the experiences of program participants to better inform policy, decision-making, and sustainability of the BFCMP. Through mentorship session observations, one-on-one semi-structured interviews with 15 of the 27 inaugural BFCMP mentors and mentees, and thematic analysis, we determined the ability to form a trusted community was a promising practice for coach mentorship programs. Our findings suggest that participants, the majority of whom were the only Black woman coach in their program/institution, benefit from mentorship because of the opportunities to help each other develop as leaders, build relationships to resist loneliness, and nurture resilience through community.
... Females coached by females are more likely to stay in coaching (Wasend and LaVoi, 2019). This is a pull factor that bodes well for women's Gaelic football clubs, as if current players are coached by females, they too might transition into coaching. ...
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In Ireland, the majority of coaches at non-elite level are volunteers and within the female-only team sport of women's Gaelic football, most qualified coaches are women. Yet, little is known on the club specific experiences of volunteer women coaches in non-elite sport. To address this gap, 11 women coaches, from three Gaelic Football clubs, were interviewed to explore the influence of the community-based club environment on their support and development in the role. The participants were actively coaching and part of a Community of Practice (CoP) focusing on developing their club's coaching structures. A creative non-fiction approach combined the key themes from the 11 interviews into three coach profiles of a novice coach, experienced coach, and a player-coach. Retention and recruitment, support structures within the club, and club culture and norms were the key themes identified. This study recommends that clubs employ support structures that support and develop volunteer women coaches and address any behavior in the club that negatively impacts on their role.
... Según Alfaro (2004), la falta de equidad en el camino de las mujeres al alto rendimiento se da en el ámbito escolar (se generan menos expectativas en sus profesores), familiar (se presta menos atención a los intereses deportivos de las hijas) y en el ámbito profesional, en el que claramente existe una diferencia en los recursos económicos para el deporte femenino. Esta situación puede generar que los varones perciban mayor entusiasmo y confianza y se involucren más en la realización del deporte, mientras que estas diferencias ubican a las mujeres en un lugar de menor percepción de eficacia, dado que se internalizan estos estereotipos (Wasend & LaVoi, 2019). ...
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Introducción/objetivo. El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar el poder predictivo de la percepción de los estilos interpersonales de entrenadores/as, padres y madres en el compromiso e intención de abandono de adolescentes deportistas argentinos de alto rendimiento, considerando el papel del género en esta relación. Método. Participaron 234 adolescentes de entre 12 y 16 años (M = 14.48, DT = 1.09) seleccionados para los Juegos Olímpicos de la Juventud —Buenos Aires 2018—, quienes cumplimentaron cuestionarios para la evaluación de las variables de interés. Resultados. Los varones perciben mayores niveles de compromiso que las mujeres y estas perciben mayor apoyo a la autonomía de la madre. El apoyo a la autonomía del entrenador tuvo mayor capacidad predictiva en el compromiso de los varones y en la intención de abandono del deporte de las mujeres. En ambos géneros, el efecto del apoyo a la autonomía del entrenador fue mayor que el de los padres. Conclusiones. Estos resultados muestran la importancia de los otros significativos en la participación deportiva y contribuyen al conocimiento de los factores que pueden favorecer el desarrollo positivo en deportistas adolescentes de alto rendimiento.
... However, there are a range of barriers for women in coaching roles including a lack of support, inadequate salary, job insecurity, as well as difficulties in working with parents/spectators and coaching at weekends and evenings [34]. There is growing body of evidence that females in sport benefit from other female role models, both in participation and in coaching or non-player roles, and that female players often prefer female coaches [8,35]. This current study shows that women's involvement in administrative roles has decreased from 50 % to 2016 compared to 46 % in 2018, although this shift may not be cause for concern. ...
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Background: Throughout the ecosystem of sport, women have been and continue to be underrepresented at all levels compared to men. The capacity of community-level sport is heavily reliant on the many non-player roles including governance, as well as administration, coaching and officiating. Recently there has been increased attention to improving the gender balance in sport. The aim of this study is to investigate the proportions of women engaged in non-playing roles in sport (2016-2018). Methods: This study involved secondary analysis of the AusPlay survey, a national population survey, funded by Sport Australia. This study utilised data from people aged 15-years or older about their involvement in non-playing roles in sport, and their demographic data. Survey respondents were asked "During the last 12 months, have you been involved with any sports in a nonplaying role, such as official, coach, referee, administrator, etc?" Analysis of non-player role responses focussed specifically on the top four non-player role categories; coach, official, administrator and manager. Frequency analysis concentrated on the distribution of men and women involvement in a non-player capacity for the three years, with detailed analysis of the most recent year (2018). Results: In this study of 61,578 Australians there was a higher proportion of men in non-player roles in sport compared to women, across each of the three years (2018: men 55 %, women 46 %). Involvement of women in coaching increased significantly from 38 % to 2016 to 44 % in 2018 (p < 0.001). The proportion of women involved in administration roles significantly decreased from a peak of 51 % in 2017 to 46 % in 2018 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Aligned with strategic policy and investment strategies, there are gradual increased representation of women in non-playing sport, coaching roles. Women are still underrepresented in terms of coaches, officials and administrators, but are more likely to be managers. It is recommended that there is continued mentoring, identification and emphasising of female role models, and further strategies to increase female presence in non-playing roles. We recommend that future research, in line with appropriate gender and cultural-change theories, investigates and discusses the progress of gender equality throughout playing and non-playing role in sport.
... Female networks and role models have been instrumental in inspiring, educating, informing and encouraging women to enter other roles where women are underrepresented in sport (i.e. coaching) (Wasend & LaVoi, 2019). In research on female officials, mentorship has also been expressed as being fundamental to women's success (Nordstrom et al., 2016), hence the importance of increasing representation at the grassroots level where female officials gain their initial experience. ...
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Research purpose The purpose of this scoping review is to explore the extant literature devoted to female officials at the community level of sport in order to identify existing knowledge and to determine a future research agenda that will address the underrepresentation of women amongst sport officials. Over the past two decades, there has been an increase in female sport participation in countries around the world, however, this has not been matched with an increase in the number of females taking up roles as officials (referees, umpires, judges, scorers, etc.) at the community level of sport. Research methods This paper uses a scoping review methodology to synthesize and analyse the extant research published on female community sport officials, to identify gaps in the existing literature, and to provide directions for future research. Results and findings It identifies a general lack of reported research on female officials within community levels of sport and that the existing research that has been published to date has focused on four themes: motives, barriers, supports and retention. Implications The paper proposes a research agenda focused on seven key themes: policy and governance, officiating pathways, recruitment, support, retention, performance, stress and well-being, as well as suggestions for research methods to explore these themes. Summarizing the current research literature on female community sport officials may help researchers, practitioners and policy makers understand the range of issues associated with the experience of female community sport officials and begin to prioritize efforts to address the lack of female sports officials.
... Sport, and coaching in particular, should be a primary 'space' of interest. It has a longstanding history and organisational culture of creating and maintaining binary gender difference (Messner, 2002), but women are increasingly engaging in it and are increasingly contesting traditional gender discourses in and through it (Bunsell & Shilling, 2011;Wasend & LaVoi, 2019). Thus, to fully understand any progress, we need to recognise new or alternative femininities that are emerging to overcome longstanding patriarchal structures in sport, something which has been absent in studies of women in coaching to date. ...
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A plethora of work has identified forms and sources of gender inequality in sport coaching. Quantitative studies with psychological framings dominate the literature. However, a smaller and more recent body of qualitative work has identified structural gender hierarchies as the root of inequalities, specifically the prevalence of hegemonic masculinity. Fewer studies have contextualised understandings of women’s experiences of this, particularly at grassroots levels and there is little acknowledgement of a notable shift in the visibility of women’s power and presence in society including sport. Thus, in this study [Gill, R. (2007). Gender and the media. Polity Press] postfeminist sensibility was used to examine seven female coaches’ experiences of various grassroots sports settings, specifically what might be novel in women’s contemporary coaching experiences, but also to acknowledge any persistent structural inequalities. Findings suggest that while female coaches are continually facing challenges borne out of dominant forms of masculinity which remain deeply rooted in sport cultures, they are actively contesting and navigating these by drawing upon performed masculinities. Consequently, new femininities have emerged, but these are fragile, often misinterpreted and can lead to women struggling to progress their coaching careers. Future work in this field should look to develop the use of postfeminist lenses in similar ways, to further identify new(er) femininities which have the potential to grow and develop women’s representation in coaching.
... This is a space for action and improvement. Quality role models and mentors exist and more can be developed (Clarkson, Cox, & Thelwell, 2019;Wasend & LaVoi, 2019). And, as one of Banwell et al.'s participants highlighted, sponsorship is critical too as it is more about ". . . ...
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Research pertaining to female coaches at the professional, intercollegiate, and interscholastic levels exists, but attention to females in positions of power in youth sport is limited. Given youth sport is an important social institution that affects millions of children and their families, it provides a rich opportunity for creating social change and challenging stereotypical beliefs pertaining to gender and leadership. This study uses the theoretical framework of occupational sex-segregation—specifically tokenism and marginalization (Kanter, 1977a, 1977b)—to examine the representation of females in positions of power (N = 5,683; Head Coaches, Assistant Coaches, Team Managers) within one Midwestern youth soccer association. Based on the data, female coaches are considered “tokens” within all boys’ teams and at the highest competitive level of girls’ teams, and are marginalized and underrepresented in all positions of power at almost all age groups and competitive levels. Implications and directions for f...
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The decline in number of female coaches has been a serious concern of women in sport. This study investigated whether gender of coach would influence high school female basketball players specifically in relation to their future coaching self-efficacy, the level of competition at which they might choose to coach, and their ideas about the purposes of basketball. Results revealed that gender of coach did not influence self-efficacy for coaching but did influence level of competition. Perceived playing ability was found to be the strongest predictor of future coaching self-efficacy. In addition, some differences were found between male- and female-coached athletes and between male and female coaches concerning perceived purposes of basketball.
Article
This study of 368 female undergraduates examined self-efficacy and role model influence as predictors of career choice across J. L. Holland's (1997) 6 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) types. Findings showed that levels of self-efficacy and role model influence differed across Holland types. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-efficacy and role model influence accounted for significant variance in career choice for all 6 RIASEC types. Role model influence added to the prediction of career choice over and above the contribution of self-efficacy in all but 1 of the RIASEC types. The importance of attention to role models in career counseling is discussed.
Article
The current study examined, via online focus groups, the consequences of work-family conflict at work and at home with 41 mothers who are Division I head coaches. In addition, the authors focused on the coping mechanisms that these women used to achieve success at work and quality of life with family. Results revealed that work-family conflict influenced outcomes with work (e.g., staffing patterns, relationships with athletes, team performance), family (e.g., time spent and relationships with children and spouses or partners), and life (e.g., guilt and exhaustion, balance and perspective, weaving work and family). Coping mechanisms included stress relief, self-awareness, organization and time management, sacrificing aspects of work, support networks, flexibility with hours, and familyfriendly policies and cultures. Implications are that the women work to promote change within their circle of influence. Although their efforts might not result in actual policy changes, over which they feel limited control, they might result in changes in perceptions and attitudes.
Article
As numerous qualified women exit the workforce because of the challenges of balancing work and family, investigations of the work-family interface have become increasingly important. Research has indicated how multilevel factors (i.e., individual, organizational, and sociocultural) play a role in work-family conflict. Little research has examined these factors in relation to each other, however. In sport management, Dixon and Bruening (2005) argued that higher level factors (sociocultural and organizational) shape and constrain lower level behaviors (organizational and individual), which ultimately influence the perception and consequences of work-family conflict. The primary purpose of this investigation is to test and further develop Dixon and Bruening's multilevel framework. The current study used online focus groups for data collection from 41 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female head coaches with children to examine the factors that impacted work-family conflict from a top-down perspective. The results illuminated the experiences of the coaching mothers and the factors that affected their job and life satisfaction at each of the three levels. Particular attention was paid to how higher level factors such as work climate and culture shaped and constrained lower level attitudes and behaviors such as individual conflict and time management. These relationships highlighted how individual attitudes and behaviors reflect larger structural and social forces at work, and not simply individual choices.
Book
Today, in a world quite different from the one that existed just thirty years ago, both girls and boys play soccer, baseball, softball, and other youth sports. Yet has the dramatic surge in participation by girls contributed to greater gender equality? In this engaging study, leading sociologist Michael A. Messner probes the richly complex gender dynamics of youth sports. Weaving together vivid first-person interviews with his own experiences as a volunteer for his sons' teams, Messner finds that despite the movement of girls into sports, gender boundaries and hierarchies still dominate, especially among the adults who run youth sports. His book widens into a provocative exploration of why youth sports matter-how they play a profound role in shaping gender, class, family, and community.
Article
This study of 368 female undergraduates examined self-efficacy and role model influence as predictors of career choice across J. L. Holland's (1997) 6 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) types. Findings showed that levels of self-efficacy and role model influence differed across Holland types. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-efficacy and role model influence accounted for significant variance in career choice for all 6 RIASEC types. Role model influence added to the prediction of career choice over and above the contribution of self-efficacy in all but 1 of the RIASEC types. The importance of attention to role models in career counseling is discussed.
Article
A vast amount of literature exists pertaining to female coaches at all levels of competition from around the globe. Within this article, using Brofenbrenner's ecological systems theory, the complex and multidimensional barriers that affect, impede or prevent females from seeking or remaining in coaching positions, in addition to factors that support and facilitate career advancement and retention, are summarized. Barriers and supports represented in the literature are organized from most proximal (individual) to most distal (socio-cultural) to the coach. We conclude by identifying gaps in the research. The model can be used as a reflective heuristic to educate about the numerous dynamic organizational and societal barriers and supports engaged with by female coaches. In doing so, productive coping strategies can be learned and solutions and policy changes generated in order to increase opportunities for female coaches and make the environment within which they work increasingly inclusive, positive and supportive.
Article
The data summarized in this paper represent 11 years (1977-1988) of information on the status of women in intercollegiate athletics gathered in an on-going national study of all four-year college and university members of the NCAA with intercollegiate athletic programs for women. It is noted that over this period there has been an increase in sports participation by girls and women and a decrease in women in leadership positions. (JD)
Article
Reports a study of two-year college athletic administrators who evaluated the effectiveness of seven employment strategies and provided recommendations for increasing numbers of female coaches. Subjects perceived active involvement by administrators, increased opportunities for practical experience, and recruiting female athletes interested in coaching as the most effective procedures. (SM)
Article
As Title IX celebrates its thirty-fifth anniversary, many have noted its enormous positive effect on women's sports. But an unintended and too-often neglected byproduct is that as opportunities for female students have increased, opportunities for female professionals have declined. This Article focuses on the barriers that still confront women in college athletics, particularly those who seek professional positions in coaching and administration. Part I presents a brief overview of Title IX, which makes clear its limitations in securing gender equity. Part II.A discusses the declining representation and lower success rate of women coaches, while Part II.B explores the areas of Title IX (and accompanying federal statutory provisions) that have sought to secure their equal treatment. Part III presents the findings of an empirical survey of over 450 coaches of college women's sports concerning the barriers to gender equity and the role of Title IX. Part IV situates these findings in light of other research on obstacles for women in traditionally male-dominated workplaces, including coaching, and concludes with potential policy prescriptions.
Article
Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to achieve success. In contrast, men may not have the same need for same-gender role models. Study 1 assessed the impact of gender-matched and mismatched career role models on the self-perceptions of female and male participants. In Study 2, female and male participants were asked to describe a career role model who had inspired them in the past. In both studies, results indicated that female participants were more inspired by outstanding female than male role models; in contrast, gender did not determine the impact of role models on male participants.
Article
Stereotype threat impairs performance in situations where a stereotype holds that one’s group will perform poorly. Two experiments investigated whether reminding women of other women’s achievements might alleviate women’s mathematics stereotype threat. In Experiment 1, college women performed significantly better on a difficult mathematics test when they were first told that women in general make better participants than men in psychology experiments. In Experiment 2, college women performed significantly better on a difficult mathematics test when they first read about four individual women who had succeeded in architecture, law, medicine, and invention. The results are seen as having implications for theories of stereotype threat, self-evaluation, and performance expectations.
Article
In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Participants were 205 predominantly White, heterosexual female student athletes. A path analysis indicated that role models and working hours predicted coaching self-efficacy, which predicted coaching outcome expectations. Additionally, coaching self-efficacy, coaching outcome expectations, and contextual factors predicted coaching interest. Practical implications are discussed as well as suggestions for further research in this relatively unexplored area.
Article
This study investigated gender differences in the role of self-efficacy, occupational valence, valence of coaching, and perceived barriers in preference to coach at the high school, 2-year college, Division III, Division II, and Division I levels. The participants, 191 Big Ten university basketball players (94 men, 97 women), responded to a specially constructed instrument. The genders did not differ in their coaching self-efficacy, preferred occupational valence, and perceived barriers. Relative to men, women perceived greater valence in coaching (p < .001). Women with a female coach perceived greater valence in coaching (p < .05) and expressed less concern with perceived discrimination (p < .05) than those with a male coach. Perceived self-efficacy and preferred occupational valence were differentially related to the desire to coach at various levels. Working Hours most negatively affected the desire to coach at every level (R > .20).
Women in coaching: The work-life interface
  • J E Bruening
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Bruening, J.E., Dixon, M.A., Burton, L.J., & Madsen, R.M. (2013). Women in coaching: The work-life interface. In P. Potrac, W. Gilbert & J. Denison (Eds.), Routledge handbook of sports coaching (pp. 411-423). London, UK: Routledge.
Does performance justify the underrepresentation of women coaches? Evidence from professional women's soccer. Sport Management Review. Advance online publication
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Gomez-Gonzalez, C., Dietl, H., & Nesseler, C. (2018). Does performance justify the underrepresentation of women coaches? Evidence from professional women's soccer. Sport Management Review. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2018.09.008
Student-athlete participation
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Irick, E. (2017). Student-athlete participation: 1981-82-2016-17. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/sites/default/files/2016-17NCAA-0472_ParticRatesReport-FINAL_20171120.pdf
The decline of women coaches in collegiate athletics: A report on select NCAA Division-I FBS institutions
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LaVoi, N.M. (2013). The decline of women coaches in collegiate athletics: A report on select NCAA Division-I FBS institutions, 2012-13.
Head coaches of women's collegiate teams: A report on seven select NCAA Division-I conferences
  • N M Lavoi
LaVoi, N.M. (2018). Head coaches of women's collegiate teams: A report on seven select NCAA Division-I conferences, 2017-2018. Minneapolis, MN: The Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport.
Head coaches of women's collegiate teams: A comprehensive report on NCAA Division-I institutions
  • N M Lavoi
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LaVoi, N.M., & Silva-Breen, H. (2018, July). Head coaches of women's collegiate teams: A comprehensive report on NCAA Division-I institutions, 2017-18. Minneapolis, MN: The Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport.
Role model influence on career decidedness
  • K M Perrone
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Perrone, K.M., Zanardelli, G., Worthington, E.L., Jr., & Chartrand, J.M. (2002). Role model influence on career decidedness. College Student Journal, 36(1), 109-112.
State of play 2018: Trends and developments
The Aspen Institute. (2018). State of play 2018: Trends and developments. Retrieved from https://www.aspeninstitute.org/publications/state-ofplay-2018-trends-and-developments/
Gendered hiring networks and access discrimination: A social network analysis of leadership positions in NCAA sports
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  • N M Lavoi
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Women at Work. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2017/women-at-work/pdf/women-atwork.pdf Walker, N., Katz, M., & LaVoi, N.M. (2019). Gendered hiring networks and access discrimination: A social network analysis of leadership positions in NCAA sports. Proceedings from North American Society for Sport Management Conference. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
45 years of Title IX: The status of women in intercollegiate athletics
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Wilson, A.S. (2016). 45 years of Title IX: The status of women in intercollegiate athletics. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/sites/ default/files/TitleIX45-295-FINAL_WEB.pdf
Role model influence on career decidedness
  • Perrone
Gendered hiring networks and access discrimination: A social network analysis of leadership positions in NCAA sports
  • Walker
  • LaVoi