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Abstract

This review explores past and future shifts in policing and criminology scholarship that have shaped, and been shaped by, what is done to enhance safety within political domains. Investigating established policing conceptualizations, the review demonstrates how the ideal of state-delivered safety as a public good was challenged by a sizeable policing industry, giving rise to debates about legal context, service provision, and conceptualizations of policing and security nodal arrangements. This review argues that these understandings are now confronted by new harms and new conceptualizations of social institutional affairs. Interrogating these claims through an examination of the Anthropocene and technologies of cyberspace, we canvass debates and show that a shared focus of attention for the future of policing will be a decentralization of security and an expansion of private security governance professionals (both human and nonhuman). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Criminology, Volume 3 is January 13, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Preprint draft. Posted with permission from the Annual Review of
Criminology, Volume 3, pp341-358© by Annual Reviews,
http://www.annualreviews.org The &nal version can be found here:
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-criminol-011419-
041330
Conceptualizing Policing and Security: New harmscapes, the Anthropocene
and Technology

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,%(-./01
22223222435676389:6
1 We thank Louise du Toit and Trent Wilson for their assistance in the preparation of this
article. Parts of this article draw on work that originally appeared in Holley et al 2018. This
research was supported by Canadian Social Science and Humanities Research Council grant
and two Australian Research Council Discovery Project grants (project numbers
DP170100281 and DP190101584).
222232225374653:265
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<72%%
Conceptualizing Policing and Security
;=
(%%(%%
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((11%
%  *  /(  1  %  %%  
            (        1%    
%1 1%(1 1
%<  (%  (    %%    %    %  
*%%1
  %      %      %%    %
* / %  <  
% 3 % % %1% >  %(
1%%1
2
%    %      <    (  %  (%
13*
INTRODUCTION
/%%
((11
1      %      %  *         (  3
(%(%%
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%%1%%(1
(%%
    =      ?%@  A  B    52:*  
%  %  (  1    %  %      1  %
%((%1C1
(  %  >  <  1   %      %  
%1%3%D1(%
11%%(1%1
%%*
ESTABLISHED CONCEPTIONS
#1(?%@?%@
    %(  %  1  %*   #      %  
1%%%(
3
1%%
%( (  E 5228*  .  %  % D%=
1% (
(%<1<(
1<522;F#=&5228FB
526*
Definitional Brush Clearing
/?%@?%@%A
    522      ?%@    %(  %  1  
<%(1%intended?(@ =B
A5224 1% %?%@  
%%(=*?%@
    ?(%    %@ G  B    52248    ?%@
%1%>3<%1
?%     @ -< 0%  ) 529 3 
%1%=11;7:H88
?%=@<::9*
(%1%%
%((%1*I%%
%(   (% % I(@
522(?%@
J%(%1(%
4
%K5224* &<%%%
%            ?%@    ?%@    1  
(   %     %  1 
%%*52::6*&%
%    % 1        within
%  1   %% ** A  52;F
A    %=  525  %      %    (    
113%%1*/
%    %        %%  (  %1    
(%*
    %%  %<      %  %  
%  1 %  
     L%= 8:95* % %   
%=1(% %
B529 % ( 
%%(33%%(1(%33 
  31      %            
(1%%
(%%%*
?%@%%?%@=%
%  %%        %  1%        
  >        =      ?    =@    >  
(1D%&
5
* 529*   %   1 %  % %(
%%<%@%%
?%@*/%?%@1
 % %?1% %@
1%  % ( D  *  /  1
<=?%@?%@%
1%    1 %    %   
D?%@%1
?%@1(*
Teleology
        %    %  %  (%        1
(?=%@%D%=
%% %(%
%1?=%@
.%896* 1
%(%%<%
8;6F B  8:8     @  
=    %  (  <1      %  3%  %*
::9  1 =  (1 
?1%%@(@@?(%@*
#C%(%1
((%1
6
%  1    %      %        ?    @
&=  8:8    %    %      <  %  86:*
/%<%%(
1 %  1 (%   %%(  <%(
(%    1  (  %  1  %(      
<%B.1525*%%%
%% 1 ( %(
(%<'52;*
%%
1%<%(%%(
%%D1%(
1%%1(C*11
  <1 DA 888 
#1@87;?%@%%
 % %  (      % 
"%= 867    %(    L = L
844F        526  ;7*  )(           (
%((%%**%52281
1 %#;7:%
%%((C<%(%
L522F526;7*
%%D%%%
  (  1  ( % (  
7
%% (% 
?1%@%%%
    1     (  ?%1 @ 
<    5222:;*  "    (    %%  
%   $  %  :58 1 
    %      A  (    1        
=%%(%
?%%%@?%%%@<
A5229FAB52;*
A Left Field Upset
'(1(%%%
  (%    %  (      %      %
    %                352 %  
(%      1  (  %H%    1        
<  L==  B  #  866F    B  %  866    %    
    %      *      (  %  %
%    ?@    ?@ (  A  8:4F  -@.  529      1
  (  %    %      %%    ?%@   
<%(?%@%((<3%
?(%@527*&<%%
(%%(=(
% ( ( ?@ * 52
      C%            1      
8
(%    %  1%  %    %(      
(    ?(@  %  %        1
      < $ B #= 5226  
%$B#526*
     % %  %%   =  %
%(>*
( 1     % %     
D    %  (    <  %      %
?@       %  5226F  " 5228*    %%
(( 1 ( %D  1% %
* .  ( 1 (   %   % 
% % = .%  %
(% %   %   1% % 
<*%1%1%
1   ( %      
%(1%%<%AB
526*
  (%      %    (  %            %
(%%%52%
%5 %A B 88;   
(11%
% the % %1( %
1%  %  %*           1    %    (
9
%          %%      (    <  G  B
"188:*  D   %( (%  ( 
(1%1%%
%D1%1 %%
%*
(    %      %D   %      %(    
%D 3%(=(
%%1(1%%*
.%
(%(1%=%%=(
%      %  (%      %   the   
(1%((%
11   1%%1 ( 
%=*
Conceptualizing the Surprise
/ %% %   ( %%
D1%=1%=1>%
?1%%@C%%(
%     A  52:*     
%D(C%%%1%
3D%%%
(1%1C1(%
10
%>%%(11%(
%          (  %    1      
11%%1*
/    %%  (  %   %D  %  1%  1
((((F%
<%<AB
88;*#(%%%(%
(%D%C%*
(1%(%
%%%   (1% (%
-1B'1885F.5226*%(
%1?31@(1%
=%.1%==&
(1%1(
1%%      (  %        1  %(    %
=877F&8;5*%%%1
%%%%1((%
  %  %    %  %  1  (      (  %
%1(%%(%
1?%(@=*5228F$B#=
5226=%%(%
1=%%**
)%886*
11
A=1(%%=1(%
1%%%%%
  %      %    %    %
%3=1%(<3
88;*  = %%    %
( %(C% (  
C%1%*=?1@
52:%11
D((%%((13
%    %%1  1%  (%  %  1  %%  %
(   < A B  52;*  " 
% % %    ( %  
(%1%
11 1%%
(%(1%>%%
13<%13(AB52:*
The Legal Context
(%%%
(1(
(  %  %(%   
%  %%%F
&B8:2FB8:2*%
12
(%
131(*#(%
(1%%%=
((%(
  % % %  %  1 3
%    1  %%    %  %    (  %    
%%%%%*
3%(1%(
%  ( >1 
(%1%(%%(%
%<%%(
(1%1%%
(*A526739%(
1%$1
%% '7 57%
%  < 52722*  % 
=1(%%
%>1%1*/529H52;
 ( :;85 % %  < 7::;;; 
%((%%% 9:47
% %   % % (% <% %( 
1%*/%%
(%1 1%%14 M*(
13
%*/$1%
(%1(15227
52%(%
;22!0778:;%1;2
1.!071*
.(%  % 1    
                  
1%%%(
(
%                1  A  5224F  A
B"( 52F  A  5226F  1  B#5228  52F  A=
B%5226*
#((11(
%(1%% 1
          <%(    (      
(* #((%
%%(%11(
(%1(D(*#
     1% % (%       
D(%%D
 (1%%1  D% 
(1B
8:4*
14
=%%(
    %*   "    (      1      
%%%1 (%
%(%.522*
Challenging the Vacuum Theory
/1D1%%
%  ( %    (% (%*  
%(%((%
       ( ((
(%    1%  %      (    ?1  %%@
1%
1*
A  %  %(  ( %  %
%    A  522;  E  5228      5226      
((%%%
1 ( *      % ?(  %@
%%%1 5226(%(%
(B8:2*
%3%%
1(%* %(%
15
((%(%(%
%=%%(%*
<11(%
(%1(3
%1%%1%(
%        8:478;    ?  (  @*  
(%%
     %   %< %  0
#*'(?%@(
(%%%1
L5227*%(%
(  %    %  1      (    
%    ?1  =@        %    1
%    % D  % %
(   A B 529F A 522F  522;F $
5222 5227F $  %N% 5225F = 522* #   
(%%(%1?%%@
(%
 ( %       1%  (  
%((*
A Nodal Policing Web
16
(%(%%(%
%      D    ?(%@      
%%    %  %%      %(     %    1
(%%1%* 
(%%%%1A522(
     ?1  %@   1  #@
52          ?%  1@*   A      522
(    %  =    %      %%  %
      1% 1D  1          52 %  1
 1 %  ( %   1
%    (  %  1    1%    (*   #  
%%%%
% %*  "     %%(    %
%%%1%
(%GB5224*
!    %   % 1%    
%<%(%
      (    *     %%  (    
%%(%?D(@B
8:2  %       
(%1852%%%
  %  (  %    * /  A@ 522;<   
%?@*(
   %   ( 1%    1 1% 
17
(%(%(%A"=B
527*
(1%%
((%%
%(%%%1
(1%<$B
#=  5226*  &      (      %%  %  %
%      (    % %        %
%   %(  %(    (    %  (%  %
D %(  %   526 6F# B 
5228*/( (==
=(L52998<%(
%=52279;(%%%
%1%( %( = 
5266*
1%%%%
%*
Beyond established conceptions and harmscapes
%%1%=%%%%1
0= 892  % (% 
%= %*      % 
13%?@*#((
18
  (%  %<      1(    %  (  
0=%%%*(
  %      %  % 
.%=N5228(%%
%%1%%%1
?%@*
   %% .  *52F $= B #
52;%%1=
%  %  (   
1%(%B5222FA
527 96F%**A & 52;*  ?%    %@
-@ 526  D  ( 0=    
%1=%*
%%%%%1(
$5229%(*C%%(
%1%%(%?@
(?@0=1%*%
%<%3%0=
?%@*$(%1
13% % ( 3?%@
?=@$522926*-
=%%(%%
%1%%*%%113
19
=%1%%
      %    %      %  %    ?@
%3     
%    %      %        526  598F    527F
G52;*
#    %  (      =  **      
%        %  %    %1   <
1>%%>
%A%=885*/(3<?=%@A%=885%
%=%%%%
A      52:F      *  %*  E  5226  5;
% (   =   %  ?3%
%@%?%@>%(
%%%%11
=* /    <   ( %%
(1
%    %    %  (%    *   #      1
%        %    %   %      
(%%%%1%*
#%%%=1%
(       %  %      1
%%%G529F.
    5228*  /               #
20
)%%  &@  528   9  1  =  1 =*  )(  
%%(%%1
      %  %    D(    !O2>5:  1
"52::F5265F%=5247* 
%(1%%%1%
%%%% %%1% 
%  (      <1%
%%=%%#)&5286F526*
/ %     
(    1      %        %    %
(%    %  % % %
<(%(%1
3*
The Anthropocence, conceptualising security and policing
'(%%%%
  1    <    %   %    %
%(%%%
  %*  (      (%      %     
1  %% %       
(**A528F5279*
 1( %=   %  
%%%
21
%%52:*
/(11*
  %    %@        %          
%=%%%%**529F529*
%(%%11%%
(      %%  *    =        %  3
((   %>  %%*
,%$N(1*
529F$= B # 52; %1    
%(%%%%(*
    %      (        
%    %  1  D        1C%  
%%**%(%%D
(<**1C%1C%
%1D %  % ( 
%%**&52;F%0526F52:*
)%%C=
%*-(%
    % 31%= %* - % (
=(=%<1
?% %@((%(% % 
  (  #  52  4F        52;*  (  
%%%
22
%%11
%%11
*11%
-@526(1%
  %    1  (    %  *        ((
%%%%524F
 B = 526    %% 31%= 
*
(%%
%%*-
        %    %  %  %  
%%%<%(
?@%%%%1%
D      B    526      %*    %  
%  33    33      529  
(%%1=*526%(
%<  %%  1  %  %      
(?%%C%
%%1%%1%=
%@*
/<%=1
%%%I((
1%1%I(5274:;*1%
23
**526-@526%D
3=%%3
(%*
%(%%%(%3
%%=5227%(%?%@
%(%*#?%@11
%%%?@?%(
@1%=?(@D1#=
52270C52(%
%(1%(%(%
1%=%%%%
%*
/%  <    %    =   %  %  
%(1%%
        ?(      
%(@ ** "# %&%   52;352:5 
%1**)% .%.
) ..=!L((%1((%
 (% A 52:* A   % 
%?@0'8:6%%%
11%%%1%
?%%@  ?%%( %%@   <  .
24
5229F  #    -  5228F    522;        
(  1* /  %        1    1
  ((% %H1 %%31
%(%*&%* %%%
1%(((%%%1
%(%1%%1
% %*  % % 1 
3    1    (        %    (1  
%%1%1
%%(%1/ .529*
<("52275&
    I% %   I% % 
)%(%$% (%%
    C  ?@    %  1  %      %    ((
%
P/Q(% I% 3<%(%
  =        (    %***  
        1      %    1  
%%*#%%%
%*#=%C%
%=*#%%
%(        1  %        
*
25
  %3% (   1% 
%(%%1
)%  %= 529    ?33%@
%%%'1=522;
?%%@(%1 
!*L*/888(%"/*
%%    %  %  D  %      (  
%%
 G526 (
((1%%%=*
Technology and cyberspace
  1(  %  (  (  =  %          
%=5222((
?%@%%1H%*%1
%  13 
(1<%(%C
*   %  1  % % %
%%%%1<%
1%(
=% '
A5294*%1(%%(3
            1 
% %%%% (
1%  % '    A  529  4F  #)&  528  ;36*
26
(%(%
1%%%%
%=526598*
&%%%<%(%
 (    (*     %    
1 %  =   * &<
525:%(((
%%1(%1%(%
%    /      %=    %%        %(  
%%%%1%%13%
=*1A5265:83824:2
)!)!1(%%
% (%
%    %  (  %    %  %  %  
/1=%*
%%%1=(%
    (          (    %
 % <140 
%1  %*  %    &@  5265;2     
%( ( % *  <
(  %  %  %  1      %  (  (
1%%3%1%%
=< 1%*
27
      %%    (  1  (    %  1
 %   )!% "= 
/  %    (      *    %  
&5265;2J(%
  =    %      %%  %        %%
%<*(%(F
K*
- =   ( %=  ( 1 % 
   %*     %  (
%1%(%1
1<%%*A52479
1%( 1%
(((%%(%
%<*!%%%
( %(  %= %%  
%05275;4D%%*
%((%%(
%%11%(%*(
                  %    3%%  %
%*
1%%
1(%3%%
%   *   526 % (
28
(%        %    %  %  =    (  =
%%I%%
%?%%@
?%(@**%=5227*'524886
      1C%  =  %  %%  (  %      
  =    %  %  (  %  %   (  
%%*(1%%
%  /        1         %    
=%J%(%KR/
%%
%%%1/%
#)&5286*
% ( (     =  D 
%%(%%%%
((%%
%(%1
%%(%
C%0527F5265;2*
The Future of Policing and Security
%   (%  %  %   ( (
%%D*/%%
  (  %  1  %(     %(      %  
29
11(%%%
        (    1%   %      1    
%(*<%%%
 % %1% (  % 
%%%%=1
(%%1
%1(1%%
% 1%* %
%%%
%%%*/%
%(%(D%1<
%(%%%%
%%%S
%(   1 1  %  %S 
%%
%((%
S #   %      (
%%%1
%%  %  #   5228F    %%  
(((%S%%
1%= %%= <%(
%1%%
% %  ( 1   %  % 
(  1    1%    (S             %
30
=  %    %%      ?@  %  (  
5265;2*
.)&).)")
1.  #*5228*%  1      '1  %
1%*International Political Sociology4>6
1 . # * 52* Security beyond the state: Private security in
international politics*11!( 
% 0* .1 G** 525* # " &  -  
Prosperity and Poverty, $ A=
  .*  524*      %    %1   %%    %%
*/ Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology*"
A*9:365*1.
G'1= *522;*?.%"=
%*@/G*&G*B#G***Fighting Crime Together: The
Challenges of Policing and Security Networks*!("
# ;23:;
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31
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9:9>;2;
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Journal of Criminology4: 552;>59
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32
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Applied Criminal Justice7 756435:;
A G "=   * 527*'1"3 %  %
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Studies, *AA*66386",=.
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AG*52:*'(33 1%' %*The
ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science;68 65>:9
AG*5224* ( %%  (%1
*South African Journal of Criminal Justice;6:>8;
A  G*  522*    =  (  %  )((      1%  %
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A&*527*%(%%(*%.(*
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33
A  & GA* 526* %=   %% )
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Global Policing*')$
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Criminology 2nd Edition*.$
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AG 522;*?&@G#A0Democracy, Society
and the Governance of Security*11!( *<><
AG *522*The Policing Web. -<-<!( 
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Soc Change*;2758>799
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34
A*5226*        (  %  %
)*European Journal of Criminology728>5:
AG* *522;*&*/G*#BA*0* Democracy, Society
and the Governance of Security*11!( *<><
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British Journal of Sociology 99>57*
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Proofing the State, Managing risks, responding to crises and building resilience.
35
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37
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'(%=* / Regulatory Theory: Foundations and Applications * *
0*;43:2*1"! 
L*52:*)(
%      %  $      /
.*Annual Review of Law and Social Science*I7:9>524
* 5222*/D 11  ( %*/ Teaching the
American Civil Rights Movement: Freedom’s Bittersweet Song*GA
  )  A  .1  .,  #  *  :4>2;*  -<    "  ,=
.
$"GA.*525*!%(@?%13(
1%%%13%*Criminology & Criminal Justice. 4:3
86
39
G*52;*)%/(%&*##
"
G  $    *  5224*Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and
Justice.$.
G"1*88:*Private Security and Public Policing. 
L==G#*866*The Private Police: Security and Danger*"
,=.=
L #G*5227* %%.%
J ( K * British Journal of Criminology777
9;539:
LG529*Securitization and Policing of Art Theft: The Case of London*$

LG844*The Means to Prosperity*$%B
L%=A*8:9*The Idea of Police,I*4*A( 1%
L522*Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political
Possibilities*",=1!( 
$  L  %N%  *  5225*  !1    '  %    
%%*The African Security Review76>:9
40
$  L*  5222* An Overview of Enclosed Neighbourhoods in South Africa*
/. 1%
$L* 5227* Gated Communities in South Africa: Comparison of four case
studies in Gauteng* /. 1%
$A*5229*Reassembling the Social*-<-<!( 
$=  .  #  *  52;*  %  >    %  %  
(%SEnvironmental Sociology57489>72;
$  /  #=  "*  5226*Civilizing security*  1  1  !(

$/#*526*%1 (%1%
S%(*Regulation & Governance 5
;;3:7
$N(1)A%=(G&UG*529*#=
  S  %% % %% % <  %( 
%*Global Environmental Change455>5:
&#*::9*Justice and Police.$%
41
= . * 526* # %#
% &%*/Criminology and the Anthropocene,
* 1.
 $*  . G* 5229* Third Party Policing. 11
!( 
%0*526*)%%%*/Reflections on the Posthuman in IR: The
Anthropocene, Security, and Ecology, *)==*;5364*)3
/.
***0*B"* *&%*
?.% %%@Policing: A
Journal of Policy and Practic.
".*5228* Ethnic Profiling in the European Union: Pervasive, Ineffective and
Discriminatory*)!( 
"=. ( .  0 L( %
**G*.**52:*World atlas of illicit flows. A RHIPTO-
INTERPOL-GI Assess- ment. RHIPTO -Norwegian Center for Global Analyses*
/"). -$'1/(-%*
"%=.*867*Anarchy, State and Utopia*",=A%A=
42
-@ *526*A%/1%
C%*  / Criminology and the Anthropocene  *          *
1.
-@.*529*  %(%0(%
 1%3 (/%*AG*99;::362
-10'1884*Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial
Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector*",= 
=  A G* 5224* .* / The Oxford Handbook for Legal
Studies,* *8>79*-<-<!( 
 0  G 0* 526* Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Approach*

.%$*896. A History of English Criminal Law and its Administration from
1750I*4The Emergence of Penal Policy*$(B
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and Research. 274;934:
..*522*The Politics of the Police.-<-<!( *7
..**#*5226*!'(%,-*Organization
Studies5::574>5;7
43
.%=NG#"L &*5228*
%*Nature.7;765>769
.#*5225*.= .%
%*International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society(*;*
55225*68>529
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HoloceneP%/Q5964
.*522;*%()%%$$0%
&/D*/&%**# G*LA**Taking Stock: The
Status of Criminological Theory,783;6*"A%=% 1
%G*5228*1'(*"(,!( 
&A *8:2*Contract Security in Ontario.
!(
 * 8:2*=' %S ( %V
1   %*/ The Maintenance of Order in Society, *.
0*8;329*- %
44
 * 88;* .( % %  '(%* / Changing
Police: Policing Change*-*5:9>429*",='
 0 G $* 5224*Governing security: Explorations of policing and
justice*",=.
  *  529*       %* Criminology & Criminal
Justice94599>5;8
 0  * 8:4* ( % /%  %
*Social Problems429784>92;
%=G*#*)*5227*-  %/%
1$<%%3%*European Journal of
Criminology426>45
  G*  5226* Governing through crime: How the war on crime transformed
American democracy and created a culture of fear*-<-<!( 
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A0)0030(%*AG
*965983567
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New Perspectives in Policing1>57
45
 %/ %.%/ .*529*.%3
#  % 1 ((S   4 G 529 1  1*
HH1**%*=HH529H26H%3%333%313
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Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy459>52
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Criminology & Criminal Justice94562>56;
=  *  522* A New Apartheid? Urban Spatiality, (Fear of) Crime, and
Segregation in Cape Town, South Africa* $ 0( 0)/"
/
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(%*Social Problems59:358
 *8:2*D((
%(%*Criminal Law Quarterly55
552357:
 *5222* %%1 ( %*European Journal on
Criminal Policy and Research:44593495
46
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... In contrast, the private security sector provides services towards avoiding loss. The attraction of deploying private security has been linked to the fact that it allows private owners greater control over how security is provided (Holley et al., 2020). Under the premise of the existence of new "security assemblages" (Abrahamsen and Williams, 2012) or a "pluralisation of policing" (Brodeur, 2006;Jones and Newburn, 1999), which have become common in many States around the globe, the main questions relate, now and in the future, to the vertical structures of control of the private security providers by the police authorities of the State, the strictly delimitated, but shared, definition of fields of intervention, and the modalities of cooperation. ...
Chapter
Policing is a general term for activities of nationally or locally organised police forces which have the function of maintaining law and order in a community, controlling borders, enforcing the law as well as detecting and investigating offences. Police forces are governed by hierarchical command structures, which are more or less pronounced. Depending on the organisational form of the State, they are also in different degrees centralised or federalised. In terms of public management, the policies of constraining the State administration since the 1990s have affected the delivery of security as a public good, a void which has been filled by a rising private security sector. In many States, debates are underway with regard to this sector’s legal base, its service provisions, and overall control. With the strong rise of cybercrime, the management of policing in contemporary society becomes increasingly a public-private as well as a multiagency issue to ensure overall security.
Chapter
The rapid global spread of the Anthropocene concept across disciplines, languages, cultures and religions has been extraordinary and is unique in scientific history for a basic concept.
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Among scholars of law and crime and practitioners of public safety, there is a pervasive view that only the public police can or should protect the public interest. further, the prevailing perception is that the public police pre- dominantly governs through crime—that is, acts on harms as detrimental to the public good.We argue that govern- ing harm through crime is not always the most effective way of producing public safety and security and that the production of public safety is not limited to public police forces. An approach of governing-through-harm that uses a variety of noncrime strategies and private security agents as participants in public safety is often more effective— and more legitimate—than the predominant governing- through-crime approach. We reflect on case studies of noncrime intervention strategies from the Global South to bolster the case for decoupling the link between the pub- lic police and public goods. A new theoretical framing needs to be pursued.
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