The South American frogs of the family Cer-atophryidae (three genera, twelve extant species) display unusual larval diversity and developmental variation despite rather similar adults. Many adult features of ceratophryids are associated with terrestrial/fossorial habits and resistance to desiccation; however, adults of the genus Lepidoba-trachus are aquatic. Morphological novelties have evolved in the ceratophryid feeding mechanism that makes them capable of feeding on exceptional large prey (i.e. megalophagy). Lepidobatrachus is unusual in having less ecomorphological differences between its larvae and adults than virtually all other anurans. Some unique features are differentiated in the tadpole and then exaggerated in the adult (e.g., a posterior displaced jaw artic-ulation) in a manner unseen in other anurans. Both the larvae and the frog are similarly able to capture large prey underwater.