ArticlePDF Available

Lemon as a source of functional and medicinal ingredient: A review

  • University of Okara


We still understand the collaboration between herbs, medicines and food today. Because of their small side effects, suitability, and effect, herbal medicines are consumed for many years. The citrus is a fluid plant of the Rutaceae family. Approximately 140 genera and 1300 species are present in the genus citrus. The lemon's term comes from ancient French called "limon". Many other lemon fruit names are available. Flavonoids, acids, caffeine, pectin and minerals are the primary elements of the chemical composition. Essential citrus oil includes many ingredients and limonene is the major ingredient in its odor. Lemon possesses numerous characteristics, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, depurative and antiscorbutic etc. Especially in pregnancy, nursing and radiation exposure, lemon essential oil is poisonous. Researchers have discovered the healing capacity of this plant because it is still not acknowledged by more remedial belongings.
IJCBS, 14(2018):55-61
Qudah et al., 2018 55
Lemon as a source of functional and medicinal ingredient: A review
Tamara S. Al-Qudah1, Umber Zahra2, Rafia Rehman2, Muhammad Irfan Majeed2, Sadia
Sadique2, Shafaq Nisar2*, Tamadour Said Al-Qudah3 and Reham W. Tahtamouni4
1Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research (HMCSR), University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, 2Department of Chemistry,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 3Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah
University, Karak Jorda and 4Department of Applied Science, Princess Alia University College, Al- Balqa Applied University,
Amman, Jordan
We still understand the collaboration between herbs, medicines and food today. Because of their small side effects,
suitability, and effect, herbal medicines are consumed for many years. The citrus is a fluid plant of the Rutaceae family.
Approximately 140 genera and 1300 species are present in the genus citrus. The lemon's term comes from ancient French called
"limon". Many other lemon fruit names are available. Flavonoids, acids, caffeine, pectin and minerals are the primary elements of
the chemical composition. Essential citrus oil includes many ingredients and limonene is the major ingredient in its odor. Lemon
possesses numerous characteristics, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, depurative and antiscorbutic
etc. Especially in pregnancy, nursing and radiation exposure, lemon essential oil is poisonous. Researchers have discovered the
healing capacity of this plant because it is still not acknowledged by more remedial belongings.
Key words: Flavonoids, Rutaceae, Essential oil, Toxicity, Anticancerigenous
Full length article *Corresponding Author, e-mail:, Tel: +923237628206
1. Introduction
A tiny evergreen tree from Asia, is known as Citrus
limon (lemon). The lemon has a number of different species
and has yellow ellipsoidal fruit. It is the most important
species after oranges and mandarins of citrus fruit. The
"term" lemon comes from ancient French called "limon."
The term "limone," Arabic "lamun" or "lmun" and Persian
"lmun" have distinct names in Italy too. Generic word ' lime'
to citrus fruit is connected to Sanskrit nimbu. Lemon is a
flowering plant of the Rutaceae family. Approximately 140
genes and 1300 species are present in the genus citrus [1]. It
originated first from Southeast Asia and then spread into
north-eastern India, Burma and China. Citrus fruit have been
grown worldwide since ancient times. The following are the
best types of lemon, such as Lisbon, Eureka and Meyer. The
range of the citrus tree from Lisbon tolerates heat, cold, and
windy situations, as well as produces several plants each
year, by proper care. The lemon tree "Lisbon" is 30 feet
long, with a 25 feet broad canopy. The' Eureka' is growing
all year round. It is also referred to as' Four Seasons'
(Quartre saisons), as it is capable of producing fruit and
flowers all year round. The product is also accessible to
national clients as a factory. There is also the pink Eureka
fruit that has an exterior peel that is variegated by green and
yellow stripes. This fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the
traditional species used in limoncello production. The'
Meyer' was named after Frank N. Meyer, who initially
brought it to the United States in 1908, when it is a cross
between lemons, perhaps an orange or a mandarin. Meyer
lemons involve greater care and are not commercially
cultivated, as are slightly less slim-skinned and acidic than
Lisbon and Eureka lemons. Lemons of Meyer are often
mature in yellow orange. They are rather more tolerant to
frost than other citrus fruits. The tree is tiny with shiny,
leathery, alternate, generally evergreen leaves with oil
glands. The stems are usually winged and connected with
the leaves most of the moment. The smell of flowers is
powerful and sweet. The fruit has the form of spherical or
egg. It has 8/14 juicy areas with wide white or greenish
seeds. Lemon is traditionally used as an additive to soothe
the sore throats of our foods [2]. The lemon's alkaloid
features are also popular. Cross extracts from several citrus
parts have shown anti-cancer and antibacterial features
against bacterial strains of clinically significant importance.
It is mainly used to decrease blood pressure, mental health,
respiratory problems, arthritis and rheumatism. By using
International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences
(ISSN 2226-9614)
Journal Home page:
© International Scientific Organization
IJCBS, 14(2018):55-61
Qudah et al., 2018 56
them, the kidney stones are prevented. Citrus fruits and
vegetables are also used to soothe the flaccid pulp, headache
and asthma symptoms Cultivation of limon is one of Oman's
most famous crops.
Large acid and juice content is present in the
Omani lemon variety. The most popular varieties are offered
in the Batinah region, for the Sohar and Saham mandate, etc.
[3]. The acidic substance called citric acid and carboxylic
acid contained in the chemical composition of lemon peel
other also water [4]. Citrussia is split into distinct groups.
Citruses are cultivated in diverse amounts and sweet
oranges, mandarins, grapes, lemon and lime. Citrus is
cultivated commercially. In nations with tropical or sub-
tropical climate, citrus cultivars are cultivated in diverse
amounts. Citrus is first among the tree fruits worldwide in
region and manufacturing. The most significant fruit crop
also growing in Pakistan is citrus fruit (lemon), with an
annual output of 1.5 MMT, in an region of 160,000 hectares.
Citrus fruit was cultivated in all four of Pakistan's regions.
The Punjab production is above 95% due to its larger
population, favourable increasing conditions and sufficient
water. The Pakistani, six-year-old citrus fruit tree generated
966 fruits and produced 3173 fruits at the age of 9.
2. History/origin of lemon
The origins of the Lemon are not known although it
is believed that the first lemons were cultivated in Assam (in
north-eastern India), northern Burma or China. A lemon
genetic origin research has shown that it is hybrid from
bitter orange to lemon (sour orange) [5]. In the earliest
century AD Lemons reached European countries close to
southern Italy, in the period of Ancient Rome. Later, around
AD 700 were launched in Persia and then in Iraq and Egypt.
The citrus was first reported in literature in early Islamic
gardens in an Arabic farming treaty of the 10th century. It
was commonly spread between 1000 and 1150 in the Arab
world and the Mediterranean area. In Genoa in the center of
the 15th century, the first significant cultivation of lemons
started in Europe. In 1493, when Christopher Columbus
brought Hispaniola lemon seeds on his trips, it was later
introduced to the Americas. Spain's conquest helped spread
lemon seeds throughout the New World. It has been used
primarily as an ornamental and medicinal herb. In Florida
and California, lemons were planted more and more in the
19th century. In 1747, James Lind's studies with scurvy
were about the addition of citrus juices to their diets,
although the use of vitamin C was still unknown [5].
3. Botany, Morphology, Ecology
Citrus trees with comparatively few big branches
have open development. In a distinctive, outstanding
manner, the bigger lateral branches develop in a flattened
limb. On the smaller hand of the branches, the exchange
activity is increased, so that the rings of development are
obviously eccentric [6]. The fresh shots are primarily
produced in the near-end leaf axles of pre-spring or summer
vegetative development. In cool weather only 2 flushes
appear each year, but in hotter, subtropical areas there are
three to five flushes. Under most circumstances the
development of tropical shoots takes place continuously,
throughout the year. Citrus still maintain its tropical nature
in cooler climates and fresh shoots appear all year round.
The most significant is the spring flush, which contains
vegetative and reproductive shoots. The mid-summer and
subsequent flushes are usually vegetative, with fewer,
however longer shootings and bigger leaves [7]. The leaves
are wide and green light. However, the petioles are
decreased and wings free in lemon in most Citrus species.
Lemon leaf blades are oval to oblong in shape. The
morphology of the leaf depends on the vigor of the tree.
Laminae are big and ovate and develop with pronounced ties
along the apical leaf margins. As shoots mature, the laminae
again become ovate and lanceolate with clamped marges.
Newly formed leaves are purple but green when the laminae
are mature.
Most of these Citrus species are tap-rooted,
including the lemon. The root first appears during
germination and grows quickly to form a well-defined
taproot. On the taproots of young seedlings and on pioneer
roots of old plants fibrous roots happen in tiny bunches 20-
30 cm long. Branches from the primary root of the fibrous
bunch are lower than the primary root and are further
lowered by sub-branches from the primary branches.
A network of powerful, lateral roots, not far from t
he earth's surface, offers the supporting structure for a thick
fibrous root mat. A more or less vertical layer of narrower si
des and fibrous roots arises from the crown. The fresh
development in early spring gives rise to citrus flowers.
Lemon trees have two greatest periods of flowering in
Mediterranean climates but tend to continue to bloom year-
round in cool and coastal environments, with trees
producing multiple plants each year. The flowers with
mature citrus are 1.5-3 cm long, with a pedicel. The cup
with five sepals is similar to the calyx. The petals, dense and
brilliant to maintain reflection on, are interlocking marginal
papillae. The stamens show 20-40 filaments partly united,
each with a yellow, four-lumped anther. The pistil is
surrounded by others at or near the point of stigma. The
florside disc secretes the stomach from watery nectar. The
ovary is subglobous, different from a tight style, like in
orange or subcylindric, fusion in the fashion like in citrus.
The pistil is made up of 8-14 carpet ovary. Lemon flowers
are full and flawless and have the same overall properties as
other commercial citrus species. Purple white flowers are
petals. The flowers are narrower than those of grapefruit, but
they are comparable to the flowers of mandarin. Typically
they are carried in clusters. A unique berry form called
hesperidium is the citrus fruit. It is an authentic fruit and
consists of a variable amount (usually eight and nine in
lemon) of radially arranged carpets. Citrus is comprised of
IJCBS, 14(2018):55-61
Qudah et al., 2018 57
the two primary areas: pericarp and endocarp, which are
morphologically different. Pericarp, which is the edible fruit
part, is called the rind or peel and the endocarp is referred to
as a pulp. The outside colored portions of the flavedo are
epicarp, generally called flavedo, whereas the inside white
layer is mesocarp, generally known as albedo; is also
distinguished within a peel. The flavedo consists of a
cuticular-covered epidermis and some neighboring compact
parenchyma cell layers. The flavedo is filled with essential
oils. Essential oils are generally characterized by GC-MS
analysis [8-10]. The ovarian pulp comprises of sections
enclosed in a locomotive membrane filled with juice bags.
The citrus fruit is typically oval to elliptical with distinctive
necks and nipples. The flavedo is a dark green, but the skin
is yellow at maturity during its early phases of fruit growth.
It has prominent oil glands and differs in thickness and
surface texture. The pulp is pale and acidic in stroke. The
lemon is more or less susceptible to cold than orange
because it is more or less constant in development and can
recover less from cold lesions. Tree defoliation is 22o to 24o
F (-5.56 degrees-4.44o C). A fall in temperature down to 20o
F (-6.67o C) will harm wood significantly, unless the
weather has slowed down for a couple of days. Flowers and
young fruits have 29o F (-167o C) murdered and almost
mature fruits under 28o F (-2.22o C) are severely harmed.
The lemon reaches its highest value, however, in coastal
regions where winters are too cool to mix oranges and
grapefruit properly. The variety of climate of the lemon is
therefore comparatively restricted. The fruit is scarred and
the tree easily defoliated by wind, and the benefits are
protected against windbreaks. Lemon is cultivated in both
dry and wet environments, the latter being a major
disadvantage in curing and storing procedures. The citrus
tree has an infertile, very bad soil reputation. Soils with
elevated water permeability and elevated drainage are
recommended for sand, clay and sandyclay depth. Black
soils are also appropriate if the calcareous soil is not lying
on them. Between 5.5 and 6.5 should be Ph. In case of high
acidity, lime must be used to reach the optimum level.
In square systems with spacing of 5 to 8 m depending on spe
cies and rootstocks, lemon is usually plant in 50 x 50 x 50 c
m or 75 x 75 cm pits. A wider range of 5x 5 m is suitable for
rough lemon or karana khatta.
4. Chemical compositions
There were distinct elements to the essential oil of
the leaves and peel of the citrus limon. In both essential oils,
limonene is the primary element. Ieaf oil was recognized
with β-pine, myrcene, neral, geranial, neryl acetate, geranyl
and β-caryophyllene. Peel oil had μ-terpinine, β-pinene,
myrcene [11]. In lemon, there are certain flavonoids, like
hesperidoside, limocitrine, in Spanish lemon pericarp. Citric
acid, ascorbic acid, and caffeic acid in the lemon flower are
the acids found in citrus. Caffeine is present in flowers and
lemon tree leaves. Lemons are supposed to be of some
health advantages and contain quantities of distinct
chemicals. Lemons are extremely important for human
health and are high in vitamin C (ascorbic acid). A citrus
juice of 100 milliliters includes about 50 milligram vitamin
C and about five gram of citric acid. (55% of the daily value
advised) However, after squeezing the lemon, vitamin C
will be lost fast; after just eight hours, a 20 percent loss will
take place at room temperature or 24 hours in a fridge.
It also includes Na, K, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn and P. Mineral pr
oducts. Levels of 755.5, 8600, 8452.5, 4.94, 147.65, 1429.5,
13.94 and 6656 mg/100 g are observed at Na, K, Ca, Cu, Fe,
Mg, Zn and P. Iron, copper, zinc and manganese are vital
for the nutritional sector and are commonly used in health,
environmental science and health [12]. K was at its highest
(8600±0.028 mg/100 g) concentration. Since Sidney Ringer
pointed out its significance in 1883, K has always been
acknowledged as an essential nutrient in animal food. For
life, K is vital. Young pets will not develop and die in just a
few days, when K's diet is highly poor. Ca is concentrated
8452.5±0.050 mg/100 g in lemon peel samples. The bone
formation is Ca accountable. Ca controls several cell
procedures and plays significant structural functions in
living organisms [13]. For all livestock, phosphorus is also a
vital nutrient. There have been reports that Mg participates
in keeping the nerve electrical potential and activating some
enzyme systems.
4.1. Phytochemistry
Various phytochemicals, like polyphenols and
terpenes are present in lemons. As with other citrus fruits,
they are highly concentrated in citric acid (around 47g / L
juice) [14]. Lemons contain various phytochemical
substances, including polyphenols and terpenes. Essential
oil of complicated structure: limonene, flavonoids, vitamin
C, carotenoids, mucilages, calcium oxalates, citric, citrain,
terpineol, camhenium, fellander. Pectin, sugar, citric acid,
malic acid and flavonoids are abundant.
The rind, which makes up around 45 percent of the
lemon, is obtained from citrus limon (lemon) essential oil.
Over 200 volatile and non-volatile compounds are found in
the lemon peel. Lemon oil includes some 70% limonene and
some 20% monoterpenes. Limonene is an important element
of lemon oil. This oil also includes about 6% coumarin-
concentration aldehydes, alcohols and esters, including citral
and linalool, with less than 1 % concentration of coumarins.
Figure.1. Chemical structure of Limonene
IJCBS, 14(2018):55-61
Qudah et al., 2018 58
5. Postharvest technology
Lemons are harvested according to the weather.
Choosing a lemon (Citrus limo) will offer you a fruit filled
with juice at the correct moment. The lemon may be dry and
pithy when you grab it at the incorrect moment. The three
primary kinds of lemons, "Eureka," "Lisbon" and "Meyer,"
each have their proper season for harvest. Lemons are
prepared to be selected when they appear yellow or yellow
green and firm. The size of the fruit is 2 to 3 inches. Waiting
for the correct size and not worrying so much about colour,
is better than expecting them to be totally yellow. Citrus
fruit ready for picking is also mildly bright. Citrus is better
at choosing too soon than too late. If lemons are yellow-
greenish, they will ripen off the tree more than probably.
You've been waiting too long if they're squishy. It's not
difficult to choose lemons from a tree as long as you don't
harm the tree. Take the full fruit into your hand and slightly
twist it until it gets out of the tree. Clean and sharp hand
nippers can also be used if it's simpler. Place all the lemons
in the cooler, where no bumping or squishing is required, for
optimal storage. Devote a drawer or a lounge to lemons
6. General Uses of lemon
The essential oils of Lemon have much to do with
the health and delightful and distinctive aroma of the person.
It's a very versatile solution for the whole body. The
essential oils, taken internally, diluted, or topically used for
various conditions, can be used in the following manner,
inhaled as aromas.
6.1. Locomotor activity
Studies by the State University of Ohio have shown
that lemon oil-exposed topics have constantly been
influenced by enhanced and positive mood results. Indeed,
the concentrations of the sensational chemical
norepinephrine transmitter were boosted when lemon was
inhaled, demonstrating a real mental and physical effect
within the brain.
6.2. Antiescorbutic and vitaminic
Very rich in vitamin C,so it has potassium and calci
um antscorbutic characteristics. It is very much desirable to
reinforce body defenses and prevent numerous illnesses bec
ause of his capacity for regeneration of white corpuscles.
6.3. Antimigraine
In addition to being a stimulant, caffeine relieves h
eadache, which is particularly important for migraine by con
straining the pericraneal blood vessel.
6.4. Depurative property
It provides purifying characteristics of ascorbic aci
d and limonene to provide an outstanding remedy against rh
eumatism, arthrosis, gout, cholesterol, arterioclerosis, and ur
ic acid.
6.5. Diuretic effect
As caffeine and ascorbial acid stimulation force, it
can be used as a diuretic in obesity treatment by enhancing
the miction that removes unwanted water. Lemon has
elevated citric acid content. This has shown that this acid
can dissolve or stop the development of small kidney stones.
It protects us from eating this sort of fruit forming fresh
kidney stones. It is also a preventive remedy to prevent
inflammation of the gallbladder.
6.6. Anticancerigenous
The primary parts of lemon essential oil have cance
r or antitumor characteristics, prevent cancer and help the bo
dy not become metastasized when the disease has emerged
6.7. Improve energy and alertness
Lemons can also improve brain function, boost alar
m, mental care and clarity. The revitalizing effects of lemon
oil are caused by the high and energizing fragrance. Lemon
oil can also be taken internally to boost energy.
6.8. Astringent effects
Lemon oil enables to dissolve oils and decrease ski
n and hair oil output, making acne therapy a useful option. T
he lightening impacts of lemon oil are also possible on skin
or in hair.
6.9. Lemons Help with Acne
Lemons have been shown to work well for acne
patients with citric acid and C vitamin. Lemons also destroy
many types of acne-causing types of bacteria as an alkaline
fruit. Drinking citrus juice with water every morning is the
simplest way for people with worse case acne to tap into
these healing characteristics. It has been proven efficient
that one portion of lemon juice is mixed with a portion of
rose or melon water and placed on skin regions with acne.
The solution should be left for half an hour on the skin and
washed with water. This is a twice weekly operation. Fresh
citrus juice should be applied directly with a cotton ball or
swab and left overnight in the impacted zones. In the
morning, the solution should be washed. Because this is the
least diluted solution, it tends at first to combustion, but is
regarded the most efficient way to treat acne with citrus
6.10. Aromatherapy
Lemons are not only good for the skin, but
apparently also good for the psyche. Lemon consumption or
even inhalation of the aroma (aromatherapy) has shown that
mood and tension, nervousness, anxiety, exhaustion,
swelling and fatigue have been improved and even reduced
[17]. Lemons are also expected to increase concentration, so
many air spray and cooling machines are scented with
lemon. Some individuals even squeeze some lemon drops
and inhale to assist concentrate on a handkerchief.
6.11. Treat Canker Sores
Lemons have antiviral and antibacterial
characteristics that have proven scientifically. Cure cancer
sores were demonstrated three times a day by a glass of tidal
lemon juice mixed with water swollen around the mouth. As
carcinogens are open wounds, some burning can occur at the
IJCBS, 14(2018):55-61
Qudah et al., 2018 59
beginning, but this is anticipated until sterilizing of the
6.12. Lemons Cure Fevers
Lemons also helped with fever, a spring from the c
alming effects of the fruit, for a long time. Mixed hot water,
lemon juice and honey is a wonderful fever option. Consum
e until the fever falls every two hours.
6.13. Colds and the Flu
Colds and influenza have double positive effects. V
itamin C helps the inner infection, while the lemon's antivira
l characteristics can assist the mucous membranes of your ne
ck and mouth.
6.14. Help Relieve Eczema
It's best to start treating a cold or flu and flooding
your system with as much Vitamin C as you can from citrus
fruits. Freshly squeeze the lemon juice and blend it with the
tidy water. Each two hours, consume. Lemon juice can be
taken as a gargoyle and juice to assist with cold and grip
issues. Combine with a small amount of ocean salt for a sore
throat. Eczema patients discovered lemon wrap relief. Dilute
in lukewarm water a tiny quantity of vital lemon oil and
honey. In this solution, soak a linen towel, squeeze the
additional solution and position the towel in a corporal
region impacted by eczema, 3 times daily, for 15 minutes at
a moment.
6.15. Lemons Fight Fatigue
Long-distance runners and walkers are known to
just stick a straw in the top of a citrus. Lemon juice looks
more efficient than water alone to quench thirst, and the
aroma and taste seem to increase the mind and help to
combat fatigue. It also enables battle fatigue to give a much-
needed mental boost.
6.16 Lemon Peel Can Reduce Cholesterol
Various researches showed that eating lemon peel can
reduce cholesterol effectively [18]. This is not because of
lemon peel pectin level, but because of various active
ingredients in the peel.
6.17. Anti- inflammatory activity
Essential citric oil is used in traditional medicine as
an anti-inflammatory agent [19]. One or more of these parts
may have anti-inflammatory effects of lemon essential oils.
There are powerful anti-inflammatory effects to linalool,
linalylate, limonene, and alpha-pinene.
6.18. Antimicrobial activity
The research demonstrates that the peel of lemon is
also a useful antimicrobial agent as well as an astringent
[20]. This is a significant finding because sebum, in
particular when it is secreted in excess (in one individual),
may cause pure skin infections in certain skin flora, such as
Pseudomonas and Micrococcus. In other skin infections,
such as acne, it may be a predisposing factor for some
moment. Simple application of citrus juice can deter these
kinds of diseases and assist to keep the skin safe and good.
6.19 Antifungal activity
Essential oils extracted from the various plants
showed strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities [21-
25].Lemon oil may be used to regulate the development of
mold in certain foods directly or to produce inhibiting impac
ts in the scheme by acting in the packaged product with the s
etting [26].
7. Non-culinary uses of lemon
In history, lemon was used as an epilepsy remedy,
an invisible ink and bleaching agent for a number of non-
culinary purposes. Citrus fruits and essences are processed
to extract. In perfumes, cosmetics and furniture polish,
lemon oil or vital oil are used. A Japanese aromatherapy
research has discovered that vital citrus oil in vapor form
reduces stress in mice. Commercial pectin is made using the
lemon peel.
A common school experiment involving lemons is
that electrodes are attached and used as a light battery. The
produced electricity can also be used to power an engine to
move the lemons, as a vehicle or a truck. They also use othe
r fruits such as apples and potatoes.
8. Toxicity of lemon
All of the citrus species have fototoxic, irritating
essential oil [27-28], generating responses to the high-violet
(high-mountain) rays exposed. In the lip or dermatitis
pockets in the internal areas of the body which come into
contact with the juice are among these responses. It is
therefore advisable not to drink citrus juice if we are
subjected to powerful radiation or if we are allergic. Also
during pregnancy and nursing the vital oil is contraindicated.
The citric juice is hazardous for your teeth because it attacks
and can yellow the dental plaque.
A nice way to prevent this is to have a painting
9. Conclusion
We still understand the collaboration between
herbs, medicines and food today. Because of their small side
effects, suitability, and effect, herbal medicines are
consumed for many years. The citrus is a fluid plant of the
Rutaceae family. Approximately 140 genera and 1300
species are present in the genus citrus. The lemon's term
comes from ancient French called "limon." Many other
lemon fruit names are available. Flavonoids, acids, caffeine,
pectin and minerals are the primary elements of the
chemical composition. Essential citrus oil includes many
ingredients and limonene is the major ingredient in its
odour. Lemon possesses numerous characteristics, such as
antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer,
depurative and antiscorbutic etc. Especially in pregnancy,
nursing and radiation exposure, lemon essential oil is
poisonous. Researchers have discovered the healing capacity
of this plant because it is still not acknowledged by more
remedial belongings.
[1] G. Kamal, F. Anwar, A. Hussain, N. Sarri, M.
Ashraf. (2011). Yield and chemical composition of
IJCBS, 14(2018):55-61
Qudah et al., 2018 60
Citrus essential oils as affected by drying
pretreatment of peels. International Food Research
Journal. 18(4): 1275.
[2] E. Nicolosi, Z. Deng, A. Gentile, S. La Malfa, G.
Continella, E. Tribulato. (2000). Citrus phylogeny
and genetic origin of important species as
investigated by molecular markers. Theoretical and
Applied Genetics. 100(8): 1155-1166.
[3] J. Silalahi. (2002). Anticancer and health protective
properties of citrus fruit components. Asia Pacific
journal of clinical nutrition. 11(1): 79-84.
[4] M. Saidani, W. Dhifi, B. Marzouk. (2004). Lipid
evaluation of some Tunisian Citrus seeds. Journal
of Food Lipids. 11(3): 242-250.
[5] O. Gulsen, M. Roose. (2001). Lemons: diversity
and relationships with selected Citrus genotypes as
measured with nuclear genome markers. Journal of
the American Society for Horticultural Science.
126(3): 309-317.
[6] H. Schneider. (1955). Ontogeny of lemon tree bark.
American Journal of Botany. 893-905.
[7] P. Spiegel-Roy, E.E. Goldschmidt. (1996). The
biology of citrus. Cambridge University Press: pp.
[8] A.Y. Al-Maskri, M.A. Hanif, M.Y. Al-Maskari,
A.S. Abraham, J.N. Al-sabahi, O. Al-Mantheri.
(2011). Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum
(Omani Basil): a desert crop. Natural product
communications. 6(10): 1934578X1100601020.
[9] M.A. Hanif, A.Y. Al-Maskri, Z.M.H. Al-Mahruqi,
J.N. Al-Sabahi, A. Al-Azkawi, M.Y. Al-Maskari.
(2011). Analytical evaluation of three wild growing
Omani medicinal plants. Natural product
communications. 6(10): 1934578X1100601010.
[10] I. Shahzadi, R. Nadeem, M.A. Hanif, S. Mumtaz,
M.I. Jilani, S. Nisar. Chemistry and biosynthesis
pathways of plant oleoresins: Important drug
[11] S.A. Vekiari, E.E. Protopapadakis, P.
Papadopoulou, D. Papanicolaou, C. Panou, M.
Vamvakias. (2002). Composition and seasonal
variation of the essential oil from leaves and peel of
a Cretan lemon variety. Journal of agricultural and
food chemistry. 50(1): 147-153.
[12] S. Erdogan, S. Celik, Z. Erdogan. (2004). Seasonal
and locational effects on serum, milk, liver and
kidney chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, and
iron concentrations of dairy cows. Biological trace
element research. 98(1): 51-61.
[13] B. Tandoğan, N.N. Ulusu. (2005). Importance of
calcium. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences.
35(4): 197-201.
[14] A. Rauf, G. Uddin, J. Ali. (2014). Phytochemical
analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of
Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus
limonum. Organic and medicinal chemistry letters.
4(1): 5.
[15] H. Garg, A. Shrivastava, A. Choudhary In
Flavonoids from Lemon & Tea as Effective
Inhibitors against Carcinogenesis, National
Seminar on Innovations in Science & Technology
for Inclusive Development, 2015; 2015.
[16] M. Mohanapriya, L. Ramaswamy, R. Rajendran.
(2013). Health and medicinal properties of lemon
(Citrus limonum). International Journal Of
Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine. 3(1): 1095-1100.
[17] M. Sawamura, U.-S. Son, H.-S. Choi, M.-S. Kim,
N. Phi, M. Fears, C. Kumagai. (2004).
Compositional changes in commercial lemon
essential oil for aromatherapy. International Journal
of Aromatherapy. 14(1): 27-36.
[18] V. ul Hassan, M. Saleem, N. Shaffi, K. ud Din.
[19] M.N. Boukhatem, M.A. Ferhat, A. Kameli, F.
Saidi, H.T. Kebir. (2014). Lemon grass
(Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent
anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs. Libyan
Journal of Medicine. 9(1): 25431.
[20] M.J. Dhanavade, C.B. Jalkute, J.S. Ghosh, K.D.
Sonawane. (2011). Study antimicrobial activity of
lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel extract. British
Journal of pharmacology and Toxicology. 2(3):
[21] M.A. Hanif, M.Y. Al-Maskari, A. Al-Maskari, A.
Al-Shukaili, A.Y. Al-Maskari, J.N. Al-Sabahi.
(2011). Essential oil composition, antimicrobial
and antioxidant activities of unexplored Omani
basil. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 5(5):
[22] M.A. Hanif, H.N. Bhatti, M.S. Jamil, R.S. Anjum,
A. Jamil, M.M. Khan. (2010). Antibacterial and
antifungal activities of essential oils extracted from
medicinal plants using CO2 supercritical fluid
extraction technology. Asian Journal of Chemistry.
22(10): 7787.
[23] E.M. Abdallah, A.E. Khalid. (2012). A preliminary
evaluation of the antibacterial effects of
Commiphora molmol and Boswellia papyrifera
oleo-gum resins vapor. International Journal of
Chemical and Biochemical Sciences. 1: 1-15.
[24] S.A. Jatoi, A. Kikuchi, S.A. Gilani, K.N.
Watanabe. (2007). Phytochemical,
pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in
mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.;
Zingiberaceae). Phytotherapy Research: An
International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological
and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product
Derivatives. 21(6): 507-516.
IJCBS, 14(2018):55-61
Qudah et al., 2018 61
[25] A.A. Hamid, O.O. Aiyelaagbe. (2012).
Pharmacological investigation of Asystasia
calyciana for its antibacterial and antifungal
properties. International Journal of Chemical and
Biochemical Sciences. 1: 99-104.
[26] G.O. Onawunmi. (1989). Evaluation of the
antifungal activity of lemon grass oil. International
Journal of Crude Drug Research. 27(2): 121-126.
[27] H.C. Su, R.D. Speirs, P.G. Mahany. (1972).
Toxicity of citrus oils to several stored-product
insects: Laboratory evaluation. Journal of
economic entomology. 65(5): 1438-1441.
[28] A. Salvatore, S. Borkosky, E. Willink, A. Bardon.
(2004). Toxic effects of lemon peel constituents on
Ceratitis capitata. Journal of chemical ecology.
30(2): 323-333.
... It has also been found that lemongrass may help treat certain skin diseases, such as: vaginal candida, with an effectiveness that may make it superior to some other herbs commonly used in the treatment of this type of disease, such as thyme. With food by boiling and drinking it because of its many medical benefits [4]. ...
Full-text available
The results shown in the research above indicate the clear moral effect of lemongrass extract in inhibiting and hindering the growth and development of some common bacterial strains that cause major problems in the human body. The above research is of high scientific feasibility and great benefit in order to highlight the use of this new plant introduced into Iraq in medical and therapeutic aspects, and the trend to expand the use of medicinal plants in the prevention and inhibition of bacterial infections.
... For instance, in 2019, about 158 million tons of citrus were produced in the world [24]. Among citrus fruits, sour lemon with the scientific name of Citrus limon is of special importance due to its use in the production of lemon juice as a common flavoring in the food industry [25]. Global production of sour lemons is about 20 million tons per year and Iran is the tenth largest producer of sour lemons in the world [24]. ...
Full-text available
In this study, extracellular enzyme production by different species of Trichoderma fungus (T. aureoviride NAS106, T. afroharzianum NAS107, T. ghanense NAS108, T. pleuroticola NAS109, T. harzianum NAS110, and T. lixii NAS114) were investigated under submerged fermentation conditions using lemon peel waste as a substrate at 28 °C, pH 5, and fermentation time of 48 h. Extracellular protein concentration, cellulose (exoglucanase, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and total cellulase), xylanase, and pectinase enzyme activity were also assayed. This study also examined the effect of different fermentation times on extracellular protein production and enzymatic activity in a superior strain of Trichoderma. The molecular weight of extracellular proteins was studied using SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the highest extracellular protein concentration and exoglucanase, endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, total cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase activity were produced in T. afroharzianum NAS107. It was also revealed that the major activity of the total cellulase enzyme was due to the synergistic function of endoglucanases and cellulohydrolases. In addition, the electrophoretic pattern of protein bands of this species showed the ability to produce enzymes of xylanase (Xyl I), exoglucanase (Cel 6A (CBH II) and Cel7A (CBH I)), endoglucanases (Cel 5A (EG II), and Cel 12A (EG III), β-glucosidase (Cel3A (BGL I) and Cel 1A (BGL II)), polygalacturonase I and II, pectin lyase, and pectin esterase I and II, with the highest enzymatic activity during the fermentation period of 96 to 120 h due to the synergistic activity of exoglucanase, endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase enzymes. The findings of this study showed that T. afroharzianum is a suitable producer of extracellular enzymes cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase. Thus, it can be used as a biological substance or an enzyme source for saccharification of citrus conversion industry wastes such as lemon peel.
... The flowers with mature citrus are 1.5-3 cm long, with a pedicel and a strong fragrance. Lemon flowers are full and flawless and have the same overall properties as other commercial citrus species [5,6,7] . Lemon is more precisely well known for its distinctive features and importance related to food or nutrition. ...
Full-text available
In recent years, focus on plant-oriented research has been increasing as they are potential sources of therapeutic agents comprising secondary metabolites, free antioxidant radicals, and many other well-known phytochemicals that have a high salutary value and massive impact on the healthcare system. Our present research study mainly aims at the comparative investigation of quantitative phytochemical estimation, evaluating the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Citrus limon (C.limon) and Citrus aurantifolia (C. aurantifolia) leaf hydro-alcoholic extract. It has been manifested that the presence of antioxidant free radicals and phytoconstituents enhances the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The result revealed the presence of various phytochemicals, including carbohydrate, protein, steroid, phenol, alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, cardiac glycosides, terpenoid, quinones in both leaves extracts. It has also been highlighted that C.limon hydro-alcoholic extract shows the highest amount of extractive value (18.89±3.84%) as well as the maximum amount of polyphenols (63.28±0.22 mg GAE/g of dry tissue), flavonoids (26.46±0.30 mg QE/g of dry tissue) that support their antioxidant capacity, i.e. inhibitory percentage for DPPH (56.33±0.56%) radical scavenging assay along with enhanced antimicrobial property concerning the others. The overall result acknowledged that the leaves of these two Citrus species possess the phytochemicals that can treat many oxidative stress-related disorders and may have some beneficial antibacterial aspects that can be further used in controlling the unwanted microbial infection.
... On the whole, India accounts for 27.57% of world's Lemon production, the four southern states alone occupy more than 70% of the total area among the Citrus species found in central India. Lemon comprises adequate amount of minerals, citric acid, ascorbic acid, antioxidants and other beneficial compounds [2]. ...
Full-text available
Study Design: Randomized Block Design. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior, MP between 2018 - 2019. Methodology: In 2018-19 the study conducted amidst rainy season and Gird agro-climatic context of Madhya Pradesh to evaluate the effect of phytohormones on rooting and establishment of seedless lemon air layers. Experiment consisting nine treatments replicated three times under Randomized Block Design. Treatments comprising of two plant hormones namely IBA and NAA each with four concentration levels i.e. 1250, 2500, 3750 and 5000 ppm including control. Plants age were seven years. Results: The results revealed maximal rooting percentage (92.00), number of primary roots (22.72) and secondary roots (49.97), length of primary roots (5.05 cm) and secondary roots (2.25 cm), diameter of primary roots (1.68 mm) and secondary roots (0.84 mm) and dry weight of roots (2.32 g) and planted air-layers (89.21 %) were recorded with application of IBA @ 5000 ppm. Conclusion: Indole-3-butyric acid performed better than naphthalene acetic acid for promoting rooting and establishment in seedless lemon air-layers. Application of IBA @ 5000 ppm significantly increased rooting characters followed by NAA @5000 ppm for better establishment of Lemon air layers for its propagation.
... Cascara has 37.9 mgGAE/g of phenolic [20], meanwhile lemon peel has 5.07 -25.24 mgGAE/g [21] so the higher the amount of lemon peel added, it cannot increase the phenolic content in tea. On the other hand, the decrease in caffeine content in cascara tea due to the addition of lemon peel because it does not contain caffeine [22]. Table 4 shows the ratio of cascara and lemon peel in each brewing technique had a significant effect on the lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of cascara tea (α = 0.05). ...
Full-text available
Current application of coffee pulp into tea, called as cascara tea, had improved its usage but it might have an unpleasant aroma and taste. Thus, the addition of other resources such as lemon peel is suggested. This study aims to know the effect of brewing techniques and the ratio of cascara (dried coffee pulp) and lemon peel to physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of cascara tea, along with the best treatment. This study was conducted by Nested design with two factors, i.e. brewing techniques and the ratio of cascara and lemon peel. The data were analyzed using Minitab 17 and Zeleny method. The results showed that brewing techniques had a significant effect on total phenolic content, caffeine content, color (except in yellowness) and pH. Meanwhile for both factors had a significant effect on all parameters. The best treatment was the ratio of cascara and lemon peel at 80:20% brewed using the decoction method.
... One or more of these contents may have anti-inflammatory effects of lemon essential oils as linalool, linalylate, limonene, and alpha-pinene. Especially in pregnancy, nursing and radiation exposure, lemon essential oil is poisonous (Al-Qudah et al. 2018). ...
... Stress reliever, reinforce body defenses and prevent numerous illnesses, antimigraine, depurative property, diuretic effect, anticancerigenous, improve energy and alertness, astringent effects and used in aromatherapy etc [22] Citric acid ...
Full-text available
A worldwide pandemic causing virus i.e. Corona (COVID 19) is creating fatal problem for human race due to its lethal attack. Various attempts are under process to develop an effective vaccine. Any kind of infection or disease affects persons with low immunity; Indian Ayurveda is an ancient practice which can help us to boost immunity during this pandemic period. Ayurveda, being the science of human life, propagates the gifts of Mother Nature in maintaining healthy living. There are various natural resources are present in our day to day routine which may be used by us for boosting our immune system, and doing so could help us to prevent corona virus infection.
... Very rich in vitamin C, so it has potassium and calcium antiscorbutic characteristics. It is very much desirable to reinforce body defenses and prevent numerous illnesses, as acne, rheumatism, arthrosis, gout, cholesterol, arterioclerosis, uric acid, eczema, inflammation, infections, fever, fatigue, colds and flu [88] . The most important lemon flavone is hesperetin, which is found in the fruit in a glycosylated form as hesperidin [30] . ...
Full-text available
The recourse to the medicinal plants in treating flu is frequent in Tunisia. In fact, Tunisian patients have been attracted by using medicinal plants as an informal way to treat COVID-19 illness. A questionnaire concerning the use of medicinal plants has been proposed to seven COVID-19 patients. Results showed that 16 medicinal plants, Verbena officinalis and Zingiber officinale, have been used by COVID-19 patients for their antiviral activities due to the presence of various complex chemical substances as organosulfur compounds, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids, sterols, vitamins, monoterpenes, phenylpropanoids and alkaloids. Other medications (Zithromax and paracetamol) and other natural substances (honey, zinc, vitamin C and vitamin D) were simultaneously used with medicinal plants to treat COVID-19 illness establishing for these patients an important solution to solve the problems related to COVID-19.
Most available therapeutics to address alopecia are based on singular targets and mechanism of action based on the assumption of sub-classification to reflect morphological or etiological sub-classes such as hereditary vs acquired factors, anti-inflammatory vs. non-inflammatory factors or scarring vs. non-scarring factors. Impact of oral consumption of Diabliss Hair Water, a multi-component herbal water supplement (HWS) on hair fall reduction, hair growth, hair density, hair thickness was investigated in a single arm, exploratory, pilot open label clinical study among healthy male and female subjects of age group between 35-50 years, with hair fall and hair thinning concerns. The study was conducted under dermatological control and included hair fall by comb test, hair pull test, hair thinning measurement using photo numerical scale (modified Norwood and Ludwig scale) and assessment for hair quality along with the phototrichogram assessment using Trichoscan® with Cutiscope. The Diabliss HWS was efficacious in improving hair growth rate and density as per TrichoScan® assessment, improvement in hair thickness as per Caslite-Nova software. The Diabliss HWS was also efficacious in improving the hair tensile strength (break force by Chatillon Force gauge), reducing hair fall and improving the hair quality. By the end of the study the Diabliss HWS was found to show an improvement in the entire study population in all of the assessments parameters. Dermatologist assessment parameters of hair texture and hair shine also showed improvements in the entire study population. The Diabliss HWS was found to be efficacious in providing hair fall control and hair growth benefits as per the dermatological and instrumental evaluations using TrichoScan®. The product was well tolerated with no product related AE or SAE with regular consumption for 06 months.
Full-text available
Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 110 medicinal plants most commonly used in Pakistani medicine were determined by zone inhibition method. The essential oils from medicinal plants were extracted using CO2 supercritical fluid extraction technology. The oils were subsequently purified under reduced pressure to avoid degradation of their components. Strongest Bacillus subtilis inhibition was shown by Petrocarpus santalinus, Valeriana officinalis, Caryophyllus arometicus, Trapa bispinosa and Mentha arrivensis. Whereas, strongest Ganoderma luciderm inhibition activity was shown by Mentha arrivensis, Hibiscus esulentus and Acacia concinna. Many medicinal plants have not shown any inhibition activity against Bacillus subtilis and Ganoderma lucidum. Results of the present study can be very helpful in evaluating the mechanism of action of essential oil extracted from medicinal plants using CO2 supercritical fluid extraction technology.
Full-text available
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Calcium regulates many cellular processes and has important structural roles in living organisms. Skeletal muscle structure and function, polymerisation of fibrin and the conduction of impulses in the nervous system are regulated by calcium. Calcium is an important intracellular messenger in protozoa, plants, and animals. Calcium-transporting systems which are located in the plasma membrane and in the organelles, regulate the ionic concentration of calcium in various compartments according to the different demands of the physiological cycle and these systems upregulate calcium entry by the action of several hormones and calcium binding proteins. Opening of calcium influx channels increases the cytosolic calcium concentrations but high calcium concentrations are toxic to the cell. Because of this toxicity; calcium is rapidly removed from the cytosol by calcium pumps and exchangers. Changes in cytosolic calcium concentrations cause a wide range of cellular responses. Cellular calcium is known to play an important role in apoptosis and the accumulation of calcium can induce various apoptotic pathways in the cell. Maintenance of the cellular calcium homeostasis has various benefits for human health and the deficiency of calcium causes many pathological conditions.
Full-text available
Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results: LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35-90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion: RESULTS of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies.
Full-text available
Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 μg/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. Conclusions The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential.
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the vapor of the resins of two aromatic medicinal plants, Commiphora molmol and Boswellia papyrifera on the growth of some reference bacteria and clinical isolates, as antibacterial material. Resins were subjected to successive solvent extraction using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The method employed in this study was Micro-atmosphere assay. The study showed that the vapor of the methanolic extracts of these resins suppressed -to some degree-the bacterial growth, this may be due to its antibacterial activity confirming its positive application in inhalation therapy to treat bronchitis and sinusitis in traditional medicine.
Full-text available
Abstract: The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.
Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), simple sequence repeats (SSR) and isozymes were used to measure genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 95 Citrus L. accessions including 57 lemons [C. limon (L.) Burm. f.], related taxa, and three proposed ancestral species, C. maxima (Burm.) Merrill (pummelo), C. medica L. (citron), and C. reticulata Blanco (mandarin). The ancestry of lemons and several other suspected hybrids was also studied. Five isozyme and five SSR loci revealed relatively little variation among most lemons, but a high level of variation among the relatively distant Citrus taxa. Eight ISSR primers amplified a total of 103 polymorphic fragments among the 83 accessions. Similarity matrices were calculated and phylogenetic trees derived using unweighted pair-group method, arithmetic average cluster analysis. All lemons, rough lemons, and sweet lemons, as well as some other suspected hybrids, clustered with citrons. Most lemons (68%) had nearly identical marker phenotypes, suggesting they originated from a single clonal parent via a series of mutations. Citrons contributed the largest part of the lemon genome and a major part of the genomes of rough lemons, sweet lemons, and sweet limes. Bands that characterize C. reticulata and C. maxima were detected in lemons, suggesting that these taxa also contributed to the pedigree of lemon.
Abstract The antifungal activity of Lemon grass Oil (LGO) has been evaluated using fungistatic (MIC and agar diffusion tests) and fungicidal (spore germination) studies. Appreciable activity was observed against various isolates of Candida and clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most resistant organism was A. fumigatus while M. gypseum and the Candida spp. were the most susceptible of the isolates. Comparative studies with pure samples of citral and citronellal, constituents of LGO, showed good activity against the test fungi while dipentene and myrcene showed no activity. Exposure of the spores of A. fumigatus to 0.1% LGO for 5 mins resulted in 93% of spores not germinating while lower concentrations (0.08% and 0.05%) caused 80% and 60% reduction in spore germination respectively. Challenge tests on a formulated aqueous cream containing LGO indicated that 0.25% LGO would effectively preserve the cream against fungal contamination.
Seeds from five varieties of Tunisian Citrus fruits, namely blood orange (Citrus sinensis), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon L.), bergamot (Citrus bergamia) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), were examined for their composition of lipid classes and fatty acids. In addition, the oil yield, total fatty acids, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were determined. Petroleum ether-extracted oils of these Citrus seeds amounted to more than 78% in the case of lemon seeds. The Citrus seed oils had three lipid classes as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Triacylglycerols were the major oil class in all varieties. Gas chromatographic analyses revealed that the main fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids.