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Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum - The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

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Abstract

The extent of occurrence (EOO) of Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is estimated to be 17,734 km2 (which falls within the limits for Endangered status under criterion B1) whereas its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be 20 km2 (which falls within the limits for Endangered status under the criterion B2). Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is endemic to Madagascar where it occurs only in the province of Toamasina (Analamazaotra, Didy, La Mandraka, Moramanga). The species is known from 11 specimens (7 unique occurrences) of which 2 specimens have been collected in two protected areas, the Réserve Spéciale d’Analamazaotra (1 specimen) and the Corridor Forestier Anjozorobe-Angavo (1 specimen). In addition to these officially protected sites, 6 specimens (3 unique occurrences) of this species have also been collected on the footprint of a mining project undergoing intense human pressure such as forests clearing. This former subpopulation must be considered as extirpated (Shade House 532, 4541). It is also known from 2 specimens (representing 2 subpopulations) collected in an unprotected forest subjected to selective logging, timber harvesting for small-scale subsistence and tavy (slash-and-burn farming). One specimen with imprecise locality information (Herbier du Jardin Botanique de Tananarive 1025) was not taken into account in this evaluation. This species is thus known from 11 specimens (7 unique occurrences) with precise localization representing 4 existing and 1 extirpated subpopulations. These 4 existing subpopulations represent a total of 4 “locations” (sensu IUCN 2012) with respect to the main threat of habitat destruction, mining, falling within the limit for Endangered status. We estimate that the past loss of its habitat, which will continue, has and will induce a strong continuous decline in habitat quality, number of subpopulations and mature individuals in the next ten years as well as an important decline of its EOO and AOO. Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is therefore assigned a status of EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v).
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2008: T70102456A70125493
Scope: Global
Language: English
Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum
Assessment by: Verlynde, S., Ramandimbisoa, B. & Stévart, T.
View on www.iucnredlist.org
Citation: Verlynde, S., Ramandimbisoa, B. & Stévart, T. 2019. Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum. The IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T70102456A70125493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
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THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
Taxonomy
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Orchidaceae
Taxon Name:ÊÊBulbophyllum cardiobulbum Bosser
Assessment Information
Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2019
Date Assessed: June 7, 2018
Justification:
Conservation Status:—IUCN Red List category: Endangered [EN]. The extent of occurrence (EOO) of
Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is estimated to be 17,734 km2 (which falls within the limits for Endangered
status under criterion B1) whereas its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be 20 km2 (which falls
within the limits for Endangered status under the criterion B2). Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is endemic
to Madagascar where it occurs only in the province of Toamasina (Analamazaotra, Didy, La Mandraka,
Moramanga). The species is known from 11 specimens (7 unique occurrences) of which 2 specimens
have been collected in two protected areas, the Réserve Spéciale d’Analamazaotra (1 specimen) and the
Corridor Forestier Anjozorobe-Angavo (1 specimen). In addition to these officially protected sites, 6
specimens (3 unique occurrences) of this species have also been collected on the footprint of a mining
project undergoing intense human pressure such as forests clearing. This former subpopulation must be
considered as extirpated (Shade House 532, 4541). It is also known from 2 specimens (representing 2
subpopulations) collected in an unprotected forest subjected to selective logging, timber harvesting for
small-scale subsistence and tavy (slash-and-burn farming). One specimen with imprecise locality
information (Herbier du Jardin Botanique de Tananarive 1025) was not taken into account in this
evaluation. This species is thus known from 11 specimens (7 unique occurrences) with precise
localization representing 4 existing and 1 extirpated subpopulations. These 4 existing subpopulations
represent a total of 4 “locations” (sensu IUCN 2012) with respect to the main threat of habitat
destruction, mining, falling within the limit for Endangered status. We estimate that the past loss of its
habitat, which will continue, has and will induce a strong continuous decline in habitat quality, number
of subpopulations and mature individuals in the next ten years as well as an important decline of its
EOO and AOO. Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is therefore assigned a status of EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v).
Geographic Range
Range Description:
Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is endemic to Madagascar where it occurs only in the provinces of
Antananarivo (Ambatolaona, Anjozorobe) and Toamasina (Analamazaotra, Didy, Moramanga) at
elevations of 939 to 1,324 m asl (Madagascar Catalogue 2018).
Country Occurrence:
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
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Native: Madagascar
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
2
Distribution Map
Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
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Population
The population of Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is currently thought to be decreasing since the species'
habitat is threatened. The number of mature individuals of B. cardiobulbum is not known and cannot be
estimated since the species is an epiphyte.
Current Population Trend:ÊÊDecreasing
Habitat and Ecology (see Appendix for additional information)
Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum is an epiphytic herb growing on moss covered trees in humid and subhumid
mossy forests. It is a direct sunlight species and grows near the canopy of the forest. It is an epiphyte on
higher branches at elevations of 939 to 1,324 m asl (Madagascar Catalogue 2018).
Systems:ÊÊTerrestrial
Use and Trade
There are no reported uses of this species.
Threats (see Appendix for additional information)
This species experiences continuing decline in EOO, AOO, habitat quality, number of locations and
number of mature individuals because of habitat destruction due to forest exploitation, mining and
shifting cultivation. A subpopulation of this species has been recorded on the footprint of a mining
project undergoing intense human pressure such as forests clearing. Other subpopulations are known
from unprotected forests subjected to selective logging, timber harvesting for small-scale subsistence
and tavy (slash-and-burn farming).
Conservation Actions (see Appendix for additional information)
Two specimens of this species have been collected in two protected areas, the Réserve Spéciale
d’Analamazaotra (1 specimen) and the Corridor Forestier Anjozorobe-Angavo (1 specimen).
Credits
Assessor(s): Verlynde, S., Ramandimbisoa, B. & Stévart, T.
Reviewer(s): Rabehevitra, A.D., Ratovoson, F. & Razafindrahaja, V.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
4
Bibliography
Du Puy, D., Hermans, J and Hermans, C. 1999. The Orchids of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org.
(Accessed: 21 March 2019).
Citation
Verlynde, S., Ramandimbisoa, B. & Stévart, T. 2019. Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum. The IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species 2019: e.T70102456A70125493. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-
1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
Disclaimer
To make use of this information, please check the Terms of Use.
External Resources
For Images and External Links to Additional Information, please see the Red List website.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
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Appendix
Habitats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Habitat Season Suitability Major
Importance?
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland - Suitable -
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane - Suitable -
Threats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Threat Timing Scope Severity Impact Score
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual &
perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting
agriculture
Ongoing - - -
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining &
quarrying
Ongoing - - -
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood
harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects:
(subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
Ongoing - - -
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
Conservation Actions in Place
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Actions in Place
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
Occur in at least one PA: Yes
In-Place Species Management
Subject to ex-situ conservation: No
Conservation Actions Needed
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
6
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Actions Needed
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
Research Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Research Needed
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends
Additional Data Fields
Distribution
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) (km²): 20
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) (km²): 17734
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Number of Locations: 5
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Lower elevation limit (m): 939
Upper elevation limit (m): 1324
Population
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Population severely fragmented: No
Habitats and Ecology
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
7
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ISSN 2307-8235 (online)
IUCN 2008: T70102456A70125493
Scope: Global
Language: English
The IUCN Red List Partnership
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is produced and managed by the IUCN Global Species
Programme, the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) and The IUCN Red List Partnership.
The IUCN Red List Partners are: Arizona State University; BirdLife International; Botanic Gardens
Conservation International; Conservation International; NatureServe; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew;
Sapienza University of Rome; Texas A&M University; and Zoological Society of London.
THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bulbophyllum cardiobulbum – published in 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T70102456A70125493.en
8
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