Chapter

Does Social Connectivity Influence Tap Water Access? Evidence from India

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Contemporary assessment of water availability in India predicts that by 2020 close to 600 million Indians would be under water distress. The threat is more potent for the rural households as more than 80% of them are yet to have tap water within their premise. Public authorities have scaled up the rural water supply schemes and have set the target of universalizing indoor tap water in rural areas by 2024. In this background, using a panel of rural household water use data from 2005 and 2012 rounds of India Human Development Survey (IHDS), this paper attempts to empirically investigate whether the extent of social network influences the households’ access to the public water supply via tap water connection. Our paper shows that even in water-scarce areas the planners might fail to tap the potential demand for tap water if community ties are weak and households are not well integrated into social network. We find that if access to public water schemes is contingent on the intensity of social ties, it might exclude asset poor and socially disadvantaged groups from its ambit. Our result, thus, suggests that strengthening networks including poor households and scaling up of information and communication activities might be effective strategies to ensure increased access to piped water.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... WRIS provides information for aquifer depth across districts for four seasons: Monsoon, Post-monsoon-Kharif, Post-monsoon-Rabi, and Pre-monsoon. We use the minimum aquifer depth out of these 4 recorded levels as it is likely to indicate the minimum cost incurred to extract groundwater for domestic use or drinking purposes (Sarkhel & Paul, 2019). The other variables of interest are the government funds that are deployed by both central and the state governments for the RWSS. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the last century, India has witnessed a rapid increase in the elderly population with the significant interstate disparity depending upon the pace of demographic transition. The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic might create a finite change in the economic health and multidimensional uneasiness by the death toll of experienced human capital from the large proportion of elderly people, with co-morbidities. The present study systematically assesses the relative importance of socio-economic factors and other factors related to the health and well-being of elderly people residing inside and outside old-age home, before and during COVID-19 lockdown. The health and well-being of elderly people have been derived through the Overall Health Utility Index (HUI) method using primary information on different physical and mental attributes from 458 elderly respondents in and around Kolkata (265 residing outside and 193 residing inside). During COVID-19 lockdown and unlock process (April–June,’20), a cross-sectional phone call survey has been conducted on health and well-being from 98 elderly (20% from the previous sample). A comparative picture of health and well-being between elderly people residing inside and outside old-age home in West Bengal, India, has shown that the socio-economic factors have the highest importance. The financial insecurity, social isolation, abuse, problem with assets, loneliness, frustration, and insufficiency of essentials including medical needs have been predominating factors for survival challenges in their present life of elderly. Elderly who stay at old-age home are suffering more in terms of survival before and during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in the absence or insufficiency of social security measures compared to elderly who stay with their family. The health and well-being of elderly have been sacrificed a lot during COVID-19, compared to pre-pandemic situation mainly due to inaccessibility of healthcare, prescribed food, and supplements; problem in receiving pension/remittance; and social distancing protocol. Better social relations with suitable social pension, door to door ration and medicine supply, health check-up, etc. under public control could improve the well-being of elderly even in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing attention to living conditions as a social determinant of health, few studies have focused on its diverse impacts on self-rated health. Using data from the China Family Panel Study in 2018, this study used logistic regression analysis to examine how living conditions affect self-rated health in China, finding that people cooking with sanitary water and clean fuel were more likely to report good health, and that homeownership was associated with higher self-rated health. The self-rated health of people living in high-quality housing was lower than that of people living in ordinary housing, and people living in tidy homes were more likely to report good health. The findings suggest that the link between multiple living conditions and self-rated health is dynamic. Public health policies and housing subsidy programs should therefore be designed based on a comprehensive account of not only housing grade or income status, but also whole dwelling conditions.
Article
Full-text available
In many developing countries, many households, especially in rural areas, are still heavily reliant on solid biomass as a cooking fuel, despite its negative health and environmental implications. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a clean alternative, but its higher cost implies that its use is often limited to the richer, urban areas of a country. This paper focuses on the Indian context and investigates, over a relatively long time-frame, whether social spillover effects might have played a role in a household's decision to use LPG, and how these effects varied across different sub-populations. Using data from several waves of the National Sample Survey (NSS), the recent ACCESS survey, and the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), this paper provides multiple strands of evidence that, taken jointly, suggest that positive social spillovers are present. Spillovers are also found to be stronger for households that belong to social networks, than for households that do not belong to any network. Our results provide partial evidence on convergence in LPG use rates across subgroups of the Indian population, and have strong implications for policy-makers around the world who could leverage lessons from social learning to encourage consumers to switch to cleaner sources of energy.
Article
Full-text available
This note shows that, if a Bivariate Probit (BP) model is estimated on data arising from a Recursive Bivariate Probit (RBP) process, the resulting BP correlation parameter is a weighted average of the RBP correlation parameter and the parameter associated to the endogenous binary variable. Two corollaries follow this proposition: i) the interpretation of the correlation parameter in the RBP is not the same as in the BP —i.e. the RBP correlation parameter does not necessarily reflect the correlation between the binary variables under study; and ii) a zero correlation parameter in a BP model, usually interpreted as evidence of independence between the binary variables under study, may actually mask the presence of an RBP process.
Article
Full-text available
Community management has been widely criticized, yet it continues to play a significant role in rural drinking water supply. In India, as with other ‘emerging’ economies, the management model must now adapt to meet the policy demand for ever-increasing technical sophistication. Given this context, the paper reviews the history and concepts of community management to propose three typologies that better account for the changing role of the community and external support entities found in successful cases. It argues that external support entities must be prepared to take greater responsibility for providing ongoing support to communities for ensuring continuous service delivery.
Article
Full-text available
We study the operation of local governments (Panchayats) in rural Maharashtra, India, using a survey that we designed for this end. Elections are freely contested, fairly tallied, highly participatory, non-coerced, and lead to appointment of representative politicians. However, beneath this veneer of ideal democracy we find evidence of deeply ingrained clientelist vote-trading structures maintained through extra-political means. Elite minorities undermine policies that would redistribute income toward the majority poor. We explore the means by which elites use their dominance of land ownership and traditional social superiority to achieve political control in light of successful majoritarian institutional reforms.
Article
Full-text available
Diarrhea is the third leading cause of childhood mortality in India, and is responsible for 13% of all deaths/year in children under 5 years of age. Information on diarrheal diseases, its determinants and preventive and control strategies need to be reviewed for better planning and organization of health services. This study reviewed literature on diarrheal disease control among under-five children in India from literature published in PubMed, Google search engine and other databases on the internet. Data were described in terms of disease burden in India, determinants, management and intervention strategies, preventive strategies, and role of public health and scope for future action. This review calls for a comprehensive diarrheal disease control strategy, through improved case management, addressing social determinants of health and research in the field of cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of diarrhea among children in India. With < almost one year left to reach the 2015 Millennium Development Goal on reducing child mortality, progress on control of diarrheal diseases must be accelerated.
Article
Full-text available
We study water demand among non-tap households in three cities in El Salvador and in marginal barrios in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, using data from identical household studies in the four cities. We estimate water demand functions separately for El Salvador and Tegucigalpa, using a two-step procedure. We find non-tap water demand elasticities with respect to total water cost (defined as the sum of water price and hauling cost) of between −0.4 and −0.7. We discuss implications of the results, for welfare and distributional analysis, for documentation of the value of adding new connections, and for general water sector planning.
Article
Full-text available
The economic and living conditions of scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households have experienced changes during the phase of accelerated economic growth in the last decade based on 2001 and 2011 Census data. There has been considerable progress in the well-being of SCs and STs during the last decade, but the gap between SCs and STs and of both these groups and the rest of the population has widened.
Article
Full-text available
Offering an alternative to impersonal markets and coercive states, the communitarian institutions built around common property resources have looked attractive to scholars in the humanities and social sciences. Oddly, economic theory has been missing from discussions on CPRs, making it difficult to judge the status of empirical works, which, in the case of CPRs, have mainly been case studies. This paper presents a fairly complete economic theory of CPRs, identifying not only the circumstances in which communitarian institutions can function well, but also showing when these institutions could be expected to unravel. The theory also identifies an especially dark side of communitarian institutions, namely, their capacity to permit one group to exploit another within long-term relationships.
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a discrete choice model of households' water source choice decisions in developing countries. This model is estimated with data collected by in-depth personal interviews with 69 households in Ukunda, Kenya, a small town south of Mombasa. The results suggest that households' source choice decisions are influenced by the time it takes to collect water from different sources, the price of water, and the number of women in a household. Household income, however, did not have a statistically significant effect. Essentially the same data were used to estimate a traditional water demand model which attempts to explain the quantity of water demanded by a household as a function of collection time, income, and other socioeconomic variables. The results of the discrete choice and traditional water demand models are compared in this paper.
Article
Full-text available
In many countries water supply is a service that is seriously underpriced, especially for residential consumers. This has led to a call for setting cost recovery policies to ensure that the tariffs charged for water supply cover the full cost of service provision. Identification of factors driving piped and non-piped water demand is a necessary prerequisite for predicting how consumers will react to such price increases. Using cross-sectional data of 1,800 households from Southwest Sri Lanka, we estimate water demand functions for piped and non-piped households using appropriate econometric techniques. The (marginal) price elasticity is estimated at −0.15 for households exclusively relying on piped water, and at −0.37 for households using piped water but supplementing their supply with other water sources. The time cost elasticity for households relying on non-piped water only is estimated at −0.06 on average, but varying across sources. For both piped and non-piped households, we find evidence of substitutability between water from different sources. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of pricing policy.
Article
Full-text available
Research in sociology and economics point to important role for social networks in labor markets. Social contacts mediate propagation of rich and reliable information among indi- viduals and thus help workers find jobs and employers find employees. Recent theoretical advances show that for agents connected through networks employment is positively cor- related across time and agents, unemployment exhibits duration dependence, and inequal- ity can persist. Recent empirical findings underscore nonlinearities in social interactions and potentially important effects of self-selection. Socioeconomic characteristics can explain substantial spatial dependence in unemployment.
Article
Full-text available
A better understanding of household water use in less developed countries (LDCs) is necessary to manage and expand water systems more effectively. Several meta-analyses have examined the determinants of household water demand in industrialized countries, but little effort has been made to synthesize the growing body of literature evaluating household water demand in LDCs. This article reviews what is known and what is missing from that literature thus far. Analysis of demand for water in LDCs is complicated by abundant evidence that, contrary to what is observed in most developed countries, households in LDCs have access to and may use more than one of several types of water sources. We describe the different modeling strategies that researchers have adopted to estimate water demand in LDCs, and discuss issues related to data collection. The findings from the literature on the main determinants of water demand in LDCs suggest that despite heterogeneity in places and time periods studied, most estimates of own price elasticity of water from private connections are in the range of –0.3 to –0.6, close to what is usually reported for industrialized countries. The empirical findings on household water source decisions are much less robust and should be a high priority for future research.
Article
This paper examines the notion of “identification by functional form” for two equation triangular systems for binary endogenous variables by providing a bridge between the literature on the recursive bivariate probit model and that on partial identification. We evaluate the impact of functional form on the performance of (quasi) maximum likelihood estimators, and investigate the practical importance of available instruments in both cases of correct and incorrect distributional specification. Finally, we calculate average treatment effect bounds and demonstrate how properties of the estimators are explicable via a link between the notion of pseudo-true parameters and the concepts of partial identification.
Chapter
Better water and sanitation are two of the most important public health priorities worldwide. Currently, 663. million people across the globe still lack access to improved drinking water sources, and 2.4. billion people do not have access to improved sanitation facilities. In addition, 25% of the world's population to live with water scarcity by 2050. The health cost of not having these needs met is often born by socioeconomically disadvantaged. A multidisciplinary approach to these problems is important as poverty, with its associated unsanitary living conditions and lack of access to water, proper nutrition, health care, and education, is the overwhelming determinant of infection and malnutrition.
Article
Open defecation, which is still practiced by about a billion people worldwide, is one of the most compelling examples of how place influences health in developing countries. Efforts by governments and development organizations to address the world's remaining open defecation would be greatly supported by a better understanding of why some people adopt latrines and others do not. We analyze the 2005 and 2012 rounds of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), a nationally representative panel of households in India, the country which is home to 60% of the people worldwide who defecate in the open. Among rural households that defecated in the open in 2005, we investigate what baseline properties and what changes over time are associated with switching to latrine use between 2005 and 2012. We find that households that are richer or better educated, that have certain demographic properties, or that improved their homes over this period were more likely to switch to using a latrine or toilet. However, each of these effect sizes is small; overall switching to latrine use from open defecation is low; and no ready household-level mechanisms are available for sanitation programs to widely influence these factors. Our research adds to a growing consensus in the literature that the social context should not be overlooked when trying to understand and bring about change in sanitation behavior.
Article
This paper provides identification results for a class of models specified by a triangular system of two equations with binary endogenous variables. The joint distribution of the latent error terms is specified through a parametric copula structure that satisfies a particular dependence ordering, while the marginal distributions are allowed to be arbitrary but known. This class of models is broad and includes bivariate probit models as a special case. The paper demonstrates that having an exclusion restriction is necessary and sufficient for global identification in a model without common exogenous covariates, where the excluded variable is allowed to be binary. Having an exclusion restriction is sufficient in models with common exogenous covariates that are present in both equations. The paper then extends the identification analyses to a model where the marginal distributions of the error terms are unknown.
Chapter
Since the late 1990s, India has been adopting a demand-driven approach to the provision of drinking water supplies in rural areas. The approach has produced significant results in terms of coverage of the habitations and villages by decentralized water supply schemes; this seems to have come at a cost to the community in terms of techno-institutional models chosen for water supply. Most of the schemes preferred by the communities are groundwater-based. The availability of water during summer months still remains a problem in these schemes, especially in the areas underlain by hard rocks. This chapter, through a case study on the rural water supply schemes in Maharashtra, analyses whether the policy of promoting local community management can actually produce the desired results of improved scheme performance. The findings of the study also lead us to the type of techno-institutional model that may work better in hard rock areas from the resource sustainability point of view.
Article
The treatment of sexuality and gender at the hands of American playwrights in general, and Tennessee Williams in particular has intrigued critics over the last 50 years. This paper seeks to address this issue in terms of a feminist reading of two important plays of Tennessee Williams, namely Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and Summer and Smoke. The two plays under consideration, in fact, provide various interesting dimensions for gender-related explication even though Williams' creativity strives to implement the ideal of objectivity or 'negative capability'.
Article
This paper analyses the ground-level impac t of the national rural drinking water policy in Maharashtra. It obser ves that compared to what is ref lected in the national rural drinking water programme database, the drinking water coverage status is poorer on the ground and scheme failures are more widespread. The case studies show that the causes of scheme failures have largely remained unchanged in spite of the changes in policy regimes. Poor capacity and expertise of state agencies are the main cause of poor outcomes and improving them will require infusion of new knowledge and practices. National policy can assist state agencies by creating avenues for educational and research institutions to work with the lat ter in various monitoring, evaluation, design and validation roles.
Chapter
There is now a general consensus in the literature that the post reform period in India is characterized by higher GDP growth rate compared to the Hindu rate of growth in the pre-1991 period (Panagariya 2011; Dutta et al. 2012; Datt and Ravallion 2010; Kotwal et al. 2011). There are also compelling evidences that high GDP growth rate of the order of 6-8 % on an average has resulted in decline of poverty (Bhalla 2011; Datt and Ravallion 2010) both in the rural and Urban areas.
Article
Political elite capture in public welfare programmes is rife in the low-income countries. Analysing a nationally-representative Indian household survey dataset, we examine the political connections hypothesis and find that a household connected to a local political executive (somebody close or as a family member) vis-à-vis not connected significantly increases the probability of its obtaining an important poverty-alleviating entitlement; that is, a below-poverty-line ration card in all three contexts: national, rural, and urban. This ubiquity of political elite capture at the local government level has guiding policy implications for the beneficiary identification process in the future.
Article
Studies of pipe water demand in developing countries have traditionally analyzed household connection decisions to the pipe water system. On the other hand, empirical observations have revealed that often, after connecting, households do not use their pipe water supply, or augment it with alternative sources. Due to deficiencies in pipe water quality, pressure, or availability, households invest in coping strategies in the form of alternative supplies and storage facilities. Because these strategies have important economic implications, there is a need to develop an understanding of households' water demand that goes beyond connection decisions. This paper presents a model system of household water supply choices. The system accounts for the fact that households may use different supply systems for different uses of water. Moreover, the relation between households' choices of water supply and their connection decisions is explicitly modeled. The approach is illustrated using data from Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Article
To reduce waterborne disease from unsafe drinking water supplies, the Government of India expanded protected drinking water sources throughout its rural areas. An increase in the supply of improved drinking water sources may reduce private expenditure on water quality enhancing behaviors, and negligibly impact water quality. Using cross-sectional data from a 1998 survey in rural India, I detect and quantify the eect of improved drinking water sources on water quality. A household production function explains that improvements in source quality will reduce demand for in-home water treatment, and limit the quality benets from improved sources. I estimate demand for in-home treatment using a variety of discrete choice models to examine the sensitivity of estimates to model specication. Hydrological data that exogenously measure the price and supply of improved sources empirically predict household demand for an improved source. An improved source reduces the probability of in-home treatment between 29 and 39 percentage points, with households shifting from relatively time intensive treatment technologies to no treatment. Counterfactual estimates suggest that these behavioral choices oset coliform abatement from improved sources by 5 percent or 74 to 84 coliform counts per 100 ml.
Article
We use recruitment into a laboratory experiment in Kolkata, India to analyze how job networks select individuals for employment opportunities. We present evidence that indi-viduals face a tradeoff between choosing the most qualified individual for the job and the individual who is ideal from the perspective of their social network. The experiment allows randomly selected subjects to refer members of their social networks to subsequent rounds of the experiment and varies the incentive schemes offered to these participants. We find that when faced with performance pay, individuals are more likely to refer co-workers and less likely to refer family members. High ability participants who are offered performance pay recruit referrals who perform significantly better on a cognitive ability task and also prove to be more reliable as evidenced by their choices in the trust game and performance on an effort task.
Article
Using data from two rounds of the Health Survey for England I investigate the impact of obesity on employment. I use three approaches: a univariate probit model; propensity score matching; and IV regression using a recursive bivariate probit model. Conditional on a comprehensive set of covariates, the findings show that obesity has a statistically significant and negative effect on employment in both males and females. In males the endogeneity of obesity does not significantly affect the estimates, and the magnitude of effect is similar across the three methods. In females, failure to account for endogeneity leads to underestimation of the negative impact of obesity on employment.
Article
What determines the allocation of publicly-provided goods to rural households in India? Although empirically driven this paper draws on the characteristics of India's institutional structure and the implications of existing literature for framing the answer to this question. We confront the main empirical implications drawn from this framework with a unique data set which brings together widely used district data with a recently constructed data set on political participation. We identify three robust determinants of this allocation process: formal and informal characteristics of each state allocation mechanism; selectivity in the allocations against Muslims and scheduled castes; and bureaucratic rules and behavior.
Article
This study examines data collected at the household and village level in 45 villages in two water supply projects in India. Based upon the results of regression models, capital cost contribution and household involvement in decision making are both found to be independently significant predictors of village level measures of household satisfaction, equal access, and time savings. This suggests that projects should continue to encourage both contributions and household involvement in decision making from as many households within a village as possible. Neither form of participation is a significant predictor of whether households in a village pay tariff.
Article
We develop a model where workers, anticipating the possibility of unemployment, invest in connections to access information about available jobs. The investment in connections is high when the job separation rate is moderate, otherwise the investment in connections is low. The response of network investment to labor market conditions generates novel predictions. In particular, the probability that a worker finds a new job via his connections increases in the separation rate, when the separation rate is low, and it decreases otherwise. These predictions are supported by the empirical patterns which we document for the UK labor market.
Article
We study subjects who were asked to fill letters into envelopes with a remuneration independent of output. In the "pair" treatment, two subjects worked at the same time in the same room, and peer effects were possible. In the "single" treatment, subjects worked alone, and peer effects were ruled out. We find evidence of peer effects in the pair treatment because the standard deviations of output are smaller within pairs than between pairs. Moreover, average output is higher in the pair treatment: thus, peer effects raise productivity. Finally, low-productivity workers are the most sensitive to the behavior of peers.
Article
This paper uses village and household survey data from South India to examine how political geography and politician identity impacts on public good provision. We provide evidence that the nature of this relationship varies by type of public good. For high spillover public goods residential proximity to elected representative matters. In contrast, for low spillover public goods sharing the politician's group identity is what matters. (JEL: D78, H40) Copyright (c) 2004 The European Economic Association.
Article
All members of the United Nations have pledged to meet eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the year 2015. This study looks at the MDG objectives and linkages between poverty, education, access to water, and household water use based on primary data collected in Madagascar. We find strong links between these MDGs. Better educated and higher income households rely significantly more on private water supplies and use significantly more water. Econometric results show that, for poorer households who rely on public sources, improving access to public water taps (by reducing the distance to such a water source) would not alter dramatically water use patterns. Improved access does free up a significant amount of time that could contribute to poverty reduction. The willingness of households to pay for improved access is very price sensitive, probably because of the liquidity constraints of these households.
Article
ESRD patients have to deal with two choices: the first is related to the dialysis modality; the second concerns the type of dialysis unit (public vs private) where to undertake the treatment. Such a choice is related to unobservable factors, among which there might be patients' clinical factors as well as factors related to the characteristics of each unit. We employ a recursive bivariate probit estimation on a sample of ESRD Sicilian patients in order to evaluate the impact of these factors. Results can have important implications for Sicily in order to organize dialysis services: here, in fact, the number of private centres is higher than in other Italian Regions.
Article
This paper analyses household choice of drinking water source for 769 rural households in the Metro Cebu Area, Philippines. In particular, the effects of input prices, tastes and household size on the choice probabilities are analyzed. For the empirical analysis, a discrete choice approach consistent with utility maximization is employed. The findings indicate that the time cost is an important determinant of household choice of drinking water source and, surprisingly, that tastes, proxied by income, has ambiguous effects on household choice. The present study is contrasted to an earlier study in which inconsistency with utility maximization cannot be ruled out
Article
Mean food spending by food stamp households peaks sharply in the first three days after benefits are received. For those who conduct major grocery shopping trips only once per month (42% of all food stamp households), mean food energy intake drops significantly by the fourth week of the month. For the remaining households, intake remains steady over the course of the month. These patterns motivate an empirical model that simultaneously accounts for the shopping frequency and food intake decisions over time. Results have implications for policies that may affect the frequency of grocery shopping by food stamp households.
Article
We present evidence on how farmers' decisions to adopt a new crop relate to the adoption choices of their network of family and friends. We find the relationship to be inverse-U shaped, suggesting social effects are positive when there are few adopters in the network, and negative when there are many. We also find the adoption decisions of farmers who have better information about the new crop are less sensitive to the adoption choices of others. Finally, we find that adoption decisions are more correlated within family and friends than religion-based networks, and uncorrelated among individuals of different religions. Copyright 2006 The Author(s). Journal compilation Royal Economic Society 2006.
Article
We investigate whether timing of the elections leads to riots or not within India. In other words, does timing of elections instigate riots? The theoretical underpinning is that an incumbent government and opposition parties exercises control over their agents to instigate communal mob violence and riots during the election years. The motto behind instigating riots is that it leads to polarization of voters and thus benefits the respective constituents (incumbent government & opposition parties). Using time series crosssectional data for 16 major Indian states for the period 1958 – 2004, we find that scheduled elections are associated with increase in riots. Also intensity of riots, proxied by rate of growth rate of riots increases in scheduled election years. We also find that riots and intensity of riots are responsive to the propinquity to an election year. Meaning, as incumbent government nears the elections, riots and intensity of riots keeps increasing, while this is exactly opposite during the early years of incumbent government in office. These results suggest that elections generate “riots cycle” in regionally, ethnically, culturally and socially diverse country like India.
Article
Social structure, especially in the form of so-cial networks, affects economic outcomes for three main reasons. First, social networks affect the how and the quality of information. Much information is subtle, nuanced, and difficult to verify, so actors do not believe impersonal sources and instead rely on people they know. Second, social networks are an important source of reward and punishment, since these are often magnified in their impact when coming from others personally known. Third, trust, by which I mean the confidence that others will do the “right” thing despite a clear balance of incentives to the contrary, emerges, if it does, in the context of a social network.
Performance Audit of National Rural Drinking Water Programme”, Union Government (Civil). Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitaion
  • Auditor Comptroller
  • General
  • India
National Council of Applied Economic Research
  • S Desai
  • R Vanneman
One in four rural Indian households walks more than 30 minutes to get water
  • S Tewari
  • R Bapat
Review of effectiveness of rural water supply schemes in India
  • India World Bank
Right to Work? Assessing India’s Employment Guarantee Scheme in Bihar
  • P Dutta
  • R Murgai
  • M Ravallion
  • D Van De Walle
  • Puja Dutta
Access to piped water, time savings and absenteeism in school: Evidence from India (No
  • S Vanaja
Human development in India
  • S B Desai
  • A Dubey
  • B L Joshi
  • M Sen
  • A Shariff
  • R Vanneman
The intra-household allocation of time and tasks: What have we learnt from the empirical literature? Policy research report on gender and development working paper series
  • N Ilahi
Can WASH Services be improved by TAPping?
  • M V Ramachandrudu
  • M Snehalatha