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Blogging to disseminate research: sharing results with communities and partners

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While blogging has become a popular social tool, less work has focused on how blogging can be used as a tool for researchers to disseminate research findings to the public. In this experience report, we share how we created a research blog to disseminate information about a multi-year research project to develop a social robot that will be used in educational settings. The report begins with our goals in creating a research blog, including the desire to keep community partners and the broader audience for our research project engaged and informed. We describe our approach to developing and maintaining a research blog and related social media accounts and discuss its impact. We reflect on the process of using a blog to share research findings with the public. We conclude by providing a list of best practices for other teams considering using a blog to share emerging results.
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Blogging to Disseminate Research
Sharing Results with Communities and Partners
Christina Nelson
University of Washington Tacoma
Tacoma, WA, USA
cnn1996@uw.edu
ABSTRACT
While blogging has become a popular social tool, less work has
focused on how blogging can be used as a tool for researchers
to disseminate research ndings to the public. In this experience
report, we share how we created a research blog to disseminate
information about a multi-year research project to develop a social
robot that will be used in educational settings. The report begins
with our goals in creating a research blog, including the desire
to keep community partners and the broader audience for our
research project engaged and informed. We describe our approach
to developing and maintaining a research blog and related social
media accounts and discuss its impact. We reect on the process of
using a blog to share research ndings with the public. We conclude
by providing a list of best practices for other teams considering
using a blog to share emerging results.
CCS CONCEPTS
Information systems
Multimedia content creation;
Human-
centered computing User centered design.
KEYWORDS
blogging, research dissemination, social media
ACM Reference Format:
Christina Nelson and Emma J. Rose. 2019. Blogging to Disseminate
Research:
Sharing Results with Communities and Partners. In Proceedings
of SIGDOC
’19: ACM Conference on the Design of Communication (SIGDOC
19). ACM,
New York, NY, USA, 6 pages.
https://doi.org/10.1145/3328020.3353945
1 INTRODUCTION
Large academic research projects are often complex, lengthy, and
include multidisciplinary team members that change over time. It
can be a challenge to capture emerging knowledge, document activ-
ities, and share that information with stakeholders and the public.
Oftentimes the results of research are solely shared in academic
and scholarly publications. However, when a project involves a
large group of participants and community partners, conceiving
of ways to disseminate research can help share emerging findings
with a larger audience who may be invested or interested in the
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https://doi.org/10.1145/3328020.3353945
Emma J. Rose
University of Washington Tacoma
Tacoma, WA, USA
ejrose@uw.edu
results. For the past three years, our team has used a research blog
to disseminate information and data about an ongoing, large scale,
research project.
Blogging is a benecial way to communicate emerging research
results. Because blog posts encourage a less formal tone, researchers
can write and publish information that is easy to access and under-
stand by a wide audience. Further, blogging and communicating
via social media gives researchers a tool to connect with interested
members of the public by rapidly sharing ndings that are immedi-
ately accessible [
2
,
5
]. However, maintaining a research blog can be
dicult because of time constraints [
4
] and when not updated con-
sistently, can feel stale. Further, multiple authors can impact issues
of consistency and voice. While blogging has gained popularity as
a social tool, there has been minimal work discussing how blogs
can be used by research teams to disseminate ndings at all stages
in the process.
In this experience report, we share how we developed a research
blog to share emerging research ndings to disseminate information
about a large scale, multi-year research project involving commu-
nity partners and a large team of student researchers. The research
project involves the design and development of a social robot for
the use in educational settings. First, we share the goals of creating
a blog including the desire to follow a participatory and ethical re-
lationship with our research partners and communities and also to
help document and share our work in process at all stages in the de-
sign. Second, we describe the approach to developing, maintaining,
and updating a research blog and related social media accounts, in-
cluding editorial direction, recruitment of authors, and the creation
of a style guide. Third, we reect on the successes and challenges of
the blog as a research dissemination tool. We conclude by providing
a list of best practices for other teams considering using a blog to
share emerging results.
2 BACKGROUND ON THE RESEARCH
PROJECT
Project EMAR is an interdisciplinary project at University of Wash-
ington to develop a social robot to address and intervene in teen
stress that will be used in school settings.
Today’s adolescents experience more stress than any other age
group [
1
,
3
]. However, while a great deal of research has been con-
ducted on human-robot interaction among children, little research
has examined the interaction between robots and teenagers. Project
EMAR is working to develop an engaging social robot that will live
in a high school and provide anonymous and aggregate data on
teen stress. In order to effectively measure teen stress in a public
high school environment, our social robot uses Ecological
Momen
tary Assessment (EMA) [
8
] to capture stress data and offer
a micro-intervention.
SIGDOC 19, Oct 04–06, 2019, Portland, OR Nelson and Rose
Our team utilizes a participatory design approach to
engage teens
in the development of our social robot [
6
]. Our team
partners with
school districts in Tacoma and Seattle in Washington
State in the
US to co-design robots with teens.
Given that the project is a large scale, multi-year, federally-
funded project, it can be complex to communicate about the emerg-
ing developments. The project scales two campuses, three academic
departments, multiple faculty and research scientists, and under-
graduates and graduate students from a wide variety of disciplines.
Further, as a project rooted in participatory design that engages with
community partners in the form of schools, teachers, principals,
teens, and their parents, we have a commitment to communicate
with our partners in ways that reect openness, transparency, and
reciprocity.
3 GOALS OF THE RESEARCH BLOG
In order to disseminate emerging research ndings to our commu-
nity partners, our team created the Project EMAR Blog in 2016 in ad-
dition to a Twitter and Facebook page (https://sites.uw.edu/emar/).
Blog posts are written for a variety of audiences. The blog has
three priority audiences each with unique needs. The rst audience
is our community partners. This could be teens who have taken part
in the research, teachers or administrators at our partner schools,
or parents. They might be coming to the blog to see what we
learned during our visit to their school or potentially decide if
they want to take part in additional activities. In sharing our blog
posts on a public platform, our team intends to give our community
partners access to information about our project in an accessible
way. The second audience includes researchers in related elds
who are interested in what the project is about and what we are
learning along the way. In a eld l ike h uman-robot interaction,
where the pace of research moves quickly, it is helpful to provide
this ongoing view of our work, methods, and preliminary ndings.
Further, students who are interested in getting engaged in our
research may be looking at the blog to see what is like to work on
our team. Finally, we consider the general public as a nal primary
audience, this represents people outside of our research community
and community partnerships that may be interested in learning
more about the project.
The purpose of disseminating research ndings on an accessible
public blog is to create and maintain a participatory and ethical
relationship with our community partners. In operating a blog that
is accessible to the public, our team aims to provide constant updates
on our progress in real-time, ensuring that all stages of the research
process are documented for our community partners to follow so
that we remain transparent at all points in the process. Further,
our blog post platforms also allow our team to leverage media
opportunities, connecting our research to internal media sources at
the university as well as external media sources that are interested
in learning more about our research project. By disseminating
our research on social media platforms, we intend for our blog to
connect our team with media sources who would be interested in
learning more about our project to develop a social robot with teens
that will address teen stress.
Our social media sites on Facebook and Twitter allow us to
further disseminate and extend the reach of our blog by pushing
out updates to across social networks which are then engaged with
by others in our institution, communities, and other researchers in
the elds of design and social robotics.
4 APPROACH TO RESEARCH BLOGGING
Over the course of the past three years, our research team has
published 47 blog posts. Each blog post provides the audiences with
information on our latest research activities, including the research
questions we aimed to answer, the procedures used to collect and
analyze data, and the emerging results.
The blog posts we share with the public are visually heavy,
containing pictures from our interactions with our community
partners. Blog posts are a maximum of 1000 words in length. In this
section, we provide details about authorship, audience and tone,
developing a blog post style guide, and sharing blog posts on social
media.
Figure 1: A blog post published on our website uses pictures
of student work to share the design process with the public.
4.1 Authoring, editing, and publishing
Our research team is a cross-campus, multidisciplinary team of un-
dergraduate and graduate students at the University of Washington
Seattle and University of Washington Tacoma campuses. To share
the broad range of voices and perspectives on our research team,
all researchers participating on the project are asked to author one
blog post, per 10 week quarter. Blog posts are written in teams
Blogging to Disseminate Research SIGDOC 19, Oct 04–06, 2019, Portland, OR
of no more than three students. Student teams select a research
topic to cover at the beginning of each quarter from a list of blog
post topics and sign up for a submission date on a shared blog post
schedule. Student authors are asked to reference a blog post style
guide throughout the process of authoring a blog in order to ensure
that their blog post meets the standards for formatting and style.
Once the team of students has nished a rst draft of their blog
post, they send it to the blog editor, a position held by a student,
to receive feedback on their initial draft. Blogging is an iterative
process and teams receive feedback and suggestions for edits from
the editing team throughout the writing process. After the student
editor has nished editing through the blog post draft, the draft is
sent to one of the Principal Investigators on the research team who
reviews and provides minor edits on blog post for consistency in
tone and voice and gives additional feedback on structure, word
choice, and clarity. After the post has been revised, the student
editor publishes the post on a university blog site and shares the
blog post with the public on the research team
'
s Facebook and
Twitter pages. Blog post content is produced on a bi-weekly basis
throughout the academic year to provide the public with frequent
updates on our research progress.
4.2 Audience and tone
Disseminating our research on a public blog platforms allows audi-
ences who would not typically be reached by academic papers to
gain access to our research ndings. Our blog posts are written for
members of the public who are interested in learning more about
our project to develop a social robot that will address teen stress in
a local high school. Blog posts are written for researchers outside
of the project who are interested in learning about engaging com-
munities in research using participatory design best practices. Our
audience also includes the community partners who we work with
in high schools in the Pacic Northwest region of the US, including
teenagers, parents and faculty members at our partner high schools.
Because of their casual, yet informative tone, blog posts differ
from academic papers and
aim to educate members of the public
on current research findings in a lighthearted manner. Blog posts
contain sentences that are brief and to the point, using simple vo-
cabulary to convey our findings without overwhelming readers
with domain-specific jargon. Blog posts are written in a conversa-
tional manner, focusing on one specific and meaningful research
topic that our team is interested in gaining insight into. Rather
than depending on heavy text-based descriptions, our blog posts
maintain a casual tone as they integrate 3-5 images per post from
our visits to the field to contextualize the research process for our
readers. Blog posts are written in active voice and use personal
pronouns.
4.3 Blog post style guide
Due to the multiple authors contributing to the blog, we developed
a blog post style guide to streamline the process and to maintain
consistency across multiple posts.
Authors reference a blog post style guide to adhere to the format
of the blog. The blog post style guide provides members of the team
with guidelines on addressing elements including:
Writing for a target audience
Identifying blog post purpose
Remaining consistent in voice and tone
Creating eective headlines
Structuring the document
Integrating visuals
The style guide provides contextual examples of how each of
these elements might look in the context of our blog, referenc-
ing previous posts as examples. Sharing the style guide in Google
Documents allows our team to make changes as necessary while
ensuring that all members of our research team have access to the
latest additions. When authors have additional questions about
writing style and approaching a blog topic that are not contained
in the blog post style guide, they are asked to reach out to one
of the editors of the blog. We envision the style guide as a living
document that has been created and revised over time. As the team
has grown, the style guide helps to maintain consistency and
provide efficient
ways for new authors to quickly get up to
speed
.
4.4 Sharing posts on social media
Social media platforms serve as a powerful resource for researchers
to quickly disseminate research findings to the public [
2
]. To con-
nect our research findings to our community partners, our team
maintains a Twitter and Facebook account that we use to share
blog posts with the public.
When sharing posts with the public, our team connects with our
community partners by tagging the usernames of our community
partners in each of our posts. In addition to tagging usernames to
connect our blog posts with interested members of the public, we
use domain-specific hashtags related to social robotics, stress, and
user-centered design. In using these social functions, our team is
able to use our online platforms to provide access to the research
findings to members of the public who might be interested in par-
ticipating on our project in the future.
Disseminating research on Twitter drives the impact of sharing
research findings, engaging groups who lack access to academic
journals with access to research findings [
7
]. In sharing our research
findings on social media, we are able to remain transparent with
the community partners that we research with, including teenagers,
parents, and faculty members in the Pacific Northwest.
5 EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF THE BLOG
In this section, we report on the impact of the blog in relation to
our external audience audience engagement metrics and also on
the impact on our project team. Our team monitored the traffic
on our blog website in addition to Twitter analytics to understand
audience experiences with the content we developed.
5.1 Success metrics
To evaluate the effectiveness of our research blog, our team used
Google Analytics to track web traffic overtime. In addition, we
monitor likes and retweets accumulated on our Twitter account. In
sharing research on social media, we also looked at the comments
and messages that we received from members of the public who
connected with our research online.
SIGDOC 19, Oct 04–06, 2019, Portland, OR Nelson and Rose
Figure 2: A diagram of the blog post editing process, beginning with content creation and ending with dissemination on social
media.
Figure 3: The blog post style guide is a living document cre-
ated in Google Documents, giving authors insight into audi-
ence and tone of voice.
5.2 Audience experiences
Our team tracked WordPress views over the course of the 2018 aca-
demic year to gain an understanding of how users were interacting
with our blog post content. Our team posted three blogs during
February and ve blogs during March to our WordPress account,
sharing our blog posts on our Facebook and Twitter pages. This
was a period of time in which our research team was hosting a
large community event at our university, and we were working
with seven local area high schools in preparation for the event.
This period of time in which we produced our highest number of
blogs per month generated our highest number of website views.
During February, we accumulated 418 views while in March we
accumulated 701 views. This information suggests that blog trac
increased as the result of our increased number of blogs posted
during this time frame.
Following this high trac period of time on our blog site, our
team did not post any blogs between May and June. As a result, our
blog trac decreased in May to 154 views. Views on our WordPress
Figure 4: Blog post views by month during the 2018 year.
account continued to remain low through September as our team
only posted two blogs during the ve month stretch.
In sharing our blog post updates on our social media pages
including Twitter and Facebook, our team was able to observe user
responses by tracking comments, retweets and shares as well as
likes and favorites. From July 2018 to April 2019, our blog posts
received an average of six likes and two retweets per post. Our
community partners, including the local schools and teachers that
we have worked with, are among the users that have interacted
with our posts on social media. In addition, other social media
accounts from our university have engaged with our work on this
platform.
When sharing our blog posts to Twitter, the community partners
we have worked with have commented on our blogs and thanked
us for our partnership and encouraged us to return to the eld to
introduce additional outreach activities to local students.
Further, there have been several instances where community
members from new organizations have reached out to us on social
media.
5.3 Amplifying engagement
Sharing our research on social media platforms accessible by the
general public has allowed our team to connect with internal media
sources at our university as well as external media sources who
have been interested in learning more about our project.
Blogging to Disseminate Research SIGDOC 19, Oct 04–06, 2019, Portland, OR
In regularly updating the public on our research efforts in the
community, we have been contacted by members of the media team
at our university to participate in interviews for publication on our
university website. Student researchers have also been interviewed
independently because of their involvement on the research project.
By posting updates on our involvement in the community and
integrating relevant hashtags in our social media posts, external
media sources have been able to find and read our blog posts as
well as connect with our research findings
to understand the
progress that
we have made in developing a social robot that will
address teen stress. As a result of sharing our blog posts on
social media, our
team has been invited to share our story with
news sources, as well
as present our findings and long-term
research goals on podcasts.
5.4 On-boarding
In addition to sharing information and details about the research
with our community partners, maintaining a research blog allows
our team to use the blog as a resource to on-board new team mem-
bers interested in working on the project. The blog provides new
researchers with comprehensive access to our previous research
activities and findings and providing background on how the re-
search has developed overtime. It helps to further instantiate the
values of our project which stress interdisciplinarity, transparency,
and reciprocity. Students who wish to join or who have recently
joined Project EMAR can read the archives to get sense of what
previous work we have done and also how we do that work.
6 REFLECTIONS
In this section, we discuss the successes and challenges we have
encountered in using blogging as a research dissemination tool.
6.1 Successes
Using blogging to disseminate our research findings has allowed
our team to represent each of the unique perspectives of our team
members while engaging our community partners in the design
process. Having each of our researchers participate in the process
of authoring a blog has allowed our team to ensure that each step
in the design process is reflected in the findings we share with the
public. It helps create ownership of the research we are doing and
the relationships we are building with partners.
In addition, sharing our findings on social media has allowed us
to connect with members in the community who would be unable to
access our research findings in an academic journal. In disseminat-
ing our blogs on social platforms including Twitter and Facebook,
our team is able to engage with community members using like
and dislike functions, as well as comments sections. In doing so, we
are able to maintain a participatory and ethical relationship with
our community partners as we provide real-time updates on our
research progress.
Creating a research blog has also benefited members of our team
because student researchers participate in the process of writing
and publishing blogs based on their experiences in the field. Writing
content that aims to engage community members in our research
process allows our student researchers to reflect on the design and
data collection process. Blogging allows students to empathize with
the needs of community members to see the connection between
our research and the relationship it has to the communities we
work with.
In regularly producing blog posts throughout the year, student
authors are given a byline for their professional portfolios that they
can use to talk about the work they have completed during their
academic career. Students have used their blog posts as examples of
the research and writing skills they have obtained during their time
at the university in interviews for professional jobs and internships.
Students have voiced that they appreciate the process of authoring
blog posts because it gives them a deeper understanding of the
work the research they have performed in the community and how
they can articulate their research process to a general audience.
Further, other team members have mentioned they appreciated the
opportunity for engaging in public writing and having the chance
to work with editors and revision which has in turn helped to
strengthen their writing.
6.2 Challenges
While blogging is eective in connecting our community partners
to our latest research ndings, it can be challenging to maintain
a consistent blogging schedule. One challenge is that students are
usually heads down on the research work in the quarter which
results in a larger number of completed blog posts at the end of the
term. Further, it is challenging to post up-to-date content during
campus-wide breaks in the academic year. During breaks in the
academic year, our blog and social media pages are not updated
frequently and can go for extended periods of time without sharing
new content with the community. To address these issues, we are
trying to be more intentional with the timing and save up some of
the blog posts that accumulate at the end of a term and space them
out over time.
Blogging is a time-consuming process that involves authors
spending time communicating about the research that is being
done while it is taking place. As a result, publishing regular content
during busy times in the research year can make it dicult to
provide constant updates on the team
'
s progress and ndings. Our
team incorporates the voices of all researchers on our team to
make the writing and editing process manageable, such that we can
regularly produce content throughout the year. In creating a blog
post schedule and asking team members to sign up to author a blog
in groups of 2-3 students, the labor involved in blogging is
distributed
as multiple team members share the responsibility of
completing
the work. This can be especially helpful for team
members who
might be reticent to post their writing online,
because working as a team can
reduce the anxiety of writing and
publishing for emerging writers
and also strengthen the final
product.
In addition, maintaining consistency across the blog posts can
be difficult because blog posts are authored by a diverse group of
researchers throughout the academic year. As a result, it is difficult
to maintain a consistent tone across our social channels and blog
posts because authors communicate and share research results in
different ways. To address this issue, our team uses a blog post
style guide to answer author
'
s questions involving target audience,
tone, style, formatting, and media integration. In addition, having a
team of editors that revise and edit each blog post for consistency
SIGDOC 19, Oct 04–06, 2019, Portland, OR
in voice and tone allows each post to remain representative of the
research team's authentic tone of voice.
6.3 Best practices and takeaways
Blogging is a benecial tool for researchers to use to disseminate
research ndings to interested members of the public. To maintain
the eectiveness of blogging, it is important that teams ensure that
blog posts go through the editing process to maintain consistency
in tone and style. Having a team of editors responsible for reading
each blog post prior to sharing them online ensures that posts will
capture the voice of the research team.
6.3.1 Multiple authors. Authoring blog posts in teams allows re-
searchers to capture multiple perspectives of the research process,
providing a holistic view of eldwork. On our interdisciplinary team
of researchers, each student brings a unique perspective to design
and research. Having students go through the process of writing
and editing collaboratively allows students to share their point of
view with their team members while providing our audience with
a view into the dierent areas of our research.
6.3.2 Making posts visually engaging. Blog posts that are visually
engaging allow audiences to connect to the research that is being
done within the community. By integrating visuals from our eld-
work with our community partners, our audience is able to see
research in action. These visuals also allow the parents of the teens
we work with to see what activities their children are participating
in.
6.3.3 Amplifying on social media. Disseminating blogs on social
media platforms has allowed our team to connect with community
members who would be unlikely to access our research in an aca-
demic journal. Sharing our blog posts on Twitter and Facebook has
allowed our team to gain feedback from our audience in real-time
on our posts through the ability for users to like, share, and com-
ment on posts. This communicative function of social media allows
our team to share our research with members of the public in an
accessible way while providing our community partners with ways
to connect with our research.
6.3.4 Scheduling for slow times. Because the blog posts are au-
thored by student researchers, we encountered lulls in the academic
year that prevented us from producing blog post content during
campus-wide breaks. In anticipation of these slow points in the
year, our team created a collaborative blog post schedule to ensure
that content would be prepared in advance for periods in which
research would be lacking. In preparing content for times in which
research would be limited, we were able to continue to engage our
community partners in the research process.
6.3.5 Accessibility. It is also essential that members of the editing
team are critically aware of how authors can write web content that
is accessible to all audiences. Editors need to follow best practices in
accessibility including using semantic structure by using headings
that convey both meaning and structure and can organize the con-
tent. Also, when integrating images into blog posts, all images need
to have alt text to aid users who would be using a screen reader
when accessing the blog. Integrating formatting for accessibility
into the blog post style guide will allow authors to produce blog
Nelson and Rose
content that meets the needs of all audience members. Blog posts
should be checked to ensure they meet accessibility requirements.
6.3.6 Style guide. Using a blog post style guide has allowed our
team to maintain consistency across the blogging platform and pro-
duce posts that are consistent in terms of style and voice. However,
overtime, the style guide needs to be modied to best meet the
growing needs of users. Taking this into consideration, the blog
post style guide that our team created is a living document that is
constantly iterated on as questions come up on the research team.
Maintaining the blog post style guide in a Google Document allows
our team to make frequent updates that are shared with the larger
team to communicate best practices as necessary.
7 CONCLUSION
In conclusion, blogging has the potential to play a fundamental
role in engaging communities in the research process. By using
blogging as a research dissemination tool, researchers can quickly
connect their audience with real-time insights and reections at all
steps in the research process to create a transparent and reciprocal
research relationship.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to thank our community partners and schools who engaged
in our research project. Thanks to Elin Björling, Maya Cakmak, and
the entire team of student researchers on Project EMAR who have
contributed their ideas, words, and images to the blog over the
past three years. This research was funded in part by the National
Science Foundation’s National Robotics Initiative grant No. NRI:INT
1734100.
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... Blog posts can be shorter, more focused, and less technical than primary research papers, and importantly are not paywalled. Blog efforts outside of education have been found to be successful in reaching community members who cannot access paywalled journals [9]. Blogs are also simple to set up, and can allow for two-way communication in comment sections, facilitating dialogue between researchers and practitioners. ...
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Discipline-based education researchers produce knowledge that aims to help instructors improve student learning and educational outcomes. Yet, the information produced may not even reach the educators it is intended to influence. Prior work has found that instructors often face barriers to implementing practices in peer-reviewed literature. Some of these barriers are related to accessing the knowledge in the first place such as difficulty finding and understanding research and a lack of time to do so. To lower these barriers, we created an online blog, PERbites, that summarizes recent discipline-based education research in short posts that use plain language. Having covered nearly 100 papers to date, we conducted a survey to see if we were addressing the need we had originally set out to address. We posted a 23-item survey on our website and received 24 usable responses. The results suggested that readers do generally agree that we are meeting our original goals. Readers reported that our articles were easier to understand and used more plain language than a typical discipline-based education research (DBER) journal article. At the same time, readers thought that all the important information was still included. Finally, readers said that this approach helped them keep up with DBER studies and read about papers they otherwise would not have. However, most readers did not indicate they changed their teaching and research practice as a result of reading our blog. Our results suggest that alternative methods of sharing research (e.g., non-peer reviewed publications or conference talks) can be an effective method of connecting research with practitioners, and future work should consider how we as a community might build on these efforts to ensure education research can make meaningful changes in the classroom.
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Assessment in clinical psychology typically relies on global retrospective self-reports collected at research or clinic visits, which are limited by recall bias and are not well suited to address how behavior changes over time and across contexts. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated sampling of subjects' current behaviors and experiences in real time, in subjects' natural environments. EMA aims to minimize recall bias, maximize ecological validity, and allow study of microprocesses that influence behavior in real-world contexts. EMA studies assess particular events in subjects' lives or assess subjects at periodic intervals, often by random time sampling, using technologies ranging from written diaries and telephones to electronic diaries and physiological sensors. We discuss the rationale for EMA, EMA designs, methodological and practical issues, and comparisons of EMA and recall data. EMA holds unique promise to advance the science and practice of clinical psychology by shedding light on the dynamics of behavior in real-world settings.
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