Article

The impact of mortality anxiety on attitude toward product innovation

Authors:
  • IESEG School of Management, Paris, France
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Abstract

Threatening environmental stimuli, such as terror attacks, armed conflicts and death imagery in advertising, have been shown to positively affect consumer attitudes and behaviors toward products. This article calls into question the generalizability of this effect to innovative products by showing that mortality anxiety, i.e., individuals' fear of their own mortality, leads to product innovation resistance. Drawing from the literature on innovation adoption and mortality anxiety, four experimental studies provide evidence that while mortality anxiety has a positive impact on the evaluation of noninnovative products, it negatively affects the evaluation of innovative products. When faced with mortality anxiety, consumers are more likely to experience state nostalgia, a temporary backward-looking mindset, in contrast with the forward-looking mode necessary to favor product innovation adoption. This process is confirmed by the positive impact of mortality anxiety on attitude toward innovative products that trigger feelings of nostalgia, or retro-innovation.

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... Nostalgia is the sentimental belongingness to the past. Consumers undergoing mortality anxiety are more prone to nostalgia (Boeuf, 2019). Prior research provides evidence that mortality anxiety negatively affects the product innovation triggered by state nostalgia. ...
... Nostalgia and green consumption Nostalgia is defined as the determinant of resistance to new innovative products (Tonder, 2017). Boeuf (2019) pioneered the literature that state nostalgia negatively affects innovation adoption. Concerning the sharing economy, where people are encouraged to choose and produce differently is also affected by nostalgia; however, media and other popular communication channels play a vital role to adopt new products (Phillipov, 2016) and purchase behaviors (Tonder, 2017). ...
... This can also relate to the ethnocentric feeling among individuals, which will further expand government effectiveness to promote green drive-in sharing economy. By contrast, policymakers can make use of the negative impact of nostalgia on green consumption by lowering the desire of collective nostalgia, by making use of public service advertisements related to environmentalism and innovation adoption (Boeuf, 2019). The focus should be on the future rather than dwelling in the past. ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify the accelerators of sharing economy that lead to sustainability by adopting green consumption. Nostalgia is studied as a mediator along with social connectedness and past orientation. Specifically, the study is based upon a framework to explore the outcomes of sharing economy through an individual's green consumption behavior from the perspective of mortality anxiety. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative research technique was employed by collecting data from 537 households through snowball sampling. The model was tested using partial least squares (SEM-VB). The validity of the theoretical and measurement model was assessed. Findings The results revealed that nostalgia positively influences social connectedness and past orientation, whereas social connectedness and past orientation accelerate green consumption. However, it was confirmed that nostalgia decreases green consumption. Research limitations/implications The drivers of sharing economy lead toward environmentally friendly consumer behavior by providing opportunities for different agents to increase the usage of shared consumption. The model can be improved by introducing other mediating variables to enrich understanding. Practical implications The study may provide opportunities for practitioners and the government to identify the key factors in a sharing economy, specifically with reference to green consumption and social connectedness. It is predicted that it will help reduce environmental deterioration. Originality/value This study identifies the role of mortality anxiety and nostalgia toward green consumption, predominantly in the context of a sharing economy. It is a forward to collaborative consumption.
... The latter approach is at the heart of retro-innovation, which has been utilised in various contexts, including agriculture (Stuiver 2006;León-Bravo et al. 2019;Franco et al. 2020;Klerkx and Rose 2020), not least with regard to its potential in the context of sustainability transitions (Sixt, Klerkx, and Griffin 2018). The concept has also been used in other contexts, such as marketing (Brown, Kozinets, and Sherry 2003;Castellano et al. 2013;Boeuf 2019) and journalism (Arrese 2015). The core idea is ultimately the same across the different fieldsthe hybridisation of old and new forms of knowledge for improved social or commercial performance. ...
... However, we wish to suggest that a reconsideration of historic practices does not hinge upon reflexive discontent with practices that are currently prevalent in agricultural communities. Considered broadly, retro-innovation can also be read as an expression of nostalgia (Castellano et al. 2013;Boeuf 2019;León-Bravo et al. 2019) and reminiscence of the old (Zagata et al. 2020). Similarly, cultural ideals can also contribute to the revival of traditional practices (Loucanova, Parobek, and Kalamarova 2015), though these may express a critical relation to the present. ...
Article
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Purpose To advance the discussion of retro-innovation and highlight the implications this has for the provision of agricultural advice and the role of advisors. Design/Methodology/Approach 70 interviews with farmers and 10 interviews with experts on biological pest control and direct marketing in Latvia were conducted. Findings Biological pest control and direct marketing in Latvia are practices that challenge existing conceptions of retro-innovation as they exhibit incremental development, while still combining old and new knowledge in a way that transforms farming practices. They also underline the importance of continuous learning and exchange within the farming community, which supplement the knowledge and advice provided by formal advisory organisations, indicating that the practices are highly dependent upon locally embedded sources of knowledge and a balance between formal instruction and informal peer-to-peer learning. This allows them to retain their dynamism and evolve, although more targeted advisory assistance would help to address issues that prevent biological pest control and direct marketing from being more widely adopted. Practical implications This paper highlights the importance of locally embedded forms of learning and advice provision. A better understanding of these can provide a more solid basis for interventions that aim to encourage widespread adoption of sustainability-oriented practices. Theoretical implications This paper improves understanding of retro-innovation processes by drawing attention to the disparate motivations driving innovation and the role of continuity in retro-innovation. Originality This paper advances the discussion on retro-innovation by looking at examples that expand upon existing approaches to it and highlight specific advisory challenges.
... Similarly, entrepreneurs are reluctant to innovation when it requires too much change in their established behavioral habits or patterns or when it does not fit their social or personal values (Kim & Park, 2011). The psychology literature suggests that DA triggers a psychological discomfort among individuals that results from self-preservation and the awareness of inevitable mortality (Boeuf, 2019), activating reactions focused on coping with the tension and reducing their discomfort. As DA may change entrepreneurs' sense of meaning in life, they may counter it by initiating defensive actions offering a sense of security (Das et al., 2014); in this case, they may become inhibited in choosing EXPLORE over EXPLOIT. ...
... Improved products represent developments of existing products, therefore not new for the company, but incorporating new technology for the company. However, contrary to some scholars (Boeuf, 2019), the authors do not consider PI as representing those products changing the consumers' patterns, therefore more closely related to disruptive innovation. A five-point Likert scale to measure the importance of each item was used, with respondents asked to assess PI in comparison with their main competitor(s) in the industry in the last three years and considered the average of the scores for the four items. ...
... The 'research methods' area demonstrated that innovation resistance research was dominated by quantitative methods reflected in such concepts as surveys, scales, items, models, discriminant, factors, and analysis. A further reading found that the quantitative methods used were dominated by SEM, while others, such as experiments (e.g., Boeuf, 2019;Leung et al., 2018;Longoni et al., 2019), artificial network analysis (e.g., Arif et al., 2020;Hew et al., 2019), and complexity modeling (e.g., Moldovan and Goldenberg, 2004) attracted only limited attention. Some studies also utilized qualitative methods such as focus groups, interviews, and case studies, while a limited number adopted a mixed-methods approach (e.g., Joachim et al., 2018;Mani and Chouk, 2019;Talwar et al., 2020a). ...
... The importance of work in this area was also supported by the expert interviews. Emotion is considered as a powerful factor that influences consumer judgment and decision making (Kahneman, 2011) and has only recently gained attention in innovation resistance studies (Boeuf, 2019;Castro et al., 2019;Rieple and Snijders, 2018;Valor, 2020). Literature regarding emotion and decision making (Lerner et al., 2015) can provide a useful lens for understanding the antecedents and process of resistance decisions. ...
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Innovation resistance is an emerging area of research in marketing. This study delineates the state of the art in consumer innovation resistance literature and advances theoretical development in this area by providing a systematic review of 152 articles extracted from the Scopus database. The articles were analyzed using multiple-perspective document co-citation analysis and content analysis, aided by CiteSpace and Leximancer, to identify intellectual foundations, research topics, contexts, and methods of existing literature. Based on the results of the review and expert interviews, this study then discussed six research avenues: (1) operationalizing innovation resistance; (2) factors leading to innovation resistance; (3) a process-based perspective; (4) the consequences of innovation resistance; (5) emerging key research contexts; and (6) strategies to overcome innovation resistance. The study contributes to an overall understanding of current literature on innovation resistance and reveals future research domains.
... Although most of the studies conducted are about the religious and psychological dimensions of death (Karakuş et al., 2012), there are a limited number of applied studies on death in consumer studies (Boeuf, 2019;Erciş et al., 2016). When the relevant literature is reviewed, there is no applied consumer research on the dimensions of coronavirus (covid-19) fear, death anxiety and shopping attitude. ...
... An increase in the level of death anxiety during the coronavirus (covid-19) pandemic is likely to affect the consumer's current consumption behavior (Nokay, 2011). There is support in consumer studies that death anxiety has an effect on attitude (Boeuf, 2019;Erciş et al., 2016). ...
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During the coronavirus (covid-19) epidemic, individuals shop more than ever in online stores due to some restrictions and other reasons. However, despite all the restrictions and hurdles, there are still consumers who continue to shop in physical stores. Despite the coronavirus (covid-19) fear and death anxiety during the epidemic process, it can be said that it is not easy for these consumers to give up their shopping habits. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of coronavirus (covid-19) fear on attitude towards online store and physical store shopping and the mediating role of death anxiety in this effect. For this purpose, an online survey has been developed. The data were obtained from 570 participants through an online questionnaire using the snowball sampling method. SPSS 25 package program and process macro software were used in the analysis of the data obtained. Process macro is software that works with regression analysis plugin. In this research, the process macro software is used to analyze the role of intermediary variables. According to the analysis results, coronavirus (covid-19) fear has a direct positive and significant effect on attitude towards online store shopping and death anxiety. However, coronavirus (covid-19) fear does not seem to have a direct significant effect on attitude towards physical store shopping. On the other hand, death anxiety has a direct positive and significant effect on attitude towards both online store and physical store shopping. At the same time, death anxiety has a full mediating role on the effect of coronavirus (covid-19) fear on attitude towards online store and physical store shopping. Accordingly, coronavirus (covid-19) fear has a significant indirect effect on attitude towards both the online store and the physical store shopping, thanks to the mediating role of death anxiety. Finally, looking at the degree of impact (β coefficient), it can be said that death anxiety has a greater impact on attitude towards online store shopping than coronavirus (covid-19) fear. In conclusion, this research successfully explains the relationship between coronavirus (covid-19) fear, death anxiety, attitude towards online store shopping and attitude towards physical store shopping. In this respect, it can be said that this research is a basic reference source for both businesses operating in practice and academicians.
... For instance, anticipated emotions are found to influence appraisals of risk and usefulness of innovations Wu et al., 2017. Likewise, emotions towards nuclear power affect quality assessments of microbial decontamination strategies (Bearth and Siegrist, 2019), primed nostalgia leads to negative assessments of innovative products (Boeuf, 2019), primed liking towards an existing artefact drives negative appraisals of innovations (Gerlach et al., 2014) and both positive and negative emotions influence appraisals of benefits, risks and ease of use (Igbaria et al., 1994;King and Slovic, 2014;Lu et al., 2009;Park et al., 2020;X. Wang et al., 2019;Wells et al., 2010;Wu et al., 2017). ...
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The dominant models of innovation adoption have traditionally overlooked the role of emotions, despite the relevance of this construct in consumer decision-making. To address this historical gap, a notable stream of research on emotions in innovation adoption has emerged in recent years. To enrich our understanding of the psychology of innovation adoption, this paper integrates insights from research on emotions in psychology with a systematic review of the literature on consumer emotions in innovation adoption. Drawing on well-established theories of emotions and decision-making, we derive five fundamental dimensions that help define the role of emotions in the consumer adoption of innovations. A systematic review of existing evidence within the specific field of innovation adoption summarises the existing evidence through the lens of the five dimensions. The contributions of the paper are twofold. First, the paper offers a novel perspective that provides a deeper understanding of emotions as a psychological mechanism enabling or impeding innovation adoption. Second, we set an agenda for invigorating research in this important domain.
... Moreover, according to the results of this study, death anxiety results in adjustment and behavioral disorders. In studies conducted based on consumer research, death anxiety, current consumption desire (Nokay, 2011), as well as consumer attitude (Boeuf, 2019; -rciş eЭ aХ., β016Ψ has a significant effect. H5, H6, and H10 hypotheses have been developed in this context: H 5 : Death anxiety has a positive and significant effect on attitudes towards online shopping. ...
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Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in the impact of the coronavirus (covid19) disease on economic activities. However, few studies have investigated its effects on emotions and consumer behavior. The main aim of this study is to examine the effects of the fear of coronavirus (covid-19) on online shopping attitudes and intentions, as well as death anxiety. This paper analyses two different dimensions of consumer reaction to the coronavirus (covid-19): the emotional reaction and the symptomatic reaction. This research employs a twostage research design. First, it examines the effects of the emotional and the symptomatic reactions (variables) on death anxiety and online shopping attitude. Second, it analyses the effects of death anxiety and online shopping attitude on online shopping intention. This paper also compares different groups using control variables such as age, gender, income, and shopping attitude. Data for this study is based on a snowball sampling of 318 respondents and collected using the online questionnaire. Regression and nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test) are performed using SPSS. The research findings show that 1-) consumers reactions to the coronavirus (covid-19) have a significant and positive effect on death anxiety; 2-) death anxiety has a significant and positive effect on online shopping attitudes; 3-) the attitude towards online shopping has a significant and positive effect on online shopping intention. Also according to the results of the analysis; females' emotional coronavirus (covid-19) reactions are higher than males'. Individuals in the low-income group have more symptomatic coronavirus (covid-19) reactions and death anxiety. Finally, individuals who turned to online shopping during the pandemic period due to coronavirus (covid-19) have lower attitudes and intentions towards online shopping than individuals who have been using online shopping for a longer period. And also the highest income group appears to have more online shopping intentions.
... These threats can (a) affect individuals' preference towards luxury goods (e.g., Rolex watches) versus nonluxury goods (e.g., Pringles chips; Mandel & Heine, 1999), (b) affect preference for materialism and conspicuous consumption when consumers have the perception of being observed (vs. not) by others (Choi, Kwon, & Lee, 2007), (c) make individuals indulge more in impulsive consumption (Choi et al., 2007;Ruvio, Somer, & Rindfleisch, 2014), (d) make individuals prefer brands that are in line with their cultural belongingness (i.e., domestic brands vs. foreign ones; Liu & Smeesters, 2010), (e) lead to higher preferences towards vintage products (Sarial-Abi et al., 2017), (f) result in resistance to product innovation (Boeuf, 2019), and (g) lead to greater propensity to use products and services designed to maintain a youthful image (Moschis, 1994). Taken together, these findings reiterate that mortality threats impact an individual's psychological state and everyday consumer behavior in a number of important ways. ...
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Mortality threats are among the strongest psychological threats that an individual can encounter. Previous research shows that mortality threats lead people to engage in unhealthy compensatory consumption (i.e., overeating), as a maladaptive coping response to threat. In this paper, we propose that reminders of heroes when experiencing mortality threat increases perceptions of personal power, which in turn buffers the need to engage in unhealthy compensatory consumption. We test and find support for our predictions in a series of four studies that include real-world Twitter data after a series of terrorist attacks in 2016-2017, and three experimental studies conducted online and in the field with behavioral measures after Day of the Dead and during COVID-19 pandemic. These findings advance the literature on compensatory consumption, mortality threats, and the psychological functions of heroes.
... Given the associated costs, innovation failures can erode a company's long-term competitiveness or even lead to bankruptcy . Therefore, understanding consumers' innovation adoption behaviour is of the utmost importance for the success of companies (Boeuf, 2019;Heidenreich and Kraemer, 2015;Nabih and Poiesz, 1997). ...
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This research examines how incidental exposure to death-related information in the media affects consumers' value orientation and scope sensitivity to marketing stimuli. Five studies demonstrate that, in contrast to thoughts about one's own mortality, exposure to death-related information in the media can shift consumers' focus from extrinsic to intrinsic values. This leads them to pay less attention to the marketing stimuli, which are generally associated with extrinsic values, and consequently results in lower sensitivity to the magnitude of products and services. These effects are reversed when the marketing stimuli are associated with intrinsic values. Moreover, we found that exposure to death-related media information will generate effects similar to those of mortality salience when the information is perceived to be self-relevant and thus could induce death anxiety. The authors discuss implications and possible extensions.
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Purpose More research is required into the underlying reasons for passive innovation resistance. This paper aims to propose that consumers who passively resist innovation may merely be conservative in nature and explore a conceptual framework that could explain and predict such behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Theories from the political sciences, social psychology and marketing were studied in trying to understand why some consumers are more conservative in nature and how their attitudes may affect their thoughts, feelings and actions in the marketplace. Findings Consumers may develop conservative attitudes, such as a need for cognitive closure, nostalgia, authoritarianism, a social dominance orientation, ethnocentrism and an anti-hedonic approach towards life to combat their fear of ambiguous situations and chaos associated with deviance from in-group values. Ultimately, these attitudes may influence consumer behaviour, such as being brand loyal, unwilling to try new options and preferring nostalgic products that would lead to lower levels of ambiguity and less disruption of the status quo. Conservative consumers may also act as authoritarian parents, prefer to purchase durable materialistic products, support locally manufactured goods and refrain from purchasing products for purely hedonic pleasure in an attempt to preserve their in-group values. Originality/value The proposed framework offers more insight into the nature and consequences of passive innovation resistance and may serve as a starting point for further exploration on the fundamental characteristics of conservative consumers. The research findings may also assist marketers in managing their new product innovations strategies more successfully.
Article
Nostalgia—defined as sentimental longing for one’s past—is a self-relevant, albeit deeply social, and an ambivalent, albeit more positive than negative, emotion. As nostalgia brings the past into present focus, it has existential implications. Nostalgia helps people find meaning in their lives, and it does so primarily by increasing social connectedness (a sense of belongingness and acceptance), and secondarily by augmenting self-continuity (a sense of connection between one’s past and one’s present). Also, nostalgia-elicited meaning facilitates the pursuit of one’s important goals. Moreover, nostalgia acts as a buffer against existential threats. In particular, it shields against meaning threat, and buffers the impact of mortality salience on meaning, collective identity, accessibility of mortality-related thoughts, and death anxiety. Finally, nostalgia confers psychological benefits to individuals with chronic or momentary meaning deficits. These benefits are higher subjective vitality, lower stress, and regulation of meaning-seeking in response to boredom. Taken together, nostalgia helps people attain a more meaningful life, protects from existential threat, and contributes to psychological equanimity.
Article
The development and adoption of eco-friendly innovations needs to be enhanced to reduce emissions caused by industry and transportation. Companies have been heavily investing in technologies and manufacturing processes to improve the development of eco-friendly innovations such as alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). While the long-term viability of AFVs will be determined by consumer demand, only few consumers are willing to adopt these eco-friendly innovations. To increase the diffusion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), it appears crucial to reach a critical mass of adopters and thus the point at which an innovation spreads exponentially through a target market. In this respect, previous research points to the importance of using external policies to turn the early majority into early adopters, which are primarily distinguished by their extent of innovativeness. However, diffusion theory suggests that consumer innovativeness as an innate trait is fairly stable over time and is thus not externally changeable. Yet, external measures might still be effective in strengthening effects of consumer innovativeness, turning the early and perhaps also the late majority into early adopters. Unfortunately, current research on consumer adoption behavior in general and on AFV adoption still lacks studies of the effectiveness of different external measures to turn potential adopters into early adopters by fostering positive effects of consumer innovativeness. This article addresses this shortcoming by empirically analyzing data from 1,080 consumer evaluations in the domain of AFVs. Results from structural equation modeling confirm that AFV adoption relates positively to consumer innovativeness and that this effect can be intensified by providing external policies such as infrastructure, incentives, and communication policies.
Article
We investigated a novel avenue for buffering against threats to meaning frameworks: vintage consumption. Although the appeal of vintage goods, defined as previously owned items from an earlier era, is strong and growing, this paper is among the first to examine the possible psychological ramifications of vintage consumption. Six studies found that vintage items mitigated the typical reactions to meaning threats. Four of these studies also showed that vintage consumption facilitates mental connections among the past, present, and future. As a result, people whose meaning structures had been threatened, for example by being reminded of their own eventual death, preferred vintage products more than others who had not experienced a meaning threat, and more than similar non-vintage products. These findings suggest that meaning disruptions stimulate a desire for intertemporal connections, a desire that vintage products—as existing and continuing symbols of bygone eras—seem to satisfy.
Article
The impact of globalization on consumer behavior across demographic cohorts remains important for international marketers balancing standardization–adaptation challenges. The purpose of this paper is to compare young-adult consumers in the Western Balkans (Slovenia, Croatia, and Macedonia) and China. The study focuses on consumer innovativeness and consumer ethnocentrism, as two critical aspects for marketers catering to young-adult consumers (18–30 years). Despite cultural differences, young-adult consumers in all four markets display high levels of consumer innovativeness and low levels of consumer ethnocentrism. The results show a weak but significantly positive pair-wise correlation between consumer innovativeness and consumer ethnocentrism in Slovenia and Macedonia, contrary to empirical evidence from adults. The study offers theoretical implications related to Global consumer acculturation theory and Social identity theory, as well as implications for marketers seeking to utilize growing China–CEE cooperation.
Article
This study posits that all innovations meet consumer resistance, and overcoming this opposition must occur prior to product adoption. Factors driving service innovation resistance remain unclear. To better understand this behavior, the present study examines how five theory-driven adoption barriers—usage, value, risk, tradition, and image – as well as three consumer demographics—gender, age, and income—influence consumer adoption versus rejection decisions in Internet and mobile banking. Data from two large nationwide surveys conducted in Finland (n = 1736 consumers) test hypotheses using binary logit models comparing mobile banking adopters versus non-adopters, mobile banking postponers versus rejecters, and Internet banking postponers versus rejecters. Study results find that the value barrier is the strongest inhibitor of Internet and mobile banking adoption. In addition, the image barrier slows mobile banking adoption, and the tradition barrier explains the rejection of Internet banking. Gender and age significantly predict adoption and rejection decisions. The results demonstrate notable differences between these seemingly similar service innovations.
Article
This research examines the positive role of consumer education in diffusing innovative, sustainable products (ISPs). To enhance the effectiveness of a consumer education campaign, this study explores the type of message framing that can best facilitate product adoption among three different approaches: positive, negative, and hybrid framing. This study also investigates consumer traits and retailer attributes that facilitate or deter product adoption. The empirical application using biofuels shows that a negatively framed educational message highlighting the negative impact of gasoline (versus biofuels) is most effective in leveraging the social desirability of product adoption against its economic disadvantages. Consumer traits positively associated with the adoption of biobutanol are environmental consciousness, prosocial behavior, and openness to new experiences, whereas vertical individualism discourages such adoption. Furthermore, retailer choice attributes of location and payment convenience facilitate adoption, while retailer choice attributes based on price and servicescape cleanliness discourage such adoption.
Article
Every company is buzzing “innovation” these days, while continuously launching new products. Yet previous studies point to high failure rates and suggest that most innovations get rejected due to consumers' innovation resistance. Within this respect, prior research acknowledges the role of passive innovation resistance as significant inhibitor for the adoption of new products. However, empirical evidence on whether and how different types of passive innovation resistance (i.e., cognitive and situational passive resistance) affect new product adoption still lacks. Using a scenario-based experiment (n = 307), this study delivers first empirical evidence that both resistance types are strong inhibitors for new product adoption. Results show that consumers with high cognitive or situational passive resistance show negative effects that are similar in their magnitude, whereas consumers with high levels of both dimensions exhibit the strongest predisposition to resist innovations. Hence, these consumers represent the most critical segment when launching new products.
Article
Empirical research reveals that many new products fail as a result of consumers' passive resistance to innovation. Moreover, extant research suggests that high levels of stimulation induced by radical innovations even enhance negative effects of passive innovation resistance. However, empirical evidence for these propositions is still rare. Consequently, this study strives to enhance the current understanding (1) by investigating the inhibitory role of passive innovation resistance for different kinds of innovative consumer behaviors and (2) by examining the moderating role of perceived stimulation for effects of passive innovation resistance. Based on a large-scale empirical study (n= 681), we provide first empirical evidence that passive innovation resistance inhibits both consumers' tendencies to engage in innovative behavior and actual new product adoption. Furthermore, the results confirm that perceived stimulation increases the negative effects of passive innovation resistance. Our findings contribute to the ongoing discussion on a possible pro-change bias in adoption literature and to the current understanding on how to develop and market innovations to reach market success.
Article
Consumers can experience relatively low prices with the dramatic diffusion of online shopping even with customized products, which are commonly more expensive than regular products, due to unique functions of customized product order processes in online environments. This paper investigates how two psychological antecedents, (1) need for uniqueness and (2) status aspiration, can influence consumers' attitude with regard to forming procedures toward e-customized products and how perceived risk, another psychological factor, on purchasing e-customized products plays a role of moderating factor. A self-administered online survey of 321 Japanese consumers is conducted to examine a proposed conceptual model with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The analysis using results indicates that the need for uniqueness directly impacts on attitude toward e-customized products while it mediates the effect of status aspiration. A multi-group analysis to test a moderating effect of the perceived risk on purchasing e-customized products highlights the significant effects of psychological factors. The result also provides potential guidelines to e-tailors on. possibility of segmenting markets as well as promoting their customized products using these psychological criteria of their target consumers. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Article
The sustained development and successful introduction of innovations continues to be of major concern for companies’ long-term success. However, empirical research points to high failure rates of innovations, indicating that most new products fail as they are rejected by consumers due to their resistance to innovation. Several studies have confirmed the importance of passive innovation resistance as dominant barrier, which has to be overcome before new product adoption can start. However, empirical evidence on how to overcome passive innovation resistance is still lacking. This study intends to address this gap by evaluating the effectiveness of marketing instruments (i.e. mental simulation and benefit comparison) to reduce negative effects of passive innovation resistance on new product adoption. The results of a scenario-based experiment (n=679) confirm high effectiveness for both instruments. However, the effectiveness varied with the type of passive innovation resistance present. More specifically, mental simulation was found to be the most effective instrument in case of cognitive passive resistance, whereas benefit comparison was found to be most effective in case of situational passive resistance. Thereby, the effect of both marketing instruments was stronger the more radical the new product was perceived. Hence, companies should assess the type of passive innovation resistance that is predominant in their target market, and align their choice of marketing instruments that accompany a new product launch to most effectively overcome passive innovation resistance. Employing such new product launch tactics should decrease initial market resistance and thus help companies in reducing innovation failure rates.
Article
Terror attacks targeting civilians are becoming more frequent and affecting more places around the globe. Given the increasing intensity of terrorism and the threat of terrorism, consumer behavioral manifestations may occur. We conducted three studies with diverse methodologies and populations to explore how concerns with terrorism affect individuals' behavior. Two studies were conducted in Israel, a Western country that in the last decade experienced frequent terror attacks targeted at civilians. Results show that concerns with frequent terrorism increase people's desire for control and may lead to avoidant behaviors. The extent of the avoidance response depends on consumers' perceptions of whether they have some control over the odds of becoming a casualty should a terror attack occur. When individuals perceive their control to be low (but not high), they exhibit more avoidant behavior, changing their preferences and consumptions. We further find that individuals' general desire for control increases when they are primed with terrorist activities compared with general mortality. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Building on terror management theory, three experiments tested whether advertisements with a mortality reminder increase purchase intentions for products that provide an (un)important source of self-esteem. Study 1 tested the effects of mortality salience in advertisements (mortality reminder: yes vs. no) for art library and newspaper subscriptions. Study 2 used a 2 (mortality reminder: yes vs. no) × 2 (brand familiarity: low vs. high) between subjects design for newspaper subscriptions. Study 3 used a 2 (mortality reminder: yes vs. no) × 2 (product type: healthy vs. unhealthy) between subjects design for a beverage with importance of the product for consumers’ self-esteem as a continuous moderator. Main dependent measures were mood; death-related thoughts; attitudes toward the ad; and purchase intentions. Across studies advertisements with a death reminder increased unconscious thoughts about death (Experiments 1–3), which, in turn, increased purchase intentions (Experiments 2 and 3). These effects occurred independent of mood, brand familiarity, product type, product relevance to self-esteem, and ad liking. Findings suggest that “killer ads” trigger unconscious consumer fears that may be alleviated by the urge to buy.
Article
This research investigates how the adoption of new high-tech consumer products can be stimulated by communicating product-related information in launch messages. In an initial pilot study, the authors find that for making an adoption decision, consumers require different types of product-related information, i.e., technical information, financial information, and personal/social information. In three experiments, the authors then examine how adoption intention and behavior is affected by communicating these information types. The first experiment shows that communicating personal/social information results in the highest adoption intention. This effect is moderated by the way in which the information is represented in the message. Adoption intention is highest when personal/social information is communicated in an abstract manner, while financial and technical information are most effective when communicated in a concrete manner. The second experiment shows that the effects hold for actual adoption behavior. In addition, visual imagination is found to mediate these effects. In the last experiment, visual imagination is directly manipulated by thematic priming and has a direct effect on adoption behavior. The results emphasize that activating the imagination in a product-relevant situation stimulates adoption behavior.
Article
Purpose – Understanding a prima facie attraction of retro pop-rock by a broad spectrum of people and the role of technology innovation in driving the importance of this genre. A key idea of this paper is that ongoing popularity of retro pop-rock music is associated with a confluence of demand-side and supply-side factors. The demand side is thought to be characterized by a combination of psychological factors contributing to individuals’ desires to enjoy, reflect on, or even “live in” the past. On the supply-side, technology has roles in the production, distribution and consumption of music. Design/methodology/approach – The approach of this paper is to provide an extensive search and synthesis of relevant literature and to present and analyze findings from online surveys. Findings – The literature supports the idea that attraction to retro music is heavily influenced by psychological factors as well as technology innovation. The survey provides supporting evidence. Of particular interest are findings related to correlations between nostalgia and technology. Originality/value – This study is, to the authors’ knowledge, one of the first to provide a survey-based link between the attraction to retro music to nostalgia and technology.
Article
This study compares the new product performance outcomes of firm-level product innovativeness across a developed and emerging market context. In so doing, a model is constructed in which the relationship between firm-level product innovativeness and new product performance is anticipated to be curvilinear, and in which the nature of this relationship is argued to be dependent on organizational and environmental factors.The model is tested using primary data obtained from chief executive officers and finance managers in 319 firms operating in the United Kingdom, an advanced Western market, and 221 firms from Ghana, an emerging Sub-Saharan African market. The model is assessed using a structural equation model multigroup analysis approach with LISREL 8.5.In the United Kingdom and Ghana, the basic form of the relationship between firm-level product innovativeness and business success is inverted U-shaped, but the strength and/or form of this relationship changes under differing levels of market orientation, access to financial resources, and environmental dynamism. While commonalities are identified across the two countries (market orientation helps firms leverage their product innovativeness), differences are also observed across the samples. In Ghana, access to financial resources enhances the relationship between product innovativeness and new product performance, unlike in the United Kingdom where no moderation is observed. Furthermore, while U.K. firms leverage product innovativeness to their advantage in more dynamic environments, Ghanaian firms do not benefit in this way: here, high levels of innovation activity are less useful when markets are more dynamic.If the study's findings generalize, there are a number of implications for managers of both emerging and developed market businesses. First, managers in both developed and developing market firms should focus on determining and managing an optimal balance of novel and intensive product innovativeness within the context of their unique institutional environments. Second, for emerging market firms, a market orientation capability helps businesses leverage local market intelligence, enabling them to compete with multinational giants flocking to emerging markets, but typical developed market learning approaches may be insufficient for multinational firms when seeking to compete in emerging markets. Third, for emerging market firms, access to finances helps deliver product innovation success (although this is not the case for developed market firms, possibly due to strong financial institutions). Finally, unlike developed market firms, burdened by institutional voids at home, emerging market firms appear to be less capable of competing on an innovation front in more dynamic market conditions. Accordingly, policymakers in emerging markets should consider identifying ways to help businesses raise market orientation levels, and seek to create conditions that enhance access to financial capital (e.g., direct financing, matching grants, tax rebates, or rewarding firms that innovate creatively and intensely). Likewise, since environmental dynamism is likely to be a growing issue for emerging markets, efforts to help firms become more adept at keeping up with more agile developed market counterparts are needed.
Article
Prior research has posited that product attributes are primary drivers of success that a firm must consider to develop a competitive advantage. Two product attributes, originality and usefulness, have been identified in the literature as significant dimensions of new product success. Customer demands differ, and more purchase intentions toward a new product depend on how consumers connect the product attributes to their own individual characteristics. Studying motivated consumer innovativeness as a personality trait may improve our understanding of the motivations for adopting innovations; however, questions remain regarding whether the effects of originality and usefulness on consumers' intentions to adopt are different when levels of these attributes are matching or dissimilar and what the relationship is between these effects and motivated consumer innovativeness. This study seeks to empirically investigate these effects and their relations by collecting data from 560 potential consumers in China. This paper uses hierarchical regression analysis to test hypotheses in four product domains as representative of higher or lower levels of usefulness and originality. The research shows that new product originality affects consumers' intentions to adopt new products only if it matches the level of new product usefulness. The results also reveal that motivated consumer innovativeness has a positive moderating role on the relationship between new product originality and consumers' new product adoption intentions when both attributes are at a lower level. The theoretical and practical implications for new product development and marketing communications are discussed.
Article
Adoption literature has been dominated by a novelty-seeking paradigm, whereas resistance to innovation has received considerably less attention as a means to explain and predict adoption-related behaviour. The lack of a good metric to assess consumers’ predisposition to resist innovations has prevented the establishment of a common ground for empirical research and thus hampered progress to date. This article develops and empirically validates a scale to measure individual differences in consumers’ predisposition to resist innovations (hereafter, passive innovation resistance, or PIR). The proposed instrument entails a personality-specific and situation-specific measure that assesses individual differences in consumers’ predisposition to resist innovations, emerging from their inclination to resist changes and exhibit status quo satisfaction. The scale represents a measure of the generic tendency to resist innovations and thus captures the notion of a general disposition to act in a consistent way in various situations. The results of multiple studies show that the PIR scale has good psychometric properties, and its relationships with other constructs conform to theoretical expectations. Furthermore, the PIR scale explains and predicts adoption-related behaviours beyond the variance accounted for by traditionally investigated constructs such as innate innovativeness, big-five personality dimensions or demographic variables. These results clearly reveal the importance of PIR for determining adoption-related behaviour but contest a conceptualisation of constructs that tap only novelty seeking at a high level as the direct antecedent of adoption. Research that attempts to explain and predict adoption-related behaviour can benefit from taking a resistance perspective as well.
Article
Innovation literature reports high failure rates for innovations, ranging from 50% to 90%. Hence, most new products fail as they are rejected by consumers due to their resistance to innovation, indicating that innovations remain a critical challenge for managers. In order to expand our current knowledge of consumers' new product adoption behaviour, we propose to consider the concepts of passive and active innovation resistance. Within a large scaled empirical study, we show that passive innovation resistance evolves from an individual's resistance to change disposition and status quo satisfaction, while active innovation resistance is primarily driven by product-specific barriers. Our results indicate that both passive and active innovation resistance represent strong inhibitors within new product evaluation, significantly reducing consumers' intention to adopt new products.
Article
Adoption literature is largely subject to a pro-change bias; researchers mainly assume that consumers are open to change and thus interested in evaluating new products. However, consumers often reject innovations without considering their potential, such that the adoption process ends before it really has begun. The present study instead argues that innovation resistance, prior to product evaluation, is a regular consumer response that must be recognized and managed to facilitate new product adoption. The authors suggest differentiating passive from active innovation resistance. While passive innovation resistance results from a consumer's generic predisposition to resist innovations prior to new product evaluation, active innovation resistance is an attitudinal outcome that follows an unfavorable new product evaluation. This study also extends extant innovation decision models by describing how passive and active innovation resistance emerge and how they affect decision-making in later stages of the process.
Article
Development of alternative fuels and engines in the automotive sector is a requirement for building a sustainable energy policy. However, private consumers' acceptance of technological alternatives to internal combustion engines is still minimal. This study has two objectives. Based on theoretical and empirical findings, this study examines risk-related adoption barriers and their impact upon innovation resistance to sustainable solutions in the automotive sector. In the next step, a cluster analysis leads to various groups of private drivers with reference to the risk dimensions as perceived by consumers in the context of a possible purchase of an NGV. The paper concludes with research and managerial implications as opportunities to address and overcome risk-related adoption barriers and individual consumer's innovation resistance.
Article
Purpose – To investigate consumer innovativeness (CI) from a hierarchical perspective and examine the simultaneous impacts of hierarchical perspective of CI and perceived risk on new product adoption. Design/methodology/approach – An extended innovativeness and perceived risk model was developed. A structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses using empirical data from 746 respondents in a high technology product context. Findings – The results provide support for the hierarchical perspective of CI; domain specific CI mediates the relationship between global CI and new product adoption. Specifically, cognitive and domain-specific innovativeness enhances the actual adoption of new products; whereas sensory innovativeness and perceived social and physical risks enhance consumers' propensity to acquire novel information about new products. Financial risk, on the other hand, has a negative impact on the propensity to acquire novel information about new products. Time, performance, psychological, and network externalities risks show no significant relations with the tendency to acquire novel information about new products. Research limitations/implications – The findings provide an explanation to the less than consistent relationship between consumer innovativeness and new product adoption. However, a single research context of high tech consumer goods may be a limitation and future studies need to replicate this hierarchical perspective of CI as a predictor of new product adoption in different research contexts for greater generalizability. Practical implications – The findings of the study provide some guidelines to marketers on how to increase the new product commercialization success. Marketers should tap into the cognitive and domain-specific innovativeness to enhance the new product adoption. The sensory part of CI and perceived social and physical risks have implications for the promotion and communication aspects of new product marketing. Originality/value – Provides new insights about consumer innovativeness trait as a useful predictor of new product adoption.
Article
This article provides a commentary on Arndt, Solomon, Kasser, and Sheldon's (2004) article on terror management theory and materialism. We focus our response on the two key linkages in their article: (a) the link between death anxiety and materialism and (b) the link between materialism and well-being. Based on our own research, as well as concepts and findings from other scholars across a broad domain of disciplines, we offer a set of ideas and questions in regard to both linkages. In addition, we point to the changing nature of materialism and the implications that these changes hold for consumer psychologists.
Article
Though a commitment to innovation is the key to successful growth, the level of uncertainty involved and the concomitant risk deter companies from committing themselves totally to its implementation. Contributing to managers’ reluctance to face innovation are an ignorance and fear of what exactly it represents. This article lists ingredients of and directions for successful innovation, which can lead to real competitive advantage if followed correctly. However, senior management must assimilate the message fully before it can possible cascade down the organisation.
Article
Research on innovation adoption focuses on voluntary adoption, although non-voluntary or prompted adoption decisions are prevalent in real life, especially for high-tech products and services. This study aims to investigate the effect of social influence on consumers' innovation adoption in the context of prompted adoption. In particular, the present paper models the duration of voluntary adoption as a function of social norms, attractiveness of the prompter, number of prompters, and so on. Prior knowledge is not only a control variable, but also a moderating variable for a few social factors. This paper validates models relying on the illustrative application of a mobile gift service called Gifticon. The results provide much insight for marketing practitioners on how to accelerate consumers' adoption behavior and therefore the diffusion of innovative products.
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a 10-item international Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) Short Form (I-PANAS-SF) in English. A qualitative study (N = 18) and then an exploratory quantitative study (N = 407), each using informants from a range of cultural backgrounds, were used to identify systematically which 10 of the original 20 PANAS items to retain or remove. A same-sample retest study (N = 163) was used in an initial examination of the new 10-item international PANAS's psychometric properties and to assess its correlation with the full, 20-item, original PANAS. In a series of further validation studies (N = 1,789), the cross-sample stability, internal reliability, temporal stability, cross-cultural factorial invariance, and convergent and criterion-related validities of the I-PANAS-SF were examined and found to be psychometrically acceptable.
Article
a b s t r a c t Three studies tested and supported the proposition that nostalgia buffers existential threat. All studies measured nostalgia proneness and manipulated death awareness (mortality salience; MS). In Study 1, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition responded less pos-itively to an identity threat than participants in the control condition. In Study 2, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition evidenced greater levels of death anxiety than participants in the control condition. In Study 3, at high, but not low, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition indicated greater feelings of state nostalgia than participants in the con-trol condition.
Article
Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic management literature, a theoretical model and hypotheses are developed to study the relevance of government roles and project teams’ strategic behavior for technology development projects. Our results show that government championship is an important positive factor for the performance of technology development projects. Government championing behavior overcomes regulatory barriers, enthusiastically promotes the technology’s advantages, and gets key decision makers involved. As such, government championship has more impact than government financial/technical assistance on both project performance and benefits to customers. The findings also show that both the proactiveness and defensiveness dimensions of project teams’ strategic behavior contribute positively to project performance and benefits to customers. The paper concludes with implications for practice: From a policy perspective, government should extend its technology policies by taking on the role as a champion, while companies should invest in building professional relations with champions in government.
Article
Discusses five barriers to new product adoption by older people. Offers marketing solutions to these barriers: sell value, communicate through children, segment the elderly market, design intergenerational products, utilize relationship marketing and promote product trial. Concludes that marketing innovations to the elderly is different than for other age groups, with a requirement to focus specifically on need, not newness.
Article
Nostalgia (i.e., individuals' yearning for the past) has become an increasingly popular theme with advertisers and marketers. Nonetheless, little academic research has attempted to determine whether nostalgia has a positive influence on consumers. The current study addresses this situation in the context of advertising by examining whether nostalgic reactions to an advertisement affect attitudes toward the advertisement (Aad), brand attitudes (Ab) and likelihood of purchase (Lpur). The results provide support for the hypothesized relationships between ad-evoked nostalgia and consumers' responses. Further tests of the data indicated that nostalgia's effects are mediated by attitudinal (Aad and/or Ab) variables. Practical and theoretical implications, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.
Article
This article presents terror management theory (TMT) as a way to understand how the human awareness of death affects materialism, conspicuous consumption, and consumer decisions. The pursuit of wealth and culturally desired commodities are hypothesized to reinforce those beliefs that function to protect people from existential anxieties. Following a brief overview of TMT and research, evidence is reviewed that explicates how intimations of mortality increase materialism as a way to enhance self-esteem and affects consumer decisions that support one's cultural worldview. Adverse consequences of materialistic and consumeristic worldviews are described and the challenges for future research to discover ways to alleviate them are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)