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Chlorocebus djamdjamensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - 2008

Authors:
  • Società Italiana per la Storia della Fauna "Giuseppe Altobello"
  • Eastern Africa Primate Diversity and Conservation Program, Kenya
  • Lolldaiga Hills Research Programme, Sustainability Centre Eastern Africa

Abstract

Chlorocebus djamdjamensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - 2008
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ÊÊÊISSN 2307-8235 (online)
ÊÊÊIUCN 2008: T4240A10699069
Chlorocebus djamdjamensis, Bale Monkey
Assessment by: Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y.
View on www.iucnredlist.org
Citation: Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Chlorocebus djamdjamensis.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4240A10699069.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
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THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
Taxonomy
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae
Taxon Name:ÊÊChlorocebus djamdjamensis Neumann, 1902
Synonym(s):
Cercopithecus aethiops subspecies djamdjamensis Neumann, 1902
Cercopithecus djamdjamensis
Common Name(s):
• English: Bale Monkey, Bale Mountains Grivet, Bale Mountains Vervet, Djam-djam
Taxonomic Notes:
Listed by Grubb et al. (2003) as a subspecies of C. aethiops, but here treated as a separate species
following Groves (2005). Groves (2005) includes this taxon in Chlorocebus, in contrast to Grubb et al.
(2003) who retained it in Cercopithecus.
Assessment Information
Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: June 30, 2008
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as the range of this species is less than 20,000 km² with severe fragmentation and
there is continuing decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation. The species occurs at low
densities in bamboo forest, a very specialized and unusual habitat.
Previously Published Red List Assessments
2000 – Data Deficient (DD)
1996 – Data Deficient (DD)
Geographic Range
Range Description:
Endemic to the highlands of Ethiopia, east of the Ethiopian Rift Valley in the Bale Mountains, where
found at high elevations from 2,400 to 3,000 m asl (see Butynski in press).
Country Occurrence:
Native: Ethiopia
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis – published in 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
1
Distribution Map
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis – published in 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
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Population
The species was presumably more widespread and abundant in historic times. There is no information
on population size, but it may be locally common in some areas (e.g., in Odobullu Forest at 6.87ºN,
40.17ºE; Butynski in press).
Current Population Trend:ÊÊDecreasing
Habitat and Ecology (see Appendix for additional information)
This species has specialised habitat requirements as it is found in the bamboo forest zone of the Bale
Mountains massif. Butynski (in press) summarizes the current state of knowledge of this diurnal, semi-
terrestrial monkey.
Systems:ÊÊTerrestrial
Threats (see Appendix for additional information)
The main threat to this species is ongoing habitat loss and degradation. For example, the Harenna
Forest, where the Bale Monkey is generally uncommon, is under threat from expanding human
populations, fire, agriculture, and the removal of forest products such as bamboo, lumber, fuelwood,
and charcoal. Persecution for crop raiding may also be a localised threat. There is suggestion that
hybridization may occur with C. aethiops on the margins of its range, but there are no confirmed records
as yet.
Conservation Actions (see Appendix for additional information)
This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is present in the proposed Harena-Kokosa National
Forest Reserve, but which needs to be formally gazetted. Ongoing survey work in the Bale Mountains
will hopefully reveal a better idea of the species' distribution and population status.
Credits
Assessor(s): Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis – published in 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
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Bibliography
Butynski, T. In press. Cercopithecus djamdjamensis. In: T. Butynski, J. Kalena and J. Kingdon (eds), The
Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Carpaneto, G. M. and Gippoliti, S. 1994. Primates of the Harenna Forest, Ethiopia. Primate Conservation
11: 12-15.
Dandelot, P. and Prevost, J. 1972. Contribution a l’etude des primates d’Ethiopie (simiens). Mammalia
36(4): 607–633.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World,
pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California,
USA.
Citation
Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Chlorocebus djamdjamensis. The IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4240A10699069.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
Disclaimer
To make use of this information, please check the Terms of Use.
External Resources
For Images and External Links to Additional Information, please see the Red List website.
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis – published in 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
4
Appendix
Habitats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Habitat Season Suitability Major
Importance?
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane - Suitable -
Threats
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Threat Timing Scope Severity Impact Score
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1.
Housing & urban areas
Ongoing - - -
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual &
perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder
farming
Ongoing - - -
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming
& ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or
farming
Ongoing - - -
Stresses: 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
Conservation Actions in Place
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Actions in Place
In-Place Education
Included in international legislation: Yes
Subject to any international management/trade controls: Yes
Conservation Actions Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Conservation Actions Needed
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis – published in 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
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Research Needed
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes)
Research Needed
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
Additional Data Fields
Population
Population severely fragmented: Yes
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis – published in 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
6
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™
ÊÊÊISSN 2307-8235 (online)
ÊÊÊIUCN 2008: T4240A10699069
The IUCN Red List Partnership
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is produced and managed by the IUCN Global Species
Programme, the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) and The IUCN Red List Partnership. The IUCN
Red List Partners are: BirdLife International; Botanic Gardens Conservation International; Conservation
International; Microsoft; NatureServe; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Sapienza University of Rome; Texas
A&M University; Wildscreen; and Zoological Society of London.
THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™
© The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis – published in 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4240A10699069.en
7
... One such species severely affected by habitat fragmentation is the Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) [12,13]. This arboreal primate is endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands [14][15][16] and by far the most range-restricted of all green monkeys (genus Chlorocebus) [17,18]. The taxonomy of green monkeys is disputed, but we here follow Groves [19] and accept the division of the genus into six species. ...
... These two species are widely distributed, semi-terrestrial ecological generalists, inhabiting a variety of habitats and consuming a diverse diet of plant resources, invertebrates and small vertebrates [16,[22][23][24]. The Bale monkey, on the other hand, inhabits montane bamboo forests [14][15][16] where it feeds primarily on the young leaves and shoots of highland bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) [25]. Despite differences in habitat and dietary requirements, interspecific gene flow with grivets and vervets has been suggested to occur in the contact zones that are found in the fragmented part of the Bale monkey's range [12,26]. ...
... In modern times, conversion of the bamboo forest into agriculture and human settlement has resulted in population fragmentation in parts of the Bale monkey's range. Although the species is locally abundant in the remaining continuous bamboo forests, e.g., Odobullu Forest [14,15] (Fig. 1), populations found in forest fragments are generally small and declining and some have been extirpated in recent decades [12]. The total remaining population size of Bale monkeys is estimated to be less than 10,000 individuals [Mekonnen, unpub-lished data] with a declining trend [14,15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Species with a restricted geographic distribution, and highly specialized habitat and dietary requirements, are particularly vulnerable to extinction. The Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) is a little-known arboreal, bamboo-specialist primate endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands. While most Bale monkeys inhabit montane forests dominated by bamboo, some occupy forest fragments where bamboo is much less abundant. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences to analyse the genetic structure and evolutionary history of Bale monkeys covering the majority of their remaining distribution range. We analysed 119 faecal samples from their two main habitats, continuous forest (CF) and fragmented forests (FF), and sequenced 735 bp of the hypervariable region I (HVI) of the control region. We added 12 orthologous sequences from congeneric vervets (C. pygerythrus) and grivets (C. aethiops) as well as animals identified as hybrids, previously collected in southern Ethiopia. We found strong genetic differentiation (with no shared mtDNA haplotypes) between Bale monkey populations from CF and FF. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct and highly diverged clades: a Bale monkey clade containing only Bale monkeys from CF and a green monkey clade where Bale monkeys from FF cluster with grivets and vervets. Analyses of demographic history revealed that Bale monkey populations (CF and FF) have had stable population sizes over an extended period, but have all recently experienced population declines. The pronounced genetic structure and deep mtDNA divergence between Bale monkey populations inhabiting CF and FF are likely to be the results of hybridization and introgression of the FF population with parapatric Chlorocebus species, in contrast to the CF population, which was most likely not impacted by hybridization. Hybridization in the FF population was probably enhanced by an alteration of the bamboo forest habitat towards a more open woodland habitat, which enabled the parapatric Chlorocebus species to invade the Bale monkey's range and introgress the FF population. We therefore propose that the CF and FF Bale monkey populations should be managed as separate units when developing conservation strategies for this threatened species.
... The distribution of bale monkeys is little-known with few known populations which are found in the Harenna Forest of the Bale Mountains National Park, Kacha (Butynski et al., 20008) and Rira area at altitude 2800 m asl (Carpanetoand Gippoliti, 1994;Kingdon, 1997), and Odobullu Forest (Anagaw Atickem, 2010). In addition, Bale monkeys were recorded in the bamboo forest 23 km northwest of Dodolla, and Djam-Djam Mountains near "Abera" area, a region east of Lake Abaya at about 3000 m asl (Carpaneto and Gippoliti, 1994;Butynski et al., 2008). (Kingdon, 1997;IUCN, 2008). ...
... The Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) is a little-known primate species endemic to the southern Ethiopia. Bale monkeys are believed to be confined to bamboo forest habitats in, specializing on the young leaves of highland bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) (Addisu Mekonnen et al., 2012: Butynski et al., 2008. The taxonomic position of Bale monkeys was in debate; Neumann first described Bale monkeys in 1902 as a species and named Cercopithecus djamdjamensis. ...
... The taxonomic position of Bale monkeys was in debate; Neumann first described Bale monkeys in 1902 as a species and named Cercopithecus djamdjamensis. The distribution of bale monkeys was little-known with few known populations at Harenna Forest (BMNP), Kacha and Rira area at altitude 2800 m asl (Carpaneto and Gippoliti, 1994;Kingdon, 1997), and also Odobullu Forest (Anagaw Atickem, 2010), in the bamboo forest 23 km northwest of Dodolla, and Djam-Djam Mountains near "Abera" area, a region east of Lake Abaya at about 3000 m asl (Carpaneto and Gippoliti, 1994;Butynski et al., 2008), Hagere Selam regions (Southern Nations Nationalities Region, Sidamo) and in Geremba mountain of Arbegona Wereda (Southern Nations Nationalities Region, Sidamo Zone) (Zerubabel Worku, 2018). Chlorocebus species inhabit a wide range of habitat types including savannah, woodland forest, grassland and riverine forests (Kingdon, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Endemic bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) is a little-known primate species recorded as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red list. Bale monkeys are believed to be confined to bamboo forest habitats, specializing on the young leaves of highland bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). Bale monkeys found at Harenna Forest (BMNP), Kacha and Rira area at altitude 2800 masl, and at Odobullu Forest, in the bamboo forest 23km northwest of Dodolla, and Djam-Djam Mountains near "Abera" area, a region east of Lake Abaya at about 3000 masl, Hagere Selam regions (Southern Nations Nationalities Region, Sidamo) and recently recorded at Geremba mountain of Arbegona Wereda (Southern Nations Nationalities Region, Sidamo Zone). The species inhabit a wide range of habitat types including savannah, woodland forest, grassland and riverine forests and are generalists inhabiting different habitat types and feeding on different food sources. The range of this species is less than 20,000 km² with severe fragmentation and there is continuing decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation. Habitat destruction, agricultural land expansion, and human settlement are major threats of the species.
... The rate of deforestation has not been curtailed in the southern Ethiopian Highlands, including in the montane forests of the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) and surrounding areas (Amsalu & de Graaff 2006;Kidane et al. 2012). One of the species which is severely affected by such habitat fragmentation and degradation is the Bale monkey (Butynski et al. 2008;Mekonnen et al. 2010a;Mekonnen et al. 2010b;Mekonnen et al. 2012). Thus, understanding the ecological responses of a threatened and specialist herbivorous mammal, the Bale monkey, as a model system in continuous and fragmented forests, is crucial to designing species-based management strategies and ensuring the longterm persistence of the species and sympatric biodiversity in this vulnerable region. ...
... Unlike other green monkeys, the Bale monkey is an arboreal species restricted to a narrow geographic range in the southern Ethiopian Highlands (Fig. 1) (Butynski et al. 2008;Mekonnen & Jaffe 2016). It is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN (Butynski et al. 2008). ...
... Unlike other green monkeys, the Bale monkey is an arboreal species restricted to a narrow geographic range in the southern Ethiopian Highlands (Fig. 1) (Butynski et al. 2008;Mekonnen & Jaffe 2016). It is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN (Butynski et al. 2008). ...
Thesis
Habitat fragmentation and degradation are the major threats to nonhuman primates in the tropics leaving many populations in isolated fragments in human-dominated landscapes. Thus, understanding the extent of the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation on a particular species is essential to designing species-based management strategies. The ability of the species to persist in isolated fragments depends on the degree of its ecological flexibility. The impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation are generally severe on specialist species that are adapted to narrow geographic ranges, habitats and dietary niches. One such species relentlessly experiencing habitat fragmentation and degradation is the endemic and arboreal Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) which is restricted to a narrow geographic range in the southern Ethiopian Highlands. Bale monkeys are bamboo niche (habitat and diet) specialists in continuous forests. However, the recent discovery of the species in forest fragments, with degraded and extirpated bamboo population, suggests that the species may be more ecologically flexible than previously believed. Thus, we carried out this study from February 2013 to June 2014 to evaluate the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation on the ecology, behaviour and population genetics of Bale monkeys by comparing groups/populations in continuous forest and forest fragments. We collected behavioural ecology data from four habituated Bale monkey groups in continuous forest (Odobullu Forest, Continuous A and Continuous B groups) and two forest fragments at Kokosa (where bamboo has been degraded; Patchy group) and Afursa (which is nearly devoid of bamboo; Hilltop group). For population genetic studies, we collected Bale monkey faecal samples in continuous forests (3 sites) and forest fragments (9 sites). In addition, we added faecal samples collected from grivets, vervets and their hybrids for comparison. We collected data using various methods, including quadrat sampling, behavioural sampling, GPS location, habitat type and faecal sampling methods. To examine the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation on the ecology, behaviour and population genetics of Bale monkeys, first, we assessed the habitat quality in the range of study groups. Second, we examined the activity budget, ranging patterns and habitat use of Bale monkeys in continuous forest and fragments (Paper I). Third, we assessed the dietary flexibility of Bale monkeys in continuous forest and fragments (Paper II). Fourth, we explored the differences in positional behaviour, strata use and substrate utilization among Bale monkeys in continuous forest and fragments (Paper III). Finally, we investigated the population genetic structure and evolutionary history of Bale monkeys in continuous forest and fragments, as well as their phylogenetic relationship to other green monkeys (Paper IV). Based on our large ecology and behaviour data sets, we have shown that Bale monkeys in forest fragments are more flexible ecologically and behaviourally in response to habitat alteration, including the reduced availability of bamboo, than previously believed. In particular, Bale monkeys in fragments adopt an energy minimization strategy and use variable habitats, including human use areas, whereas those in continuous forest adopt an energy maximization strategy and use bamboo forest habitats. Bale monkeys in fragments also exhibit dietary flexibility by consuming a greater diversity of food species, including more secondary growth species, shrubs, forbs, graminoids and cultivated foods, compared to those in continuous forest. Further, Bale monkeys in forest fragments spend more than a third of their time on the ground (mainly for feeding and travelling) indicating they are semi-terrestrial unlike their arboreal continuous forest-dwelling counterparts. Moreover, they spend significantly more time engaging in quadrupedal locomotion (walking, running and galloping) in fragments than in continuous forest. This shows that habitat destruction affects the locomotor behaviour of the species in fragments. Lastly, we have detected a clear genetic structure and deep mtDNA divergence between Bale monkey populations in continuous forest and fragments. Implying that two separate management units should be considered when designing conservation strategies. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bale monkeys in fragments are more closely related to other green monkeys than to conspecifics in continuous forest, suggesting cross-species gene flow. Thus, the ecological flexibility documented by Bale monkeys in fragments may be influenced by long-term and ongoing hybridization. In sum, Bale monkeys can tolerate some threshold of habitat fragmentation and degradation that may allow them to persist in human-dominated landscapes. Although the ecological and behavioural flexibility documented in our study is encouraging, terrestrial adaptations may also result in increased human persecution, predation and exposure to gastrointestinal parasite infections. Thus, the long-term prospects of Bale monkeys in small isolated fragments remain uncertain and continuous monitoring is required. To ensure the sustainable persistence of Bale monkeys, we recommend implementing afforestation and restoration programs to increase connectivity between fragments and protecting intact forest habitats from deforestation. These actions will also benefit other wildlife that share Bale monkey habitats in southern Ethiopia.
... The Bale monkey is unusual among primates and other mammals for its intense specialization on a single species of bamboo (Arundinaria alpina), which accounts for 77% of its diet in continuous forest [54,55]. The Bale monkey is thought to be at high risk of extirpation because of its specialized niche, small geographic distribution, and the ongoing deforestation occurring across much of its range [54,[56][57][58]. As a result, the species is currently classified as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) [56]. ...
... The Bale monkey is thought to be at high risk of extirpation because of its specialized niche, small geographic distribution, and the ongoing deforestation occurring across much of its range [54,[56][57][58]. As a result, the species is currently classified as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) [56]. ...
... Intriguingly, the recent discovery of Bale monkey populations during surveys in a few dozen heavily-degraded forest fragments, some with little bamboo left [57], suggested the species might be of greater ecological flexibility than previously believed [54][55][56]65]. This unexpected discovery created the need to evaluate the strategies the monkeys employ in response to habitat degradation and life in fragments by comparing groups inhabiting fragmented habitats with those in continuous forest. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Understanding the effects of habitat modification on the feeding strategies of threatened species is essential to designing effective conservation management plans. Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) are endemic to the rapidly shrinking montane forests of the southern Ethiopian Highlands. Most populations inhabit continuous bamboo forest subsisting largely on the young leaves and shoots of a single species of bamboo. Because of habitat disturbance in recent decades, however, there are now also several dozen small populations inhabiting isolated forest fragments where bamboo has been degraded. During 12-months, we assessed Bale monkey responses to habitat degradation by comparing habitat composition, phenological patterns, and feeding ecology in a largely undisturbed continuous forest (Continuous groups A and B) and in two fragments (Patchy and Hilltop groups). Results: We found that habitat quality and food availability were much lower in fragments than in continuous forest. In response to the relative scarcity of bamboo in fragments, Bale monkeys spent significantly less time feeding on the young leaves and shoots of bamboo and significantly more time feeding on non-bamboo young leaves, fruits, seeds, stems, petioles, and insects in fragments than in continuous forest. Groups in fragments also broadened their diets to incorporate many more plant species (Patchy: ≥ 47 and Hilltop: ≥ 35 species)-including several forbs, graminoids and cultivated crops-than groups in continuous forest (Continuous A: 12 and Continuous B: 8 species). Nevertheless, bamboo was still the top food species for Patchy group (30% of diet) as well as for both continuous forest groups (mean = 81%). However, in Hilltop group, for which bamboo was especially scarce, Bothriochloa radicans (Poaceae), a grass, was the top dietary species (15% of diet) and bamboo ranked 10th (2%). Conclusions: We demonstrate that Bale monkeys are more dietarily flexible than previously thought and able to cope with some degradation of their primary bamboo forest habitat. However, crop raiding and other terrestrial foraging habits more common among fragment groups may place them at greater risk of hunting by humans. Thus, longitudinal monitoring is necessary to evaluate the long-term viability of Bale monkey populations in fragmented habitats.
... The Bale monkey is endemic to the montane forests of the southern Ethiopian Highlands and is unusual among primates in occupying a bamboo specialist niche, consuming a diet of 77% bamboo in intact forest (Mekonnen, Bekele, Fashing, Hemson, & Atickem, 2010;Mekonnen & Jaffe, 2016). Until recently, it was among the least studied primates in Africa (Mekonnen, Bekele, Fashing et al., 2010;Mekonnen, Bekele, Hemson, Teshome, & Atickem, 2010) and is currently classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN (Butynski, Gippoliti, Kingdon, & De Jong, 2008). ...
... As for many other tropical primates (Marsh, 2003), much of the Bale monkey's historical geographic range has been converted into agricultural land, grazing land and human settlements, leaving many populations in small and isolated forest fragments (Mekonnen et al., 2012). With its specialized habitat (montane bamboo forest) and dietary (bamboo) requirements and its narrow geographic range (southern Ethiopia) (Butynski et al., 2008;Mekonnen, Bekele, Fashing, et al., 2010;, the Bale monkey may consequently be at high risk of extinction due to the increasing habitat loss and fragmentation across much of its range (Mekonnen et al., 2012). The Bale monkey's high degree of specialization is unique among its sister species, including the vervet (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and grivet (C. ...
... aethiops) monkeys, which are able to exploit many different habitat types and consume a variety of diets (Enstam & Isbell, 2007;Isbell, Pruetz, & Young, 1998). The recent discovery of Bale monkey populations in several heavily disturbed forest fragments lacking bamboo suggests that the species may be capable of greater habitat flexibility (Mekonnen et al., 2012) than previously thought (Butynski et al., 2008;Carpaneto & Gippoliti, 1994;Mekonnen, Bekele, Fashing, et al., 2010). Thus, despite their tendency towards specialization in continuous forest, the possibility that Bale monkeys retain some of the ecological flexibility characteristic of other members of the Chlorocebus genus warrants more detailed evaluation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated.
... However, some individuals near Patchy stated that lethal or potentially lethal strategies such as culling problematic animals (11%), throwing stones (20%), and patrolling with dogs (59%) are "highly effective." Because Bale monkeys are protected by Ethiopian law as a Threatened species (Butynski, Gippoliti, Kingdon, & De Jong, 2008;, all of these strategies are illegal. ...
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