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Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Iraqi Children . Journal of Psychiatry Research Reviews & Reports

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  • Children Teachig Hospital, Baghdad Medical City

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Background: Pervasive developmental disorders include five chronic disorders marked by early impairment in socialization, communication and behavior. Little is known about the types of pervasive developmental disorders in Iraq. This is a retrospective clinical study aiming at determining the types of pervasive developmental disorders in Iraqi children observed at the pediatric psychiatry clinic in a tertiary pediatric referral center. Patients and methods: During nine months period (November 18th, 2018 to July 18th, 2019), fifty one patients with a diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (30 males and 21 females) were observed at the psychiatry clinic at the Children Teaching Hospital of Baghdad Medical City. Their ages ranged from two and half years to twelve years. Results: Thirty two (17 males and 15 females) patients had autism without significant mental retardation as indicated by adequate urine and bowel control and self care skills particularly spoon feeding. Thirteen patients were considered to have atypical autism or Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (10 boys and 3 girls), in eleven of them, the disorder was considered atypical because of the lack of adequate urine and bowel control and self care skills particularly appropriate spoon feeding indicating significant degree of mental retardation. In one patient, his condition was considered a typical because of the presence of an acceptable eye contact and response appropriately to name in most instances. Three patients had Asperger syndrome including two girls and one boy. Two boys had childhood disintegrative disorder (Heller syndrome), one of them have changes on brain MRI suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. One girl had Rett syndrome and her case and early treatment was published. Conclusion: In this series, typical autism without significant mental retardation accounted for 63%. Atypical autism (Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise) was the second most common type of Pervasive developmental disorders accounting for about 25%. Asperger syndrome accounted for only 6% of the cases in this series.
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Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Iraqi Children
1-Advisor in Pediatrics, Pediatric Psychiatry Children Teaching Hospital of Baghdad Medical City and Head, Iraq Headquarter of
Copernicus Scientists International Panel Baghdad, Iraq
Keywords: Autism, Asperger Syndrome, Heller Syndrome,
Iraqi Children
Introduction
The term pervasive developmental disorders was probably rst
used during the 1980s. Pervasive developmental disorders include
ve chronic disorders marked by early impairment in socialization,
communication, and behavior [1,2].
These disorders were rst recognized by Grunya Emovna
Sukhareva in 1925, a Soviet pediatric psychiatrist who called these
disorders autistic psychopathy. In general, most of manifestations
of pervasive developmental disorders result from impairments in
social interaction and communication and behavioral problems
[1,2,3].
General manifestations of pervasive developmental disorders
include [1,2,3]:
Impaired social interaction marked by lack of eye contact,
lack of facial responses and not responding to own name
appropriately.
Difculties in using and understanding language.
Unusual patterns of playing with toys and other objects that
can be marked by restricted interests.
Repetitive body movements or behavior patterns including
hand apping, hair twirling, foot tapping, spinning or other
complex movements.
The American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV,1994)
divided pervasive developmental disorders ve subgroups [4]:
Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi
*Corresponding author
Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi, Advisor in Pediatrics, Pediatric Psychiatry Children Teaching Hospital of Baghdad Medical City and Head,
Iraq Headquarter of Copernicus Scientists International Panel Baghdad, Iraq; E-mail:almosawiAJ@yahoo.com
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Received: Aug 04, 2019; Accepted: Aug 25, 2019, Published: Sep 11, 2019
Abstract
Background: Pervasive developmental disorders include ve chronic disorders marked by early impairment in socializa-
tion, communication and behavior. Little is known about the types of pervasive developmental disorders in Iraq. This is a
retrospective clinical study aiming at determining the types of pervasive developmental disorders in Iraqi children observed
at the pediatric psychiatry clinic in a tertiary pediatric referral center.
Patients and methods: During nine months period (November 18th, 2018 to July 18th, 2019), fty one patients with a diag-
nosis of pervasive developmental disorders (30 males and 21 females) were observed at the psychiatry clinic at the Children
Teaching Hospital of Baghdad Medical City. Their ages ranged from two and half years to twelve years.
Results: Thirty two (17 males and 15 females) patients had autism without signicant mental retardation as indicated by
adequate urine and bowel control and self care skills particularly spoon feeding. Thirteen patients were considered to have
atypical autism or Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specied (10 boys and 3 girls), in eleven of them, the
disorder was considered atypical because of the lack of adequate urine and bowel control and self care skills particularly
appropriate spoon feeding indicating signicant degree of mental retardation.
In one patient, his condition was considered a typical because of the presence of an acceptable eye contact and response
appropriately to name in most instances.
Three patients had Asperger syndrome including two girls and one boy. Two boys had childhood disintegrative disorder
(Heller syndrome), one of them have changes on brain MRI suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. One girl had Rett syndrome
and her case and early treatment was published.
Conclusion: In this series, typical autism without signicant mental retardation accounted for 63%. Atypical autism (Per-
vasive developmental disorder not otherwise) was the second most common type of Pervasive developmental disorders
accounting for about 25%. Asperger syndrome accounted for only 6% of the cases in this series.
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Research Article
SRC/JPSR-102
Journal of Psychiatry Research Reviews & Reports
Autistic Disorder: which is also called typical autism was rst
described by Leo Kanner in 1943[1].
Asperger Syndrome: It was rst described by Grunya Emovna
Sukhareva and later by Hans Asperger in 1944[1].
The autistic psychopathies described in 1925 by Grunya Emovna
Sukhareva and Hans Asperger were similar and characterized by
the absence of signicant impairment in language development
and cognitive function. Lorna Wing was probably the rst to use
the term Asperger syndrome in the English-speaking medical
community in her 1981 publication of a series of case studies
of children showing similar symptoms. Uta Frith translated
Asperger’s paper to English in 1991 and published it as a book
with Cambridge University Press [1,2].
Asperger syndrome became a standard diagnosis in 1992,
when it was included in the tenth edition of the World Health
Organization’s diagnostic manual, International Classication
of Diseases (ICD-10); in 1994, it was added to the fourth edition
of the American Psychiatric Association’s diagnostic reference,
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM-IV) [1,4].
The World Health Organization (WHO) dened Asperger
syndrome as one of the pervasive developmental disorders or
autism spectrum disorders which are a variety of psychiatric
conditions that are characterized by impairment of social
interaction and non verbal communication, and by restricted and
repetitive interests and behavior[1,2].
Rett Disorder: It was most probably rst described in German
language in 1966 by Andreas Rett (Figure-6), a pediatrician in
Vienna. Bengt Hagberg, a Swedish pediatrician, published an
English article in 1983 and named the condition after Rett [5,6].
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (Heller Syndrome): It is
a rare heterogeneous clinical syndrome that is distinctive from
autism and Asperger syndrome. It is characterized by a signicant
developmental regression resulting in deterioration in behavioral
and adaptive functioning including self-help skills with loss of
language and social skills after a period of normal development
for at least two years [6].
The condition was rst reported in 1908 by Theodor Heller in
his paper “Über Dementia Infantilis”. He called the condition
“Dementia infantilis”.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder not Otherwise Specied
(Atypical Autism): This type reects the marked variability
of these disorders. It may include disorders with a well dened
clinical features such as regressive autism and autism with
signicant mental retardation which seems to be also classiable
under idiopathic mental retardation with signicant autistic
features [1,2,6].
Regressive autism is just like Heller syndrome, it is associated
with initial normal development followed by loss of the previously
acquired skills of socializing, communication and language skills.
However, regressive autism is not associated with features of
dementia or signicant mental retardation [1,6].
Pervasive developmental disorders has recently been called autism
spectrum disorder mostly by the american psychiatric association
and the term pervasive developmental disorders has been used
with the term autism spectrum disorder interchangeably [1,2].
This is a retrospective clinical study aiming at describing the
pattern of pervasive developmental disorders in Iraqi children
observed at the pediatric psychiatry clinic in a single tertiary
pediatric referral center.
Patients and Methods: During nine months period (November
18th, 2018 to July 18th, 2019), fty one patients with pervasive
developmental disorders (30 males and 21 females) were observed
at the neuropsychiatry clinic at the Children Teaching hospital
of Baghdad Medical City. Their ages ranged from two and half
years to twelve years.
Most of the patients were from the province of Baghdad, but it
was documented that there were four patients from other provinces
(Najaf, Wassit, Kerbala and Erbil in the North of Iraq).
All the patients had very poor speech development except three
patients with Asperger syndrome. Most of the patients with a
diagnosis other than Asperger syndrome were not saying any
word and few patients were saying few words.
The patients were treated with individualized treatment plans
including intramuscular cerebrolysin as the main therapy
based on our published experience with treatment of pervasive
developmental disorders [8].
Treatment aimed at improving the cardinal features of pervasive
developmental disorders which is the impairment of social
interaction which is mostly manifested by poor responsiveness
to own name and infrequent engagement with others manifested
by poor eye contact and infrequently looking at faces.
Most patients also required neuroleptics to control hyperactivity
and other abnormal behaviors. Triuoperazine and prochloperazine
were used as necessary. Risperidone was also used sometimes as
necessary.
Many patients also received citicoline as an adjunctive therapy
to improve speech development.
It is expected that improving social interaction will contribute to
improving other features especially verbal communication and
speech.
Courses of intramuscular cerebrolysin were given in individualized
regimen depending on the age and severity of the illness and with
aim of improving social interactions including response to own
name, looking at faces and eye contact.
Results and Discussion: Thirty two (17 males and 15 females)
patients had autism without signicant mental retardation as
indicated by adequate urine and bowel control and self care skills
particularly spoon feeding. Four boys were considered to have a
severe form of the disorder, one of them, the parents thought the
child was deaf and consulted initially an ear specialist. One boy
had prominent echolalia.
Figure-1 shows an eight-year old boy with severe autism and
had signicant behavioral abnormalities. He was not saying any
word. At the clinic, he was unable to sit still on the chair without
frequently changing the position of his body. He also displayed
marked repetitive behavior at the clinic.
Figure-2A shows a three-year boy with severe autism which made
his parents though he to be deaf, but hearing assessment showed
that the boy had normal hearing. At the clinic the boy was rather
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uncontrollable, and displayed marked repetitive movements in the
form of body rocking and was trying to leave the room.
Three courses of treatment (Table-1) produced enough
improvement to convince the parents that the child was not deaf.
At the clinic, after treatment, the child was more controllable and
showed much less body rocking movements (Figure-2B).
The patients in this group didn’t have signicant mental retardation
and were classied as having rather typical autism, but most of
them had developmental delay particularly in ne motor skills,
and had some cognitive impairment manifested by their inability
to copy forms.
However, the serious lack of communication skills per se is
expected to prevent or delay the acquisition of such developmental
mile stones. Figures 3 and 4 shows an eight-year boy and a six-
year boy with autism who were unable to copy a circle.
Thirteen patients were considered to have atypical autism or
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specied (10 boys
and 3 girls), in eleven of them, the disorder was considered atypical
because of the lack of adequate urine and bowel control and
self care skills particularly appropriate spoon feeding indicating
signicant degree of mental retardation. In one patient, his
condition was considered atypical because of the presence of
an acceptable eye contact and response appropriately to name in
most instances.
Figure 1: An eight year old boy with severe autism and had
signicant behavioral abnormalities. He was not saying any
word. At the clinic, he was unable to sit still on the chair without
frequently changing the position of his body. He also displayed
marked repetitive behavior at the clinic
Figure 2A: A three-year boy with severe autism which made his
parents though him to be deaf, but hearing assessment showed
that the boy had normal hearing. At the clinic, before treatment,
the boy was rather uncontrollable, and displayed marked repetitive
movements in the form of body rocking and was trying to leave
the room
Table-1: Courses of treatment received by a boy who was thought
to be deaf by parents
First treatment course given during February , 2019
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5ml every third day.
Triuoperazine in a daily dose of 1mg in the morning.
Second course started on the fourth of March, 2019
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5ml every other day.
Triuoperazine in a daily dose of 1 mg in the morning.
Oral citicoline 3ml (300mg) in the morning.
Third course started on the 18th of April, 2019
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5ml every third day, 10 doses.
Prochloperazine in a daily dose of 2.5mg at night.
Oral citicoline 3ml (300mg) in the morning.
Figure 2B: A three-year boy with severe autism which made his
parents though him to be deaf, but hearing assessment showed
that the boy had normal hearing. At the clinic, after treatment, the
child was more controllable and showed much less body rocking
movements. The parents was convinced that he was not deaf
Figure 3: An eight-year boy with autism who was unable to
copy a circle
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Figure 4: A six-year boy with autism who was unable to copy
a circle
Six patients (ve boys, and one girl) were considered to have a
severe form of the disorder. At the clinic, one of the boys with
severe disorder was behaving as if he was absolutely not seeing
or hearing the doctor for more than ve minutes.
One boy with severe condition was overweight (Figure-5) and
the mother thought that his sister had the same condition, but
she couldn’t brought her for consultation because the parents
were divorced and the girl was under the care of her father. At
the clinic the boy was uncontrollably hyperactive and showed
marked repetitive movements.
An other boy with atypical autism had infantile left hemiplegic
and seizures and another boy had small ventricular defect during
infancy. A four and half year’s girl had brain arachnoid cyst on
CT scan and MRI. Brain CT-scan at the age of four years showed
right anterior basal temporal small arachnoid cyst (23 X 7 X 16
mm). CT-scan also showed that the cisterna pontis and C-P cisterns
were prominent on both sides with low density. The CT-scan
report also suggested the possibility of epidermoid cyst. Brain
MRI conrmed the presence of a right anterior basal temporal
(24 X 8 X 17 mm) with clean CSF. MRI also showed atrophic
changes of the right temporal lobe.
One boy with atypical autism developed insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus. A ve-year old girl was considered to have
the mildest disorder among patients with typical and a typical
autism (Figure-6). Although she didn’t have eye contact and was
not responding to calling her time, she was sometime answering
questions like how are you and was responding to request of the
doctor with the encouragement of her parents.
Figure 5: A boy with severe autism associated with mental
retardation who was overweight and his sister had the same
condition At the clinic he was uncontrollably hyperactive and
showed marked repetitive movements
Figure 6: A ve-year old girl with atypical autism was considered
to have the mildest disorder among patients with typical and a
typical autism
She accepted the doctor request to take a pen, but she couldn’t
copy anything. She also had the higher vocabulary of all patients
with autism of about 25-30 words, and she waved goodbye when
the mother asked her to wave goodbye when leaving.
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Figure-7 shows the eight-year old girl with atypical autism
which was considered to have the most severe disorder among
the patients with typical and atypical autism. She was totally
uncontrollable and irritable.
Three patients had Asperger syndrome including two girls and
one boy. A seven-year old girl was considered to have the mildest
form among all the patients (Figure-8) in this series, with good
language development and response to many requests with the
encouragement of the mother. She also welcomed taking a photo
with doctor. However, her social interaction was impaired as she
was not responding appropriately to her name and was not showing
acceptable eye contact.
A nine years old girl with Asperger syndrome and good language
development, but she had delayed onset of speech after four
years. We think that this patient represent a variant of Asperger
syndrome with late onset development of language can initially
misdiagnosed as a case of autism.
Her measured IQ test ranged from 85 t0 110. She left school
because of poor social interaction and communication and
emotional uctuation. At the clinic, she showed alternating mood,
she was smiling and almost crying with in the same minute and
without obvious reason (Figure-9A).
Initial treatment included:
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5 ml daily for 10 days. Oral
triuoperazine in a daily dose of 1 mg at night. Oral prochloperazine
5mg in the afternoon. After 10 days of treatment, her behavior and
emotional swinging improved (Figure-9B). She became rather
passionate and when leaving she insisted on hugging the doctor
and kissing him.
Two boys (Figures 10 and 11) had childhood disintegrative
disorder (Heller syndrome), one of them have changes on brain
MRI suggestive of cerebral vasculitis.
Figure 7: The eight-year old girl with atypical autism which was
considered to have the most severe disorder among the patients
with typical and atypical mental retardation. She was totally
uncontrollable and very irritable
Figure 8: A seven-year old girl was considered to have the
mildest form among all patients in this series with good
language development and response to many requests with the
encouragement of the mother. She also welcomed taking a photo
with doctor
Figure 9: The girl Asperger syndrome and good language
development, but she had delayed onset of speech after four
years. She had prominent emotional uctuation. At the clinic,
before treatment she was showing alternating mood, smiling and
almost crying with in the same minute and without obvious reason
Figure 9B: The girl with Asperger syndrome. At the clinic,
After 10 days of treatment, her behavior and emotional swinging
improved
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Figure 10: A four-year old boy who was considered normal until
shortly after the age of two and half years when the family thought
that he was gradually becoming stupid with gradual deterioration
of social interaction. Thereafter, he experienced loss of adaptive
self care skills with loss of bowel control and the development
of repetitive behaviors. At the clinic, the boy was not saying any
word, but he was responding to his name and had some eye contact,
but he was not communicating or responding to any question or
request. He showed marked repetitive behaviors
Figure 11: A nine-year boy who was considered normal by the
age of four years. The child illness started insidiously with gradual
deterioration in speech and cognition, development of abnormal
behaviors including motor stereotypies, loss of communication and
social skills, and deterioration in adaptive self-care skills including
bowel and bladder control, eating, dressing and undressing.
Within several months, the boy reached a state of overtly bizarre
behavior and dementia, and was saying nothing. At the clinic,
the boy showed marked repetitive movements, and was rather
uncontrollable and tried to move from place to place in the room
A three-year girl had Rett syndrome and her case and early
treatment was published [5].
She was hypotonic, ataxic and had abnormal movements of the
upper limbs. She was unable to sit alone on a chair and showed
no eye contact and was not responding to her name. She didn’t
have purposeful hand movement and was not able to hold things.
She couldn’t be held erect in the standing position. She was not
saying any word nor was babbling. The girl received two treatment
courses.
The rst course included intramuscular cerebrolysin 1ml daily for
ten days. The second course included 10 cerebrolysin injections,
3ml every third day, and oral citicoline. After the ten-day course
of cerebrolysin, she showed dramatic improvement in muscle tone
and was able to sit on a chair, and she had no abnormal movements.
It was also possible to hold her straight in the standing position
without apparent ataxia.
After the second course of treatment she showed marked
improvement with the development of purposeful movement
and the ability to hold feeding bottle with assistant of the mother
and feed herself. She was able to stand and step one step holding
furniture. She started babbling and showed some reduction in the
autistic features [5].
It was not possible to document the treatment details of all patients,
however, treatment was resulted in at least some improvement in
all patients after variable length of treatment. Treatment was also
associated with initiation of speech and improvement of repetitive
behaviors in many patients.
However, it was possible to document complete disappearance
of the main autistic features of absence of eye contact in six
patients (one boy and ve girls) with typical autism, and in a
boy with Asperger syndrome who was considered totally normal
after treatment. Figure-12A shows a six year old boy with typical
autism. He had impaired social interaction as he was not responding
appropriately to calling his name was showing no eye contact.
The boy was treated for six months during which received 60 doses
of Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5 ml every third day in the morning.
He also received triuoperazine 1mg at night and rochloperazine
5mg during the afternoon during the early months of treatment. He
also received oral citicoline 2-3 (200-300mg) ml in the morning
daily few months.
After treatment (Figure-12B), the boy had normal social interaction
with appropriate response to his name and normal eye contact.
He was greeting the doctor and waving goodbye when leaving
the clinic.
Figure-13A shows a seven year old girl with typical autism.
She had impaired social interaction as she was not responding
appropriately to calling her name was showing no eye contact.
She also showed frequent repetitive movements. Table-2 shows
the courses of treatment the girl received.
After treatment, the girl had normal social interaction with
appropriate response to her name and normal eye contact.
Repetitive movements disappeared. She responded to the doctor
request to take a pen to copy something (Figure-13B). She waved
goodbye when leaving the room as the doctor waved goodbye for
her (Figure-13C).
Conclusion
In this series, typical autism without signicant mental retardation
accounted for 63%. Atypical autism (Pervasive developmental
disorder not otherwise) was the second most common type of
Pervasive developmental disorders accounting for about 25%.
Asperger syndrome accounted for only 6% of the cases in this
series.
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Figure 12A: A six year old boy with typical autism before
treatment. He had impaired social interaction as he was not
responding appropriately to calling his name was showing no
eye contact
Figure 12B: After treatment, the boy had normal social interaction
with appropriate response to his name and normal eye contact.
He was greeting the doctor and waving goodbye when leaving
the clinic
Figure 13A: A seven year old girl with typical autism before
treatment, she had impaired social interaction as she was not
responding appropriately to her name was showing no eye contact.
She also showed frequent repetitive movements
Table-2: The courses of treatment received by a seven year old
girl who experienced complete disappearance of the autistic
features
The rst course of treatment started on the 18th of February 2019
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5 ml every third day given over one
month.
Triuoperazine in a daily dose of 1mg at night.
The second course of treatment started 28th of March, 2019
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5 ml every second day.
Triuoperazine in a daily dose of 1mg at night.
The third course of treatment given during April, 2019
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5 ml every third day.
Triuoperazine in a daily dose of 1mg at night.
Oral citicoline 3 ml (300mg) in the morning.
The fourth course of treatment started on the 13th of May, 2019
Intramuscular cerebrolysin 5 ml every third day.
Triuoperazine in a daily dose of 1mg at night.
Oral citicoline 3 ml in the morning.
Figure 13B: A seven year old girl with typical autism. After
treatment, the girl had normal social interaction. She responded
to the doctor request to take a pen to copy something
Figure 13C: A seven year old girl with typical autism. After
treatment, the girl had normal social interaction. She waved
goodbye when leaving the room as the doctor waved goodbye
for her
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Acknowledgement
The author would to express his gratitude for the parents of the
patients who accepted publishing his photos.
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Al-Mosawi AJ. Asperger syndrome and regressive autism.1st
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Copyright: ©2019 Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi. is is an open-access
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and source are credited.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Book
Full-text available
Heller syndrome is a rare heterogeneous clinical syndrome that is distinctive from autism and Asperger syndrome. It is characterized by a significant developmental regression resulting in deterioration in behavioral and adaptive functioning including self-help skills with loss of language and social skills after a period of normal development for at least two years. The condition was first reported in 1908 by Theodor Heller in his paper “Über Dementia Infantilis”. He called the condition “Dementia infantilis”. During the previous few decades , Heller syndrome has been increasingly known as “Childhood disintegrative disorder” which was included in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV in 1994 as one of the pervasive developmental disorders. Although, the underlying etiologic factors in most cases of Heller syndrome, several reported cases were associated with a possible etiologic factor such as chronic encephalitis (Lange, 1933), cortical dysrhythmia (Kennedy and Hill,1942), cerebral atrophy (Jakab,1954), reduction of brain volume (Charan ,2012), anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis (Creten et al, 2012), vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (Malhotra et al, 2013), chicken pox (Verma and Mohapatra , 2016). Several authors have emphasized the rarity of the disorder including Fombone (2002), Burd and colleagues (1988), Charan (2012), Malhotra et al (2013), and Tapanadechopone (2015) who reported the first patient in Thailand. However, the disorder has been reported in several countries including Austria, United Kingdom, United States of America, Japan, India, Canada, Denmark, Spain, Thailand, and France. We have previously observed Heller syndrome in Iraqi patients, however, the syndrome has not been well documented or reported from Iraq in the medical literature. The main aim of this book is to describe two Iraqi patients with Heller syndrome, one of them have changes on brain MRI suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. A second aim of this book is to describe the historic documentation of the syndrome in the medical literature.
Article
Full-text available
There is no satisfactory therapy for Rett syndrome, a rare genetic disorder. A three-year old girl with Rett syndrome was hypotonic, ataxic, and had abnormal movements of the upper limbs. She was unable to sit alone on a chair and showed no eye contact and was not responding to her name. She didn't have purposeful hand movement and was not able to hold things. She couldn't be held erect in the standing position. She was not saying any word nor was babbling. The girl received two treatment courses. The first course included intramuscular cerebrolysin 1ml daily for ten days. The second course included 10 cerebrolysin injections, 3ml every third day, and oral citicoline. After the ten-day course of cerebrolysin, she showed dramatic improvement in muscle tone and was able to sit on a chair, and she had no abnormal movements. It was also possible to hold her straight in the standing position without apparent ataxia. After the second course of treatment she showed marked improvement with the development of purposeful movement and the ability to hold feeding bottle with assistant of the mother and feed herself. She was able to stand and step one step holding furniture. She started babbling and showed some reduction in the autistic features. The use of these new therapies in Rett syndrome resulted in an obvious improvement that has never been reported before.
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There is no known curative therapy for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) which include autism, Asperger syndrome, and atypical autism. Marked improvement or disappearance of autistic features in these disorders has not been reported with any therapy before.The aim of this paper is report a retrospective observational study describing the use of a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of eight of 19 patients with PDD. The treated patients ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. The new therapeutic approach which included injectable cerebrolysin as the main therapeutic component. The patients ages ranged from 3 to 8 years. Seven patients had a diagnosis of autism and one patient had a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Treatment aimed at improving the cardinal feature of PDD which is the impairment of social interaction which is mostly manifested by poor responsiveness to their name and infrequent engagement with others manifested by poor eye contact and infrequently looking to faces. All the treated showed improvement and marked lessening of the autistic features with six patients showed complete disappearance of the main autistic features. No patient developed any side effects. The eleven patients observed during the same year who didn't receive this treatment or were treated with other treatments such as omega-3 and risperidone didn't show any lessening effect in the autistic features. However, one patient was treated with citicoline injection showed obvious improvement in the autistic features.
Article
The prevalence of childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is unknown. In this study, 32 epidemiological surveys of autism and pervasive developmental disorders published in English language journals since 1966 were reviewed. Four surveys yielded estimates for CDD ranging from 1.1 to 6.4 per 100,000 subjects. A pooled estimate across these four surveys is 1.7 per 100,000 (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.6-3.8 per 100,000). The conclusion is that CDD is very rare and its prevalence is 60 times less than that for autistic disorder, assuming a prevalence of 10 per 10,000 for autism. If a rate of 30 per 10,000 is taken for all PDDs, only one child out of 175 children with a PDD diagnosis would, on average, meet criteria for CDD.
A new therapeutic approach for pervasive developmental disorders
  • A J Al-Mosawi
Al-Mosawi AJ. A new therapeutic approach for pervasive developmental disorders. 1st ed (2018) Saarbrücken; LAP Lambert Academic Publishing: 2018(ISBN: 978-3-659-86602-9).