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Bay Leaves have Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

  • Pharmacy school, University of Tripoli
Bay Leaves have Anmicrobial and Anoxidant Acvies
Sumia O Algabri1*, Basma M Doro2, Awatf M Abadi1, Mahmoud A Shiba1 and Almonder H Salem1
1Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya
*Corresponding author: Algabri SO, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya, Tel:
+218928629603; E-mail:
Received date: July 06, 2018; Accepted date: July 28, 2018; Published date: August 02, 2018
Copyright: © 2018 Algabri SO, et al. This is an open-access arcle distributed under the terms of the creave Commons Aribuon License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribuon and reproducon in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citaon: Algabri SO, Doro BM, Abadi AM, Shiba MA, Salem AH (2018) Bay Leaves have Anmicrobial and Anoxidant Acvies. J Pathogen Res
Vol.1 No.1:3.
Background: Bay, Laurus nobilis L is a nave plant and is
one of the most frequently used cooking spices. The dry
Bay leaves are used to treat several digesve problems
with anconvulsive, narcoc and anbacterial properes.
Thus, this study was aimed to invesgate the in-vitro
anmicrobial and anoxidant acvies of dierent
extracts of Bay leaves.
Methods: The dried Bay leaves were extracted
sequenally with n-hexane, dichloromethane and
methanol by Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were
concentrated and evaluated for anmicrobial acvity
against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa,
E. coli and Candida albicans using well diusion method
to determine the diameter of zone of inhibion. Also, Bay
leaves extracts were evaluated for anoxidant acvity
using qualitave DPPH assay.
Results: The ndings of anmicrobial assay showed that
methanolic extract of Bay leaves has an anbacterial
acvity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of
inhibion of 18 ± 0.8 mm, which is higher than phenol
inhibion zone (10 ± 1.0 mm) whereas, no anbacterial
inhibion against other tested bacteria was detected. The
dichloromethane extracts inhibited E. coli growth with
zone of inhibion of 14 ± 0.6 mm and with Staphylococcus
aureus of 18 ± 0.8 mm, while, the n-hexane extract has no
anbacterial acvity with all of the tested organisms.
However, all of Bay leaves extracts displayed no anfungal
eect on Candida albicans. In terms of anoxidant
acvity, all of Bay leaves extracts exhibited anoxidant
acvity, but the methanolic extract displayed the most
prominent level.
Conclusion: The bay leaves extracts have anbacterial and
anoxidant acvity and further invesgaons to assess
these eects are recommended.
Keywords: Bay leaves; Staphylococcus; Qualitave DPPH;
Anmicrobial; Anoxidant
One of the most well-known plants from the Lauraceae
family is Laurus nobilis L, which is also known as Bay or laurel
leaves. Bay is one of the most frequently used cooking spices
for avouring meat products, shes and soups. It is a nave
plant in the Southern Mediterranean area, found in warm
climate regions, but it is used as a decorave plant in Europe
and USA. In addion, it is commercially grown in, Algeria,
Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Turkey and Mexico
Tradionally, the dry Bay leaves and their infusions are used
to treat digesve dicules as epigastric pain, atulence,
bloang, and eructaon problems. Leaves and fruits of Bay
plant have been used as astringent, diaphorec, smulant and
emec as well as emmenagogue, aborfacient and insect
repellent. In addion, as it is an aromac plant, its essenal oil
is added in the cosmec products like soaps, creams and
perfumes [4].
Phytochemical studies on Bay leaves and its fruits have
indicated various secondary metabolites including alkaloids,
avonols (kaempferol, myricen, and quercin), avones
(apigenin and luteolin), glycosylated avonoids, sesquiterpene
lactones, monoterpene and germacrane alcohols [5-10].
Interesngly, there is a worldwide concern around that use
of anbiocs to treat bacterial and fungal infecons can lead
to the rise and spread of organisms resistant to broad-
spectrum anbiocs, opening ways to use plants as natural
sources for novel anmicrobial agents with a similar acvity
[11-13]. Natural medicinal plants, as L. nobilis, are rich sources
of bioacve compounds. Thus, the biological properes of Bay
extracts and its essenal oil are documented, specically their
anmicrobial, anfungal and anoxidant eect. A previous
study has reported that the aqueous decocon of bay leaf
showed 53.4% of bactericidal eect against 176 bacterial
isolates belonging to 12 dierent genera of bacterial
Research Article
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populaon isolated from oral cavity of 200 individuals [14].
Also, another study found that the bay leaf essenal oil (EO)
was able to decrease the populaon of total coliforms (2.8 log
CFU/g) and to prolong the shelf life of fresh Tuscan sausage
stored at 7°C for 14 days for two days [15]. In a Turkish
research, the in vitro anbacterial against three Gram-posive
(Bacillus sublis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis)
and two Gram-negave bacteria (Escherichia coli and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa), using agar diluon methods was
assayed. Furthermore, its potenal toxicity to Candida albicans
and Aspergillus niger was examined by using both disc-
diusion and agar diluon methods. The ndings of this study
showed the minimum inhibion concentraon (MIC) of the L.
nobilis extract was 5 mg/mL for all the bacteria tested. Also,
the extract of L. nobilis, showed higher inhibitory acvity
against the yeast C. albicans and the fungus A. niger than the
standard anfungal nystan that used as a posive control
In addion, the potenal anoxidant eect bay leaves
extract has been reported. The methanolic extract of seed oil
exhibited anoxidant properes in both 2, 2-diphenyl-l-
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and β-carotene/
linoleic acid test systems [17]. In another study, the
anoxidant possibility of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of
Hypericum perforatum, Ocimum basilicum and L. nobilis leaves
were assessed by DPPH assay. The aqueous extract of L. nobilis
showed the lowest radical scavenging capacity (RSC) as
compared to H. perforatum and O. basilicum. However, the
ethanolic extracts of L. nobilis showed more DPPH radical
scavenging eect than their aqueous extracts [18].
As in Libya the bay leaves commonly used in tradion meals,
the aim of this study was to explore the in-vitro anmicrobial
and anoxidant acvies of dierent extracts of Bay leaves
collected from local Libyan store.
Materials and Methods
Chemicals and reagents
2,2 diphenyl -1- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and ascorbic acid
(Vitamin C) were obtained from Sigma Aldrich (Germany),
Silica gel F254 TLC plates was obtained from Merck (Germany),
metathanol (MeOH), dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane are
of HPLC grade and obtained for Fisher Scienc.
Plant material
The dried Bay leaves were obtained from local market in
Tripoli, Libya, in 27 November 2014 ready for grinding and
extracon. The plant was idened and authencated as
Laurus nobilis. Dried leaves by Botanists in the Herbarium of
Sciences College, University of Tripoli, Libya where a voucher
specimen was deposited.
Preparaon of plant extracts
The dried Bay leaves were nely ground using a coee
grinder and 196 gm were placed in a cellulose thimble and
extracted with a Soxhlet apparatus sequenally with n-hexane,
dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts were
concentrated using a rotary evaporator at 45°C and stored in
pre-weighed glass jars for further analysis.
Evaluaon of anmicrobial acvity
The anmicrobial acvity of Bay leaves extracts was tested
in vitro using the agar well-diusion assay. This method was
performed using freshly prepared Mueller Hinton agar
inoculated with an overnight culture of bacteria suspended in
sterile saline and adjusted to a 0.5 McFarland standard. Aer
solidicaon, 6 mm diameter wells were punched into the
Mueller Hinton agar plates [19]. Each well was lled with 100
μl of the extract soluon at concentraon 1 mg/ml and then
incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The inhibion zones were
measured in millimeters. 5% phenol was used as a standard.
The controls were prepared without extract. The experiment
was carried out in triplicate to ensure reproducible results.
Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a negave control
while phenol was used as a posive control.
Bacterial strains and media
The anmicrobial acvity of Bay leaves extracts was tested
against two Gram-negave bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(ATCC 29138) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and one
Gram- posive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213).
In addion, the same extracts were tested against the yeast
Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). The standard bacterial strains
were streaked onto nutrient agar, incubated for 24 hours at
37°C then stored at 4°C. The media used in this study were
nutrient broth (NB), nutrient agar (NA) and Mueller Hilton agar
(Oxoid). The media was prepared according to the
manufacturer’s instrucons.
Evaluaon of anoxidant acvity
Qualitave DPPH assay: Anoxidant acvity of dried Bay
leaves extracts was analyzed qualitavely by using 2,
2,diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay on thin layer
chromatography (TLC) plates [20]. DPPH assay was used as a
screening test for the radical scavenging ability of the
compounds present in dierent extracts of Bay leaves. Silica
gel F254 TLC plates were used to separate Bay leaves extracts
where 10 μl aliquots of each of the n-hexane, DCM and MeOH
extracts (10 mg/ml) were applied to Silica gel plates using
capillary tubes, le to dry, then; The plates were dried in the
fume hood for the detecon of anoxidant acvity,
chromatograms were sprayed with 0.2% DPPH in methanol, as
an indicator. It was allowed to develop for 30 min. The
presence of anoxidant compounds was detected by
observaon of yellow spots against a purple background on
TLC plates sprayed with 0.2% DPPH in methanol. Vitamin C (2
mg/100 ml methanol) was used as a posive standard [20,21].
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Results and Discussion
Anmicrobial acvity
In Table 1, the anmicrobial acvity of Bay leaves in terms
of zone of inhibion (in mm diameter) of n-hexane,
dichloromethane and methanolic extracts at concentraons
0.5 mg/ml against the tested microorganisms were shown. The
ndings indicated that the methanolic extract of Bay leaves
has an anbacterial acvity against Staphylococcus aureus
with zone of inhibion 18 ± 0.8 mm, which is much higher than
the posive control (phenol) inhibion zone (10 ± 1.0 mm),
whereas, there was no anbacterial inhibion against other
tested bacteria. The Dichloromethane extract inhibited E. coli
growth with an inhibion 14 ± 0.6 mm and Staphylococcus
aureus with 13 ± 0.5 mm, while the n-hexane extract has no
anbacterial acvity with all the tested organisms. However,
all of Bay leaves extracts displayed no anfungal eect on
Candida albicans (Table 1).
Table 1 Average diameter, in millimeters, of the bacterial inhibion zones of Bay leaves extracts at concentraon 0.5 mg per ml
against tested microorganism.
Microorganism Mean diameter of zone of inhibition (mm ± SE)
Extract (0.5 mg/ml)
n-hexane extract DCM Extract MeOH Extract 5% Phenol
Staphylococcus aureus 0.0 ± 0.0 13 ± 0.5* 18 ± 0.8* 10 ± 1.0
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 27 ± 0.5
E. coli 0.0 ± 0.0 14 ± 0.6 0.0 ± 0.0 12 ± 2.0
Candida albicans 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 11 ± 2.5
*Statistically significant difference by t-test.
In a previous study, the in vitro anmicrobial and
anoxidant acvies of the essenal oil, seed oil and
methanolic extract of seed oil of Bay leaves were showed that
the extract of seed oil has more eecve anbacterial acvity
compared with essenal oil and seed oil [22]. Furthermore,
GC-MS analysis of essenal oil resulted in idencaon of 25
compounds. 1.8-Cineol (44.72%), a-Terpinyl acetate (12.95%),
Sabinene (12.82%) were the main components. In addion,
other study reported that Laurus nobilis extract has
anbacterial acvity against Staphylococcus aureus where the
zone diameter of inhibion of Laurus nobilis extract was
comparable to zone diameter of the inhibion of tetracycline
[23]. That may support the ndings of this study in terms of
the anbacterial eect.
Anoxidant acvity
Qualitave DPPH assay: Various methods have been used
to evaluate anoxidant capacity of some compounds in
dierent plant extracts, one of the most widely used methods
are those involve the generaon of free radicals which then
neutralized by anoxidant compounds [24]. The DPPH
anoxidant assay is based on the ability of DPPH to decolorize
in the presence of anoxidants. The odd electron in the DPPH
radical is responsible for the deep purple color. When DPPH
accept an electron from anoxidant compound, the DPPH
decolorize [20].
In the present study, only TLC based qualitave DPPH assay
was performed to evaluate anoxidant acvity of bay leaves
extracts which provide a rapid, exible and ecient screening
method for anoxidant acvity [25]. The results showed the
presence of anoxidant acvity in all the tested Bay leaves
extracts as it is given in Figure 1. The acvity was indicated by
the presence of yellow spots against a purple background on
the chromatograms. The degree of acvity of all the samples
tested was also determined qualitavely from observaon of
the yellow color intensity. It is observed that methanolic
extract of Bay leaves displayed the most prominent level of
anoxidant acvity where it has an intense yellow color
compared with the control using vitamin C.
Figure 1 Chromatogram of Bay leaves extracts sprayed with
0.2% DPPH in methanol yellow zones indicate anoxidant
Several previous studies assessed the quantave
anoxidant acvity of dierent extracts of Bay leaves by using
dierent models, all of them indicated that Bay leaves extracts
provide both In vitro and In vivo anoxidant eect [26-30].
Although, in this research only the qualitave anoxidant
eect was tested, and this eect may be related to the
presence of phenolic secondary metabolites like phenols.
The ndings of this study show that the bay leaves extracts
have anbacterial and anoxidant eects. However,
Journal of Pathogen Research
Vol.1 No.1:3
© Copyright iMedPub 3
quantave DPPH assay is needed to conrm the obtained
results and more invesgaons on wide range of pathogen to
assess the spectrum of bay leaves extracts are recommended.
The authors would like to thank Prof. Fathi M Sherif,
Department of Pharmacology, for his help in crical reviewing
the manuscript and valuable comments. Also, thanks go to the
laboratory sta of Microbiology and Immunology for their
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... The essentials oils are natural compound used since millenary for their odors as contact between human and gods, as cure and conservation solution (Stewart, 2007) Lot of them are employed in food industry. Differents studies (Retnouwati et al., 2003), (Gnonlonfin et al., 2013) (Algabri et al., 2018) althought show that some of spices and aromatics plants are not subject to mycotoxins contamination. Regarding food safety problem like crops contamination by mycotoxins, secondaries metabolites produced by fungi, some of essential oils as the ones extracted from Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Ocimum basilicum (Shipra Rastogi et al., 2007;Abou El-Soud et al., 2012;Pragyanshree et Mehta, 2013;Wajiha Iram et al., 2016) which have antimicrobial properties are used to protect crops. ...
... (Arora and Pandey, 1977;Di Leo Lira et al., 2009;Nehir El et al., 2014;Simi et al., 2004). Laurus nobilis essential oil has also antimicrobial properties (Algabri et al., 2018;Caputo et al., 2017;Merghni et al., 2016;Nehir El et al., 2014). Some studies showed that the essential oil of L. nobilis had strong anti-bacterial effects against Gram positive bacteria : S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus faecalis and Gram negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneuomoniae, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens and E. coli were (Moghtader and Farahmand 2013 ;Ouibrahim et al. (2013) and antifungal effects on Glomus deserticola, Glomus intraradices and, Eurotium, Aspergillus sp. ...
Essential oils are natural compounds that have been used for thousands of years for their smell, medicinal properties and food preservation. Several are used today in the food industry. This study focuses on the anti-fungal properties of the essential oil of noble laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) especially against Aspergillus flavus, the main producer of aflatoxins, which contaminate agricultural products, especially cereals, during their storage. The action of noble laurel essential oil, extracted by hydrodistillation of leaves, on the development and production of aflatoxins was evaluated ex vivo by microatmosphere and aromatogram tests and in vivo on rice and maize, locally produced, directly grown and under storage conditions. The essential oil of bay leaf totally inhibited the development of Aspergillus flavus with the microatmosphere test at a concentration of 0.1µl/ml and an inhibition diameter of 5 cm for the same concentration. In vivo test showed a reduction in the development, sporulation and pigmentation of the fungus on rice with no aflatoxin production. In response to this activity, the composition of Laurus nobilis essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography. It revealed the presence of several bioactive molecules mainly eugenol (42.498%), myrcene (29.09%, chavicol (9.21%), limonene (5%) and 1.8-cineole (1.87%). The results of this study reveal the possible use of noble laurel essential oil as an alternative control agent against fungal deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of foodstuffs during storage.
... It has a lot of chemical properties that are useful in manufacturing of medicine, for instance, it represents a basic material in dentistry such as alkaloids, fl avonols, phenolic, fl avones (apigenin and luteolin), glycosylate fl avonoids, cysterpine and soliterpinat to fight against or prevent common diseases. 14,15 Several studies described and confi rmed that extracting phytochemicals and active ingredients of herbal remedies give medicinal benefi ts more than the use of the herb itself. 16 NPs was greater against Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria than Gram-negative (P. ...
... Study of Algabri that carried out on antibacterial activity of Libya bay leave extracted with methanol and n-hexane, it was observed that the n-hexane extract showed no antibacterial activity but the methanol extract had good inhibitory activity against S. aureus. 15 Also, El Malti and Amarouch (2009) found that the bay leave extract has a signifi cant antimicrobial activity against wide range of human pathogen. 28 Therefore, the result that we found confi rmed that L. nobilis leaves ethanol extract has antimicrobial activity against microorganism, it's that observed the antimicrobial activity during agar well diffusion and bactericidal activity experiment. ...
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Laurus nobilis is one of the most well-known, most frequently used plants is from Lauraceae family which contains up 2.500 species that grow in the subtropics and tropics of the Mediterranean region and Indonesia. This study was supposed to investigate the antimicrobial eff ect of L.nobilis leaves ethanol extract on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonellae typhi, and Escherichia coli. This preliminary study examined the antimicrobial eff ect of L.nobilis leaves ethanol extract. The method used Agar-well diff usion for determination of the zone of inhibition and the minimum bactericidal concentration to investigate the activity of L.nobilis leaves ethanol extract at 100% concentration . The results revealed that extract of L. nobilis leaves had the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a zone of inhibition (16.3 ±1.5 mm), Staphylococcus aureus with (14.5±0.5 mm), and weak antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (11.3±1.1mm). Also, through the minimum bactericidal concentration experiment, the L.nobilis leaves ethanol extract had activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonellae typhi, it’s killed the bacteria in all concentration start it from 5×107 to 5×104. But the activity on Escherichia coli just weaken concentration 5×107 and 106. This research has concluded that the L.nobilis leaves ethanol extract exhibited a signifi cant antimicrobial eff ect against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonellae typhi then Escherichia coli that is considered a kind of multidrug-resistant bacteria.
... In addition, bay leaf is also an aromatic plant, its essential oil is added to cosmetic products such as soap, cream, and perfume. 8 Bay leaves have chemical properties, namely tannins, flavonoids, and 0.05% essential oil consisting of eugenol and citral. The content of Eugenia polyantha Wight is an active ingredient that is thought to have pharmacological effects. ...
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Background: Many microorganisms can be found within the oral cavity, including Streptococcus mutans. The introduction of oral bacteria into the bloodstream can lead to the occurrence of bacteremia and subsequent development of systemic diseases. Traditional medicine uses specific ingredients or herbs employed over successive generations and is widely believed to possess medicinal properties. One example is the bay leaf, scientifically known as Eugenia polyantha Wight. Objective. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of bay leaf extract (Eugenia polyantha Wight.) in inhibiting Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: This type of research is an experimental laboratory with Post-test Only Control Group Design. Testing the effectiveness of antibacterial in this study using the diffusion method by diluting bay leaf extract using DMSO solvent into five concentrations, namely 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125%, with a sample size of 4 for each concentration. Results: The results showed that bay leaf extract concentrations of 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% showed a clear zone around the disc paper in Muller Hinton Agar as a medium for the breeding of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The formation of a clear zone indicates that the ability of bay leaf extract inhibits the growth of Streptococcus mutans with a mean diameter of inhibition of 10.4 ± 0.2944 mm; 8.9 ± 0.7500 mm; 7.1 ± 0.3202 mm; 6.9 ± 0.2944 mm; and 6.4 ± 0.1826 mm. Conclusion: Eugenia polyantha Wight can inhibit the development of Streptococcus mutans. A concentration of 50% is the best in inhibiting the development of Streptococcus mutans based on the growth zone of bacteria.
... AO study revealed that the AE was more effective than the BHT solution (Table 3). The results of the studied AE showed that, as its C increased, AO efficiency raised, and this agreed with the prior study [19]. Alkaloid compounds have an AO effect on many chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress, which inhibits enzymes or minerals produced for free radicals, or stimulates AO enzymes [20]. ...
... The water content is needed to be checked because it allows for differences in the antioxidant potential of leaves. If the amount of water in plants is reduced, it is possible that the metabolic rate for the formation of bioactive compounds will also decrease so that it can affect the concentration of total phenolic and flavonoid in a plant [16]. ...
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Salam leaf (Syzygium polyanthum) is an Indonesian traditional herbs with high bioactive compound potential. Unfortunately, as an alternative method that is friendly to heat-susceptible bioactive compound, the ultrasonication extraction method has not been widely used to extract Salam leaves. Meanwhile, the processing time and the ratio of the use of solvents are some of the determinants of the performance of this method. Hence, this research examined the ultrasonication method for extracting bioactive compounds from Salam leaf from the time and ratio of the solvent used. The results were showed that the best condition was from the solvent ratio to sample of 12:1 for 15 min extraction time. These conditions gave results in an 18.57% yield of salam leaf extract, 74.20 ± 0.19 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g salam leaf extract of total phenolic content, 22.00 ± 0.08 mg Quercetin equivalent/g salam leave extract of total flavonoid content, 78.79% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, and IC50 antioxidant activity of 20.25 µg/ml salam leave extract. The best extraction conditions are able to provide Salam leaf extract with very strong antioxidant potential.
... Although, it originated from the Southern Mediterranean, it is used in other parts of the world to flavour soups and different dishes, particularly, it is used in Nigeria to flavour jollof rice. Apart from the culinary uses of bay leaf, it has been reported that the aromatic leaf may have some health benefits such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticonvulsive and wound healing properties (Ozcan et al., 2010;Rukhkyan et al., 2013;Algabri et al.,2018). However, there is limited data on its neuroprotective potentials. ...
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Neurological disorders remain a global health challenge, with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as the most famous cause of dementia in old people. Nevertheless, culinary spices and herbs have shown promising potentials in the management of neurological diseases. This study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective property of aqueous extracts of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) by assessing the antioxidant activity of the extracts and the effects on key-enzymes implicated in AD: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipid peroxidation in vitro. Bioactive constituents of the samples were characterized using GC-MS and the interaction of the identified compounds with AChE and BChE was determined through molecular docking. Both extracts exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE, with no significant (p>0.05) difference in their inhibitory activities. Similarly, aqueous extracts of both samples inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain with L. nobilis extract exhibiting significantly (p<0.05) higher inhibitory activity (IC50: 67.83±13.53 µg/mL) than R. officinalis (IC50: 96.96±15.63 µg/mL). Also, L. nobilis extract displayed a better radical scavenging ability and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP). However, no significant difference (p>0.05) in their iron-chelating abilities as reflected in the IC50 values (L. nobilis: 10.93±0.42 µg/mL; R. officinalis: 10.12±0.40 µg/mL). Furthermore, GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of 39 phenolic compounds in both samples, with chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, rosmanol, rutin, hesperetin 7-O-rutinoside and luteolin predicted to be stronger cholinesterase inhibitors compared to galantamine in an in silico study. Hence, L. nobilis and R. officinalis may be considered promising sources of nutraceuticals in the management of AD. Future research would consider in vivo studies on the neuroactive properties of the extracts and the potent cholinesterase inhibitors identified in silico.
... Phytochemical test results showed that bay leaf extract contains active compounds such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, and essential oils (Tabel 1). This is in accordance with research conducted by Wilapangga and Syaputra (2018) and Algabri et al., (2018) which showed that bay leaves contain active compounds such as alkaloids, flavonols (kaempferol, myricetin, and quercitin), flavones (apigenin and luteolin), glycosylated flavonoids, sesquiterpene, lactones, monoterpene, germacrane alcohols, and essential oil (1.8-cineol (44.72%), a-terpinyl acetate (12.95%), and sabinene (12.82%)) as an antimicrobial. PHOTON is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License 18 ...
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Acute diarrhea is liquid stool with a frequency of more than 3 times a day and lasts less than 14 days. One of the most common causes of acute diarrhea is Escherichia coli. Diarrhea caused by bacteria can be treated with the use of antibiotics, but the relatively high intensity of antibiotic use causes various health problems, especially bacterial resistance. Therefore, the search for antibacterial agents derived from natural ingredients was carried out as an alternative treatment. Bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum) is one of the natural ingredients that has the potential as an antibacterial because it contains active compounds such as essential oils, flavonoids (quercetin), saponins, tannins, and alkaloids. This study aimed to analyze the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of bay leaves on the growth of Escherichia coli. This research uses the dilution method which aims to determine the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results showed that the MIC value at a concentration of 200mg/ml and the MBC value at a concentration of 500mg/ml.
... Padahal, kulit buah manggis (KBM) mengandung komponen bioaktif yang memiliki efek antioksidan, anti-inflamasi, dan antimikroba [8,9,10,11,12]. Potensi sebagai antioksidan dan antimikroba juga dapat ditemukan pada daun salam (Syzygium polyanthum) yang selama ini sering digunakan sebagai bumbu pada berbagai jenis olahan makanan [13,14]. Namun, studi mengenai penggunaan kombinasi bubuk kulit buah manggis dan bubuk daun salam dalam pengawetan bahan pangan masih terbatas. ...
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Daging ayam merupakan salah satu komoditas unggas yang banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Proses pengawetan pada fillet daging ayam dapat dilakukan dengan mengkombinasikan metode perendaman dalam campuran bubuk kulit buah manggis dan bubuk daun salam dengan penyimpanan pada suhu dingin. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan campuran bubuk kulit buah manggis dan bubuk daun salam dalam menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba penyebab penurunan mutu pada fillet daging ayam yang disimpan dalam suhu dingin (chilling temperature). Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial yang terdiri dari dua faktor, yaitu konsentrasi campuran bubuk kulit manggis dan bubuk daun salam (0%, 15%, dan 30%) serta lama penyimpanan (0, 4, 8, 12, dan 16 hari). Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA dengan taraf nyata 5%, lalu diuji lanjut dengan Uji Duncan (DMRT) 5% jika berbeda nyata. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bubuk kulit buah manggis dan bubuk daun salam mengandung senyawa flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin, tanin, dan terpenoid. Pengaruh terbaik ditemukan pada perlakuan konsentrasi campuran bubuk kulit buah manggis dan bubuk daun salam 30% dan lama penyimpanan 12 hari, dengan total mikroba 5.91 log cfu/g, total S. aureus 1.00 log cfu/g (tidak melebihi batas SNI), dan total E. coli 2.10 log cfu/gr (melebihi batas SNI).
... Also, type of solvent and method of extraction affect the quantity of essential oil and its extent of activity (Bedi, 2010) [4] . The findings of present study collaborates well with those of Pundir and Jain (2010) [13] , Qadir et al. (2017) [1] , Algabri et al. (2018) [2] , Joe et al. (2009) [8] and Kumar et al. (2019) who reported considerable antibacterial activity of herbal extracts or essential oils against various micro-organisms. Phenol, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes present in herbs are mainly associated with antibacterial actions. ...
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In this study, the components of the volatile oil obtained from Laurus nobilis leaves by steam distillation were determined using Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatography (GC) - 5975 Mass Spectrometry (MS). The antioxidant activities of different extracts of L. nobilis leaves were determined by using DPPH•(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay and ABTS•+(2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical decolorization assay. Determination of the total phenolic contents of L. nobilis leaf extracts were performed using the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure and total flavonoid contents were measured using a spectrophotometric assay. According to the GC/MS results, 1,8-cineole (46.16%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (10.62%), alpha-pinene (6.27%), terpinen-4-ol (5.07%) and sabinene (4.99%) were found to be the major compounds in volatile oil. The obtained volatile oil was used to make skin care lotion. Stability tests and organoleptic analyses of final product were performed after 1, 5, 30 and 90 days of production. The highest amounts of total flavonoid content were found to be 5.48 ± 0.65 and 8.60 ± 0.12 μg QEs/mg in ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts, respectively. The highest amounts of total phenolic compounds were found to be 54.42 ± 0.14 and 25.32 ± 0.10 μg PEs/mg in ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts, respectively. According to the results of ABTS•+, DPPH•and β-carotene linoleic acid assays, ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most active extract (24.98±0.87 μg mL-1, 75.65±0.77 μg mL-1 and 19.32±1.04 μg mL-1)
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents from various sources to combat the emergence of the microbial resistance. Therefore, a greater attention was paid on antimicrobial activity screening and evaluating methods. Several bioassays are well known and commonly used such as disk-diffusion, well diffusion and broth or agar dilution, but others are not widely used such as flow cytofluorometric and bioluminescent methods because they require specified equipment and further evaluation for reproducibility and standardization, even if they can provide a rapid results of the antimicrobial agent’ effects and a better understood of their impact on the viability and cell damage inflicted to the tested microorganism. In this present review article, an exhaustive list of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and detailed information on their advantages and limitations are reported.
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The present study deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and hydrodistillation (HD) of dried bay leaves (Laurus nobilis L.). The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the SC-CO2 extract and essential oil (EO) from dried leaves of bay were compared to each other and literature data. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the SC-CO2 extract and EO were performed using GC-FID and GC-MS analytical methods. A significant difference in the chemical composition of the SC-CO2 extract and EO was observed. The EO comprised high contents of monoterpcnes and their oxygenated derivates (98.4 %), principally 1,8-cineole (33.4 %), linalool (16.0 %) and alpha-terpinyl acetate (13.8 %), sabinene (6.91 %) and methyl eugenol (5.32 %). The SC-CO2 extract comprised twice less monoterpenes and their oxygenated derivates (43.89 %), together with sesquiterpenes (12.43 %), diterpenes (1.33 %) and esters (31.13 %). The major components were methyl linoleate (16.18 %), alpha-terpinyl acetate (12.88 %), linalool (9.00 %), methyl eugenol (8.67 %), methyl arachidonate (6.28 %) and eugenol (6.14%) An investigation of the antibacterial activity of bay SC-CO2 extract and EO was completed on different Staphylococcus strains using the broth macrodilution method. Staphylococcus intermedius strains were the most susceptible to both the SC-CO2 extract and EO (MIC = 640 mu g/ml).
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The presence of foodborne pathogens in fresh Tuscan sausage has been reported and these contaminations pose a potential risk to consumers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bay leaf essential oil (EO) in vitro and in fresh Tuscan sausage stored at 7 °C for 14 d. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against foodborne pathogens were determined in vitro. The lowest MIC and MBC were found for Escherichia coli (MIC = MBC = 2.5 g/L) and Yersinia enterocolitica (MIC = 1.25 g/L, MBC = 2.5 g/L). Fresh Tuscan sausages were treated with bay leaf EO at 0.05 g/100 g or 0.1 g/100 g and their shelf life was compared to a non-treated control. All groups presented low levels of rancidity (TBARS < 0.5 mg MDA/kg). The EO was able to reduce the population of total coliforms (2.8 log CFU/g) and to extend the product shelf life for two days. Although the presence of the EO affected the sensory characteristics of the sausage, it was considered acceptable by consumers at both concentrations tested. Overall, the results of this study indicate that bay leaf essential oil can be applied in fresh Tuscan sausage to improve its safety and shelf life.
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Objective: This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between water extracts of Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, Majorana syriaca, Ocimum basilucum, Syzygium aromaticum, Laurus nobilis, and Rosa damascena alone and then synergy testing of these extracts with known antimicrobial agents including oxytetracycline HCl, gentamicin sulfate, penicillin G, cephalexin and enrofloxacin. This study was conducted against five S. aureus isolates; one is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 4 Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Methods: Evaluation of the interaction between plant extracts and different antimicrobial agents has been done using well-diffusion and microdilution methods. Results: The results of the conducted experiments using well-diffusion method demonstrate that these plants showed in vitro interactions between antimicrobial agents and plant extracts were additive, while using microdilution method showed synergistic effects with significant reduction in the MICs of the test antibiotics against these strains of S. aureus. This change in MIC was noticed in all plant extracts including these plants showed weak antibacterial activity by well diffusion method. Synergism effect was occurred in both sensitive and resistant strains but the magnitude of minimum fold reduction of inhibitory concentration in resistant strains especially MRSA strain was higher than the sensitive strains. Coclusion: This study probably suggests the possibility of concurrent use of these antimicrobial drugs and plant extracts in combination in treating infections caused by S. aureus strains or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotics.
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Interest in the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves is growing. To discover new sources of natural antioxidants, a TLC bioautography method combined with a new image processing method was developed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from 15 different species of bamboo. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Bambusa. textilis McClure possessed the highest antioxidant activity among the selected bamboo species. To rapidly identify the antioxidant compounds, the crude extract of B. textilis McClure was analysed by HPLC-UV, and HPLC-micro-fractionation of the extract was carried out. Based on TLC bioautography-guided fractionation, three antioxidant fractions were isolated from B. textilis McClure by preparative chromatography. These three antioxidant compounds were identified as isoorientin 4''-O β-D-xylopyranoside (1), isoorientin 2''-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2) and isoorientin (3) according to their UV, MS, and NMR data. The proposed TLC screening method could therefore be an easy way to evaluate the antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves, and the results achieved should prove very helpful for promoting their utilization, as B. textilis McClure can be considered a promising plant source of natural antioxidants.
Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples.
Besides known sesquiterpene lactones, the fruits of Laurus nobilis gave a germacrane derivative with a rare oxygenation pattern of the isopropyl side-chain.
Laurus nobilis leaves yielded four non-polar flavonoids: , , and a new product . Structural elucidation was achieved by UV, 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, acid hydrolysis and saponification.
Cancer is a worldwide scourge; it's the leading cause of death in developed countries and is increasing in developing countries. Mankind has been trying with effort to find better and cheaper treatments with fewer side effects, to reduce the incidence of the disease and its consequent mortality. For many years, phenolic compounds have been intensely studied for their antitumor, proapoptotic and antiangiogenic effects. In recent years, the usage of these compounds has increased considerably. This manuscript intends to structurally characterize the different phenolic compounds (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates, coumarins, xanthones, chalcones, stilbenes, lignins and lignans) and their metabolic pathways as well as review the most important results regarding these compounds and their derivatives in cancer treatment and prevention both in tumor cell lines in vitro, in murine models in vivo and finally some results regarding human trials.