Article

Antiviral activity of Sambucus Formosana Nakai ethanol extract and related phenolic acid constituents against human coronavirus NL63

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Abstract

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), one of the main circulating HCoVs worldwide, causes respiratory tract illnesses like runny nose, cough, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Recently, a severe respiratory illness outbreak of HCoV-NL63 has been reported in a long-term care facility. Sambucus Formosana Nakai, a species of elderberry, is a traditional medicinal herb with anti-inflammatory and antiviral potential. The study investigated the antiviral activity of Sambucus Formosana Nakai stem ethanol extract and some phenolic acid constituents against HCoV-NL63. The extract was less cytotoxic and concentration-dependently increased anti-HCoV-NL63 activities, including cytopathicity, sub-G1 fraction, virus yield (IC50 = 1.17 μg/ml), plaque formation (IC50 = 4.67 μg/ml) and virus attachment (IC50 = 15.75 μg/ml). Among the phenolic acid constituents in Sambucus Formosana Nakai extract, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and gallic acid sustained the anti-HCoV-NL63 activity that was ranked in the following order of virus yield reduction: caffeic acid (IC50 = 3.54 μM) > chlorogenic acid (IC50 = 43.45 μM) > coumaric acid (IC50 = 71.48 μM). Caffeic acid significantly inhibited the replication of HCoV-NL63 in a cell- type independent manner, and specifically blocked virus attachment (IC50 = 8.1 μM). Therefore, the results revealed that Sambucus Formosana Nakai stem ethanol extract displayed the strong anti-HCoV-NL63 potential; caffeic acid could be the vital component with anti-HCoV-NL63 activity. The finding could be helpful for developing antivirals against HCoV-NL63.

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... These phenolic acids are mainly categorized into two sub-groups, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid. Some phenolic acids, such as gallic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, have been extensively reported as displaying antiviral activity against coronavirus strains, but also against hepatitis B and C viruses, influenza A virus, and herpes simplex (Weng et al., 2019), as phenolic acid displays excellent absorption ability and can improve antiviral activity (Kumar and Gael, 2019). Weng et al. (2019) studied the human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a type of coronavirus belonging to the α-coronavirus genus of the Coronaviridae family. ...
... Some phenolic acids, such as gallic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, have been extensively reported as displaying antiviral activity against coronavirus strains, but also against hepatitis B and C viruses, influenza A virus, and herpes simplex (Weng et al., 2019), as phenolic acid displays excellent absorption ability and can improve antiviral activity (Kumar and Gael, 2019). Weng et al. (2019) studied the human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a type of coronavirus belonging to the α-coronavirus genus of the Coronaviridae family. Like SARS-CoV-2, HCoV causes mild upper respiratory tract illnesses with symptoms including runny noses, cough, and sore throats in young children and young adults (Huang et al., 2017). ...
... Like SARS-CoV-2, HCoV causes mild upper respiratory tract illnesses with symptoms including runny noses, cough, and sore throats in young children and young adults (Huang et al., 2017). Weng et al. (2019) examined the potent anti-HCoV-NL63 activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai extract, a traditional medicinal herb belonging to the Adoxaceae family, an elderberry species. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were reported as the phenolic acid constituents in this extract. ...
Article
Few licensed drugs and vaccines are available concerning COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2). Furthermore, numerous recent SARS-COV-2 variants of have arisen globally, demonstrating the need to develop broadly protective interventions for different coronavirus strains. Polyphenols are the largest class of natural bioactive compounds, categorized as flavonoids (catechins, quercetin and kaempferol) and non-flavonoids (gallic acid and resveratrol), and these compounds have been described as effective antiviral agents. This is because they can inhibit coronavirus enzymes, blocking replication and infection. The present short manuscript aimed to summarize and report the current evidence from well-known powerful flavonoid (catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol) and non-flavonoid (gallic acid and resveratrol) polyphenols obtained from plant extracts that inhibit coronavirus strains in in vitro models or by computer modeling. The knowledge of strategies beyond conventional treatments may be helpful in the development of new coronavirus drugs, treatments/medicines, or formulations.
... It has significant antioxidant activity and has the potential in the food industry to significantly extend the shelf life of foods such as vegetable oils [67,68]. A scientific study by Weng et al. [69] monitored antiviral activity against HCo-V-NL63 coronavirus. Phenolic components such as caffeic acid (IC50 = 3.54 μM) and coumaric acid (IC50 = 71.48 ...
... μM) showed anti-HCoV-NL63 activity. Caffeic acid significantly inhibited HCoV-NL63 replication independent of the cell type and specifically blocked virus attachment [69,70]. In addition, caffeic acid can inhibit other viruses, such as the hepatitis B virus [71]. ...
Article
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In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in developing natural drugs derived from medicinal plants. Multiple in-vitro screening studies reported that some naturally occurring compounds could possess inhibitory activity against various human viruses. The presented work describes significant biological activities of the main class of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds and terpenes located in industrially important tree species Norway spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris). Phytochemicals show promising in vitro antiviral and cytotoxic activities, making them an attractive starting material for new development in various pharmaceutical products. They have the potential to effectively protect human health against cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and as therapeutic agents against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
... Analyses of clinical trials have suggested the effectiveness of specific plant extracts of Sambucus nigra, Pelargonium sidoides, or Cistus incanus for the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases, regardless of their etiology [2][3][4]. For Sambucus and Pelargonium polyphenols, antiviral activity against human coronaviruses has been demonstrated in laboratory studies [5,6] so obtaining a dietary supplement containing extracts from elderberries is a topical necessity. ...
... Antiviral activity against human coronaviruses has also been shown for Sambucus polyphenols in laboratory studies [5,6]. ...
Article
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In the current context, when more and more unknown pathogens appear, healthy eating and supplementing it with natural products play an increasingly important role in maintaining the health of the body. The European black elder (Sambucus nigra), found in abundance in the spontaneous flora, can provide us, as a raw material, elderberries, which have been known for thousands of years as having nutritional and healing properties. The phytotherapeutic principles found in elderberry fruits give them antiviral, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties, antitumor potential, antioxidant, antidepressant and immune boosting properties, as well as a certain impacts on obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Polyphenols and lectins give elderberry fruits the ability to inhibit coronaviruses, which is a topic of great interest in our times. This article summarizes the existing data regarding the chemical composition, active principles and biopharmaceutical properties of elderberries, as well as their use.
... This review included 15 in vitro studies conducted in four different countries, as 9 studies were done in Korea, 3 in Taiwan, 2 in China and 1 in Iran. These studies were published from 2011 to 2018 except 3 of which 1 was published in 2019 and 2 were published in 2020 [10,25,49]. On study explained the antiviral activity towards SARS coronavirus 2 [35] while the other study was on the coronavirus NL63 in humans and [25]. ...
... These studies were published from 2011 to 2018 except 3 of which 1 was published in 2019 and 2 were published in 2020 [10,25,49]. On study explained the antiviral activity towards SARS coronavirus 2 [35] while the other study was on the coronavirus NL63 in humans and [25]. The methanolic, ethanolic, and water extracts of the plant were investigated in 3 studies, while 1 study was based on an herbal mixture of 11 Chinese plants. ...
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COVID-19 is catastrophic widespread in world history. There are many efforts and investments to develop the medicines as far the immune or treat this disease. However, drug and medication are paying to pivot the consideration; it seems from the results of different studies that have been done on plant-originated medicines. These medicines could also be potent candidates for the formulation and development of drugs that inhibit the activity of this virus and control the disease. In this study was discussed the antiviral capability of medicinal isolated natural products and phytochemicals from herbs and plant take part to prohibit the activity of many strains of coronaviruses (CoVs) that cause the diseases in the human. It shows that antiviral plant compounds or molecules is being used for the development of medicines against the CoVs which are responsible for the COVID-19 disease.
... Considering the growing threat of COVID-19 pandemic, it is essential to study the efficacy of such molecules against SARS-CoV-2. Polyphenols are a group of natural compounds that showed antiviral properties against RNA viruses (Wohlfarth and Efferth 2009;Özçelik et al. 2011;Rojas et al. 2016;Weng et al. 2019). Nowadays, such ployphenol compounds were in silico screened for their SARS-CoV-2 proteases inhibition (da Silva et al. 2020;Huang et al. 2020;kaviarasu et al. 2020). ...
... It has a potent antiviral effect. For example, it has a strong anti-HCoV-NL63 (Human coronavirus NL63) potential (Weng et al. 2019). Compound 1 showed also an anti-IAV (You et al. 2018) as well as an anti-parainfluenza type 3 virus (HPIV3) and an anti-herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1) potency (Özçelik et al. 2011). ...
Article
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The rapid transmission of the pneumonia (COVID-19) emerged as an entire worldwide health concern and it was declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a consequence of the increasing reported infections number. COVID-19 disease is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, and unfortunatly no drugs are currently approved against this desease. Accordingly, it is of outmost importance to review the possible therapeutic effects of naturally-occuring compounds that showed approved antiviral activities. The molecular docking approach offers a rapid prediction of a possible inhibition of the main enzymes Mpro and RdRp that play crucial role in the SARS-CoV-2 replication and transcription. In the present work, we review the anti-viral activities of polyphenol compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and stilbene) derived from the traditional Chinese medicinal Vitis amurensis. Recent molecular docking studies reported the possible binding of these polyphenols on SARS-CoV-2 enzymes Mpro and RdRp active sites and showed interesting inhibitory effects. This antiviral activity was explained by the structure-activity relationships of the studied compounds. Also, pharmacokinetic analysis of the studied molecules is simulated in the present work. Among the studied polyphenol compounds, only five, namely caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, naringenin and catechin have drug-likeness characteristics. These five polyphenols derived from Vitis amurensis are promising drug candidates for the COVID-19 treatment.
... A new insight into elderberry anthocyanins bioactivity results from the exploring of anti-HCoV-NL63 activity of Sambucus Formosana Nakai stem ethanol extract and some markers of its phenolic compounds. It is has been demonstrated that Sambucus antiviral properties might be beneficial against the broad spectrum of human respiratory coronaviruses and applied for developing the antiviral agents in the future [6]. flavonoids, however, is the highest in elderberry flowers [23]. ...
... Flavonoids can inhibit and promote iron absorption depending on their chemical structure due to chelation and/or reduction of iron [35]. However, despite the numerous studies regarding the therapeutic potential of the elderberry [4,6,22], there is no information about the possible interactions with metals, particularly the two essential trace elements, iron and copper. Due to low iron chelating activity and high iron reducing activity under acidic conditions, elderberry fruit extracts might promote iron absorption in the duodenum or proximal jejunum due to the facilitated conversion of ferric ions to ferrous ions [35]. ...
Article
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Elderberry growth phases represent an irreversible process involving a series of biochemical changes that have an extremely important impact on nutritional characteristics. The aim was to assess the impact of genotype and maturity stage on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and mineral profile in Sambucus plants harvested during different growth phases, from green elder flower buds to purple-black elderberries, including pollen, peduncles and seeds. Growth phases proved to have a greater influence compared to varieties. The green buds and flowers of both varieties had a high concentration of quercetin 3-rutinoside, also termed the key compound of the study. It was found that antioxidant activity varied in the following order: blooming elder flower pollen > white elder flower buds > blooming elder flowers. Based on these findings, several novel food ingredients and supplements could be obtained in order to develop innovative health-promoting products.
... It has been reported in a study [17] that oil vapors target the hemagglutinin protein of the virus, which blocks the replication of the virus and hence, benefits people suffering from respiratory disorders to heal fast. The above-stated multipurpose application of plant extracts and their key bioactive compounds can prove to be of great help in future drug development programs targeting to block the chain of virus reproduction [9]. However, these drug target hypotheses require clinical confirmation and need to be examined for the different strains of the virus in the COVID-19 positive patients [12]. ...
... They have immunomodulatory effects on the human immune system and improve the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes by stimulating phagocytosis and regulating the production of vital proinflammatory cytokines from monocytes. The clinical trials on dietary intake of caffeic acid (Echinacea purpurea) are recommended as a prophylactic treatment of COVID-19 positive patients [9]. The molecular docking study on caffeic acid derivatives confirmed the strong molecular affinity of calceolarioside B with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, exhibiting the inhibitory action of the compound against coronavirus [47]. ...
Article
Background: The rapid eruption of Coronavirus at the end of 2019 has caused global health crisis and significant loss to the economy and social well-being. This created a massive shortage of advanced health facilities with inadequate medicinal supply, further deteriorating human health conditions. On the basis of adverse effects of the ongoing pandemic, this review is proposed to evaluate the antiviral efficacy of plant-based therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 (commonly called COVID19) infection. It highlights the possible action of the mechanism of phytotherapeutic drugs against coronavirus inhibition, further validated by clinical trials on herbal formulas. Though the experimental studies on COVID19 treatment are limited, the undesirable side effects of herbal drugs and unidentified compounds cannot be ignored. Objective: We have made an effort to study the prospective plant-derived bioactive entities and their effectiveness in the treatment of COVID19 and emphasize safety and regulatory concerns of phytomedicines. Methods: The methodology involves the relevant studies on COVID19 treatment based on herbal extracts and the purified bioactive metabolites. The e-literature survey is done by downloading research articles available on PubMed (National library of medicine), Elsevier, and Google scholar search engines. The keywords used are plant metabolites, natural bioactive, phytotherapeutic drugs, clinical trials, SARS-CoV-2, Coronavirus inhibitors and herbal extracts. Results: The review pays particular attention to the etiological study of the COVID19 virus and its inhibition using medicinal plant metabolites as immunomodulatory agents. The application of valuable bioactive like phenolic compounds, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in preparing herbal formula/drug. The drug resistance of bioactive compounds and their side effects on human health were discussed for effective phytomedicine. Thus, emphasizing the perspectives of phytotherapeutic drugs as a safe remedy to boost immunomodulatory functions and antiviral activity against COVID19. Conclusion: Altogether, the review presents the action mechanism of plant extracts rich in bioactive compounds and depicted potential antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. These plant bioactive compounds can serve as lead molecules to develop phytomedicine, ensuring all safety regulations in the clinical trials to treat or prevent COVID19 viral infections.
... Other derivative therapeutic agents from medicinal plants have been reported to inhibit the entry and replication of several coronaviruses. For examples, 3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3′,4,7 trihydroxyflavane (flavonoid) derivative of Broussonetia papyrifera inhibits coronavirus proteases enzyme of MERS_CoV virus [19], 4 -Hydroxychalcone (flavonoid) derivative of Cinnamomum spp inhibits viral replication of HCoV-NL63 virus and MERS_CoV virus [20,21]. Echinacea purpurea inhibits viral replication of SARS-CoV virus, MERS-CoV virus, and HCoV-229E virus [22]. ...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is a serious disease that has caused multiple deaths in various countries in the world. Globally, as of May 23, 2021, the total confirmed cases of COVID-19 have reach 166,346,635 with a total of 3,449,117 deaths. Several recent scientific studies have shown that medicinal plants and vitamins can benefit and improve the health of COVID-19 patients. However, the benefits of medicinal plants and vitamins in the treatment of COVID-19 remain unproven. Therefore, the objective of this article is to expounds the benefits of using medicinal plants (Allium sativum, curcumin, Nigella sativa, Zingiber officitale) and vitamins (vitamin C and vitamin D) that possess the antiviral properties for the prevention and/or control of COVID-19. To reach our objective, we searched scientific databases of ongoing trials in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention websites, PubMed Central, Medline databases, and Google Scholar websites. We also searched databases on World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to collect relevant papers. We found that all of the selected medicinal plants and vitamins possess antiviral activities, and their individual intake shows promise for the prevention and/or control of COVID-19. We conclude that, the selected medicinal plants and vitamins possess anti-viral properties that are more likely to prevent and/or disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle, enhance the human immune system and promote good health.
... S. formosana Nakai inhibited HCoV virus and the Caffeic acid was the strongest inhibitor of HCoV-NL63 and powerfully reduced the viral attachment to the host.2 28 13 ...
Article
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Background: World Health Organization states that antibacterial/antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can threaten the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. Objective: This review aims to discuss the plants and their derivatives having anti-corona virus/ viral activity. Methods: For the preparation of this review article, all the relevant information was gathered from accessible and inaccessible resources (Web, Books, Thesis, etc.). Results: It has been accepted worldwide that the uses of herbal products provide stronger immunity which helps to fight against these microbial species. The SARS-CoV2 virus is now a pandemic, affecting many countries around the globe. This long series of herbal species may interfere with the target-specific proteins named S Protein, S protein-ACE-2 interaction, Helicase protein, N Protein, 3CL pr, PL pro to prevent the viral replication in the host. Traditional herbal medicine not only inhibits the virus attachment to the host body but also prevents replication and boosts up the host immune system. Natural remedies reduce the viral load and, in such conditions, the immunity becomes stronger, and so the patient can recover soon. Conclusion: The herbs-natural compounds with antiviral activity can effectively inhibit/blockade the CoV-host protein. Herbal medicine having immune boost-up properties will play a major role as an anti-corona virus drug.
... [33] CHM is believed to have a wide range of antiviral effects and reduce pulmonary inflammatory effects. [34] Some studies have shown that CHM might have compounds with capacity against COVID-19, [35] and have a role in the treatment and symptomatic management of patients with COVID-19. [36,37] For example, Lianhua Qingwen capsules significantly inhibited SARS-COV-2 replication, affected virus morphology and exerted anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, and Maxing Shigan decoction significantly reduced pulmonary inflammation in vivo. ...
Article
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Background: In December 2019, the first case of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 viral infection was described in Wuhan. Similar to SARS in 2003, COVID-19 also had a lasting impact. Approximately 76% of patients discharged after hospitalization for COVID-19 had neurological manifestations which could persist for 6 months, and some long-term consequences such as the gradual loss of lung function due to pulmonary interstitial fibrosis could have comprehensive effects on daily quality of life for people who were initially believed to have recovered from COVID-19. Methods and analysis: Our comprehensive search strategy developed in consultation with a research librarian. We will search these following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase, ProQuest, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, WHO covid-19 website, and Centers for Disease Control and the Prevention COVID-19 websites of the United States and China. The bias of publication will be confirmed via the P value of Egger test. The quality of studies will be evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Ethics and dissemination: There are no ethical considerations associated with this study protocol for this systematic review which mainly focuses on the examination of secondary data. On completion of this analysis, we will prepare a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Prospero registration number: CRD42021258711.
... However, this claim is not supported by subsequent studies. There is a considerable preclinical study that elderberry inhibits replication and viral attachment of Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), which is a member of the same coronavirus family as Covid-19 [49]. Based on in vitro studies, bioactive compounds have inhibited the biosynthesis of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1a, IL-1b, and tumor necrosis factor-α in human peripheral mononuclear cells [40]. ...
... The elderberry (Sambucus nigra) may be useful against COVID-19 due to its capacity to stimulate the immune system and inhibit the replication of viruses, including human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), which differs from COVID-19 but belongs to the same family of coronaviruses [56][57][58][59]. It could be especially helpful during the initial stage of coronavirus infection or for preventing infection. ...
Article
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The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The cumulative number of cases reported globally is now nearly 197 million and the number of cumulative deaths is 4.2 million (26 July to 1 August 2021). Currently we are focusing primarily on keeping a safe distance from others, washing our hands, and wearing masks, and the question of the effects of diet and diet-dependent risk factors remains outside the center of attention. Nevertheless, numerous studies indicate that diet can play an important role in the course of COVID-19. In this paper, based on select scientific reports, we discuss the structure and replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors, dietary standards for sick patients, and the roles of the microbiome and dietary components supporting the immune system in preventing COVID-19.
... [17] The implementation of elderberry into one's diet may play a role in strengthening a person's immune system from the effects of the coronavirus. [18] ...
Article
Neurodegenerative disease presents itself in a complex array of illnesses that is increasingly affecting the geriatric population. There has not been research on a common cause since there are a culmination of reasons that are probable ranging from genetic to environmental factors. Antioxidants have been known to prevent and protect against the damage that is otherwise caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, high-capacity antioxidant juices supplemented into the diet of animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, rats, and humans will allow for the study of the possible benefits. Although a conclusion and common causation on the usage of antioxidant-rich nutrients and longevity have not been explicitly found yet, there is a correlation between the polyphenol content of antioxidant-rich substances and the longer lifespan and reduced health issues within many animal species. This combination of preventative medicine and nutrition is known in one term as nutraceuticals. In addition to the prevention of chronic health problems, the antioxidant-rich substances mentioned, specifically Aronia melanocarpa, may be utilized to enhance sport performance. This may be achieved by reducing the cell damage that occurs with high impact physical activity. I hope that my findings may contribute to further studies on preventative measures against a number of diseases.
... Several phenolic compounds have exhibited antiviral activity against coronaviruses, and their chemical structures are illustrated in Fig. (1) [29]. Another study conducted on the phenolic constituents of the Sambucus formosana Nakai extract found that phenolic acids including caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and coumaric acid sustained the anti-HCoV-NL63 activity [52]. In addition, caffeic acid had the most potent inhibition of virus yield (IC 50 = 3.54 μM), followed by chlorogenic acid (IC 50 = 43.45 ...
Chapter
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are associated with several infectious outbreaks in humans, beginning with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019. There are currently no natural or synthetic drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV2. Because of the COVID-19 outbreak, many people have returned to the use of complementary or traditional medicinal therapies for prophylaxis or treatment. Herbal extracts and their purified natural compounds provide a platform for the development of novel antiviral candidates. Effective drugs may be designed based on the chemical structure of natural compounds that exhibit potential effects. Researchers have primarily focused on 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike (S) proteins as drug targets for SARS-CoV. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies of the viral genome have provided evidence of a close similarity between SARS-CoV2 and SARS-CoV1. Here, we review the literature with respect to plant extracts from different families that have been examined for antiviral activity against coronavirus diseases and explore the underlying mechanisms. We also discuss the structures of promising natural compounds representing different categories that serve as SARS-CoV chemical inhibitors. Hopefully, this chapter will provide a valuable tool for scientists interested in developing effective naturally derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs for the management of COVID-19 development and progression.
... Acido caffeico: è un acido fenolico presente in molti cibi (verdura, frutta, caffè, propoli) inibisce l'interazione del virus con il recettore ACE2 95 . Resveratrolo: è presente nell'uva, arachidi, mirtillo ha mostrato elevata affinità e molta selettività per il recettore ACE2 96,97 . ...
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Il testo analizza l'esperienza della rete di Nutrizione Clinica della regione Piemonte nei percorsi dedicati al malato COVID-19 in diversi setting assistenziali, dalle terapia intensive, alla media-bassa intensità fino al domicilio. Si analizza il ruolo della malnutrizione in tutte le sue forme come aggravante della prognosi o come fattore complicante la degenza
... The highest concentration among analyzed acids was detected for cinnamic acid in pecan nuts and was 12.774 µg/g. All of determined aromatic acids in nuts are characterized by biological activity, including neuroprotective activity (caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, coumaric and syringic acids), antioxidant activity (caffeic, cinnamic, ferulic and vanillic acids), hepatoprotective effect (syringic acid), antitumor activity (cinnamic acid) and antiviral action (caffeic and coumaric acids) [47][48][49][50]. ...
Article
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Edible nuts are an important component of a healthy diet, and their frequent consumption has beneficial impact on human health, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, various factors, including cultivar, climate, soil characteristic, storage and treatment have influence on the chemical composition of nuts. Therefore, nine tree nut types and peanuts commonly available on Polish market were evaluated for phenolic profile and mineral elements content. The concentration of individual phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, aromatic acids and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) was determined by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography, while the content of macro-elements and trace minerals was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The phenolic profile of analyzed nuts substantially varied depending on the type of nut. The highest total content of all analyzed flavonoids was determined in walnuts (114.861 µg/g), while the lowest in almonds (1.717 µg/g). In turn, the highest total content of all tested aromatic acid was determined in pecans (33.743 µg/g), and the lowest in almonds (0.096 µg/g). Epicatechin and cinnamic acid were detected in the highest concentration in tested nuts. Moreover, in examined nuts (except walnuts and Brazil nuts), the presence of CAPE was confirmed. The tested nuts were also characterized by wide variation in element concentrations. Almonds contained high concentration of macro-elements (13,111.60 µg/g), while high content of trace elements was determined in pine nuts (192.79 µg/g). The obtained results indicate that the tested nuts are characterized by a significant diversity in the content of both phenolic compounds and minerals. However, all types of nuts, apart from the well-known source of fatty acids, are a rich source of various components with beneficial effect on human health.
... Catechin inhibits both Mpro and spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 predicted by using computational study (Srivastava et al. 2020). Caffeic acid was able to impair the binding interaction of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) with ACE2 receptor (IC50 = 3.54 μM) (Weng et al. 2019). In this study, we have tried to identify phytoconstituents showing better binding efficacy with S-protein RBD complex with ACE2 and to compare its binding with already approved drugs like ribavirin and favipiravir. ...
Article
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There is an urgent need for reliable cure and preventive measures in this hour of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. Siddha- and Ayurvedic-based classical formulations have antiviral properties and great potential therapeutic choice in this pandemic situation. In the current study, in silico-based analysis for the binding potential of phytoconstituents from the classical formulations suggested by the Ministry of Ayush (Kabasura Kudineer, Shwas Kuthar Rasa with Kantakari and pippali churna, Talisadi churna) to the interface domain of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was performed. Maestro software from Schrodinger and tools like Glide Docking, induced fit docking, MM-GBSA, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and thermal MM-GBSA was used to analyze the binding of protein PDB ID:6VW1 and the selected 133 ligands in comparison with drug molecules like favipiravir and ribavirin. QikProp-based ADMET evaluation of all the phytoconstituents found them nontoxic and with drug-like properties. Selection of top ten ligands was made based on docking score for further MM-GBSA analysis. After performing IFD of top five molecules iso-chlorogenic acid, taxiphyllin, vasicine, catechin and caffeic acid, MD simulation and thermal MM-GBSA were done. Iso-chlorogenic acid had formed more stable interaction with key residue among all phytoconstituents. Computational-based study has highlighted the potential of the many constituents of traditional medicine to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and ACE2, which might stop the viral entry into the cell. However, in vivo experiments and clinical trials are necessary for supporting this claim. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11696-021-01917-z.
... In vitro and in silico studies show that phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid phenethyl ester, caffeic acid, chrysin, galangin, resveratrol, quercetin, catechin and hesperidin can be used as supportive agents in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 (15). A recent in vitro study has shown that the caffeic acid compound has powerful antagonist activity against human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 by inhibiting the interaction of the virus with the ACE2 receptor (16). The potential antagonistic activity of caffeic acid toward SARS-CoV-2 has been highlighted in a recent molecular-docking study, where the binding capacities of some propolis compounds against the Mpro virus were investigated. ...
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Background: No prophylactic treatment is available for individuals at high risk of developing COVID-19. This study, which was conducted between December 25, 2020 and January 25, 2021, is one of the first clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy of Anatolian propolis supplement against COVID-19. The aim was to obtain evidence on the prophylactic use of Anatolian propolis in individuals at high risk of developing COVID-19. Methods: This volunteer-based study was conducted in two centers. Study involved 209 healthcare professionals (physicians, nurses, medical secretaries) from Emergency Medicine Department of Medical Faculty of Ataturk University and Emergency Medicine Department of Rize Recep Tayyip Erdogan University. 209 participants meeting the study criteria were divided into two groups as experimental group and control group. The experimental group received 20 drops of BEE'O UP 30% Propolis Drops twice a day during a follow-up period of 1 month. The control group received no supplement but was followed up. Findings: The participants showing symptoms during the study and all the participants at the end the study were subjected to PCR testing. The evaluation of the results of PCR testing at the end of the study has shown that 14 participants from the control group and only 2 participants from the experimental group, who received Anatolian propolis supplement, were reported as positive cases. Interpretation: It has been found that a statistically significant protection was induced against COVID-19 infection in 98% of the experimental group, who received Anatolian propolis, compared to the control group.
... Studies have shown that elderberry was both an edible and medicinal plant, which was the potential source of antioxidant ingredients (3) that can be used as a healthy dietary supplement in the preparation of jams and yogurt, and also applied in the treatment of common symptoms related to colds, fevers, coughs, and influenza (4). In addition, elderberry contains sugars, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, triterpenoids, and other bioactive substances, so elderberries also have better physiological and pharmacological effects in antioxidants (5), anti-influenza (6), antiviral (7), antiinflammatory (8), and anti-radiation (9). ...
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The isolation, purification, and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from elderberry fruits were studied. Two neutral polysaccharides (EFP-0 and EFP-1) and three acidic polysaccharides (EFP-2, EFP-3, and EFP-4) were isolated from elderberry. EFP-0, EFP-1, EFP-2, EFP-3, and EFP-4 all contain arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose, with molecular weights of 1.7981 × 106, 7.0523 × 106, 7.7638 × 106, 4.3855 × 105, and 7.3173 × 105 Da, respectively. Structural characterization showed that the backbone of EFP-2 consisted of →4)-Manp (1→4)-β-D-Glcp (1→ and →4)-β-D-Glcp (1→5)-α-L-Araf (1→units, and T-α-L-Araf (1→ and T-β-D-Galp (1→ residues were detected by methylation analysis and NMR analysis. In addition, the MTT assay and zebrafish oxidative damage assay showed that EFP-2 had a protective effect on H2O2-damaged RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and zebrafish with the addition of EFP-2 would have low levels of ROS in vivo which showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the results showed that the elderberry polysaccharides have antioxidant activity and can be used as potential antioxidants in functional foods.
... It has been reported that CGA has an antiviral potential against coronavirus NL63, Influenza A virus and Hepatitis B virus [39,42,76], proposing that CGA had the propensity to be established and used as antiviral drug. We assumed that the anti-IBV effect of CGA might correlate with TLR7 and MDA5 signaling pathway as TLRs, MDA5, and adapter molecules are involved in recognition of IBV RNA [14]. ...
Article
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic compound that has been well studied for its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulating properties. This research was aimed to focus on the antiviral properties of CGA on infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in vivo and in vitro for the very first time. The outcome of in vitro experiments validated that, out of five previously reported antiviral components, CGA significantly reduced the relative mRNA expression of IBV-N in CEK cells. At high concentration (400 mg/kg), CGA supplementation reduced IBV-N mRNA expression levels and ameliorated the injury in trachea and lungs. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12, and NF-κB were considerably turned down, but IL-22 and IL-10 were enhanced in trachea. However, CGA-H treatment had considerably increased the expression levels of MDA5, MAVS, TLR7, MyD88, IRF7, IFN-β and IFN-α both in trachea and lungs. Moreover, CGA-H notably induced the CD3+, CD3+ CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ proliferation and significantly increased the IgA, IgG, and IgM levels in the serum. In conclusion, these results showed that at high concentration CGA is a strong anti-IBV compound that can effectively regulate the innate immunity through MDA5, TLR7 and NF-κB signaling pathways and have the potential to induce the cell mediated and humoral immune response in IBV infected chickens.
... In the flow cytometry cell cycle assay, the cells were harvested, washed, fixed, and then stained using the PI solution for 15 min in the dark. The cell cycle profile of beyond 10,000 cells per sample was directly analyzed by flow cytometry with an excitation wavelength of 488 nm and the emission wavelength of 620 nm, as described in our prior report [24]. ...
Article
Introduction: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes the outbreaks of Latin America in 2015 - 2016, with the incidence of neurological complications. Sunitinib malate, an orally bioavailable malate salt of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is suggested as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent against emerging viruses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: This study investigated the antiviral efficacy and antiviral mechanisms of sunitinib malate against ZIKV infection using cytopathic effect reduction, virus yield, and time-of-addition assays. Results: Sunitinib malate concentration-dependently reduced ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect, the expression of viral proteins, and ZIKV yield in supernatant with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.015 μM, and the selectivity index of greater than 100 against ZIKV infection, respectively. Sunitinib malate had multiple antiviral actions during entry and post-entry stages of ZIKV replication. Sunitinib malate treatment at entry stage significantly reduced the levels of ZIKV RNA replication with the reduction of (+) RNA to (-) RNA ratio and the production of new intracellular infectious particles in infected cells. The treatment at post-entry stage caused a concentration-dependent increase in the levels of ZIKV (+) RNA and (-) RNA in infected cells, along with enlarging the ratio of (+) RNA to (-) RNA, but caused a pointed increase in the titer of intracellular infectious particles by 0.01 and 0.1 μM, and a substantial decrease in the titer of intracellular infectious particles by 1 μM. Conclusion: The study discovered the antiviral actions of sunitinib malate against ZIKV infection, demonstrating a repurposed, host-targeted approach to identify potential antiviral drugs for treating emerging and global viral diseases.
... By inhibition of NOX4 activity, ROS release is blocked and MAPK phosphorylation is prevented which results in inhibition of nucleoprotein traffic and viral release. Phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, and proanthocyanidins are very well known for their antioxidative properties which are the base for specific antiviral, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic effects (Weng et al., 2019;Mahmood et al., 2016;Wang and Liu, 2014). The main process by which biflavonoids exhibit scavenging free radicals is that phenolic hydroxyls of these molecules can react with free radicals in order to complete a chain reaction. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reservoir of natural products against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and to identify suitable candidates in order to recommend appropriate phytotherapy. Adequately prepared 65 molecules from traditional Chinese medicine with proven antiviral properties were subjected to docking analysis using AutoDock Vina 4 software with the aim to investigate binding affinity and interactions of compounds with Mpro from the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Biflavonoids and tannins show best docking scores with -9,80kcal/mol for biflavonoids and -9,00 kcal/mol for tannins. Biflavonoids: amentoflavone, agathistaflavone, robustaflavone, hinokiflavone and rhusflavanone were tested for their radical scavenging activity. Partition coefficients were examined by RP-HPLC. Evaluation of drug-likeness properties of investigated biflavonoids suggested rhusflavanone as a molecule with the best ADMET characteristics. Anti-inflammatory activity of rhusflavanone was investigated in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Tested biflavonoids exibit beneficial effects against inflammation by scavenging free radicals and by suppressing the production of proinflammatory mediators by macrophages. Both predictions of affinity spectra for substances (PASS) and in vitro testing showed promising biological activity of investigated biflavonoids. A Quantum chemical study was performed in order to calculate the thermodynamic, molecular orbital, and electrostatic potential of selected molecules and to compare their biological and chemical features. Our results highlighted antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties of investigated compounds, emphasizing the significance of biflavonoid moiety to selected characteristics, which encourage further investigational strategies against COVID-19.
... The isolated constituents from S. javanica including caffeic acid, (Weng et al., 2019). In another study, the crude extracts of S. ebulus exhibited low toxicity attained by the maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) assay in MDBK cell line (1.5 mg/mL) with the CC 50 value of 3.44 mg/mL on the investigated antiviral activity against herpes simplex. ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance The genus Sambucus L. (Viburnaceae) consists of about 29 recognized species distributed in all regions of the world except the extremely cold and desert areas. Some species have been used as traditional medicines to treat various disorders such as bone fractures, rheumatism, diabetes, respiratory and pulmonary disorders, skin diseases, inflammatory ailments, diarrhea, and others. However, the currently available data on traditional and pharmacological uses have not been comprehensively reviewed. Study aim The present review is designed to provide information on the ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry, toxicity, and the known biological properties of Sambucus, to understand their connotations and provide a scientific basis and gaps for further research. Materials and methods The information was obtained from different bibliographic databases, Google Scholar, Springer Link, Web of Science, PubMed, and Science Direct along with other literature sources such as dissertation before August 2021. The scientific names were validated using The Plant List and World Flora Online websites. Results Twelve Sambucus species were found to be frequently mentioned in ethnomedical uses recorded in China, Korea, Turkey, Iran, and other countries. Traditionally, they have been used as remedies to numerous health complications among others, bone fractures and rheumatism, diabetes, wounds, inflammatory diseases, diarrhea, menstrual pains, respiratory and pulmonary complaints, skin disorders, headaches, snakebites, and urinary tract infections. To date, only eleven species have been studied for their chemical compounds and a total of 425 bioactive constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fatty acids, cyanogenic glycosides, phytosterols, lectins, organic acids, alkaloid, coumarin, anthraquinone, and others have been reported. The crude extracts and the isolated chemical constituents exhibited diverse outstanding pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-giardial, immunomodulatory, scolicidal, anti-ulcerogenic, antiradical, bone-protective, anti-glycemic, antiosteoporotic, hypolipidemic, anti-glycation, and wound-healing properties. Conclusion This study summarized and scrutinized the data on traditional uses, pharmacological activities, phytochemicals, and toxicity of Sambucus species, which indicate they have interesting chemical compounds with diverse biological activities. Many traditional uses of some species from this genus have now been confirmed by pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, bone-protective, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. However, the currently available data has several gaps in understanding the traditional uses of all Sambucus species. Thus, we strongly recommend further investigations into the scientific connotations between traditional medicinal uses and pharmacological activities, mode of action of the isolated bioactive constituents, and toxicity of other Sambucus species to unravel their efficacy and therapeutic potential for safe clinical application. The current extensive study avails valuable information on therapeutic use of Sambucus species and paves way for further investigations of other useful species, as well as drug discovery.
... The action of caffeic acid against HSV demonstrated by Ikeda et al. (2011) [10], who estimated that caffeic acid prevents the completion of viral DNA. Meanwhile, Weng et al. [55], showed that p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and Caffeic acid present an activity against the human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63). Regarding Cocos nucifera, Table 1 shows that it would have an action against Visna virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, Herpes Simplex Virus, influenza virus, leukemia virus, pneumono virus, Hepatis C, and HIV, and informs that catechin and essential oil compounds: Mono, di or triglycerides or fatty acids (lauric acid, capric acid or myristic acid), would be at the origin of this activity by destroying the viral membrane or by interfering with the process of virus maturation [15,16,17]. ...
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The aim of the present work was to review data on the antiviral activities of some fruit plant species and their macronutrient composition. This was done with the aim of promoting these plants for the management of viral diseases, particularly covid-19. Several fruit plant species are mentioned in the literature for their antiviral properties. These include: Cocos nucifera, Garcinia mangostana, Malus domestica, Mangifera indica, Musa acuminate, Musa balbisiana, Musa paradisiaca, Nephelium lappaceum, Passiflora edulis, Persea americana, Syzygium aromaticum, Syzygium guineense, Syzygium malaccense, Vitis vinifera. Some compounds of the above-mentioned fruit plants can interact with the therapeutic targets of various viruses including SARS-Cov-2 proteases. Others, on the other hand, are known to have immunostimulatory or both antiviral and immunostimulatory activities.
... Several phenolic compounds have exhibited antiviral activity against coronaviruses, and their chemical structures are illustrated in Fig. (1) [29]. Another study conducted on the phenolic constituents of the Sambucus formosana Nakai extract found that phenolic acids including caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and coumaric acid sustained the anti-HCoV-NL63 activity [52]. In addition, caffeic acid had the most potent inhibition of virus yield (IC 50 = 3.54 μM), followed by chlorogenic acid (IC 50 = 43.45 ...
... Another in-silico study of flavonoids and polyphenolic acids in Tulsi suggests that they could also act as inhibitors of M pro . The antiviral properties of these phytochemicals have been demonstrated in laboratory studies [55]. As a result, chlorogenic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide emerge as the most promising candidates. ...
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Optimized therapeutic bio-compounds supported by bio-acceptable nanosystems (i.e., precise nanomedicine) have ability to promote health via maintaining body structure, organ function, and controlling chronic and acute effects. Therefore, nano-nutraceuticals (designed to neutralize virus, inhibit virus bindings with receptors, and support immunity) utilization can manage COVID-19 pre/post-infection effects. To explore these approaches well, our mini-review explores optimized bio-active compounds, their ability to influence SARS-CoV-2 infection, improvement in performance supported by precise nanomedicine approach, and challenges along with prospects. Such optimized pharmacologically relevant therapeutic cargo not only affect SARS-CoV-2 but will support other organs which show functional alternation due to SARS-CoV-2 for example, neurological functions. Hence, coupling the nutraceuticals with the nano-pharmacology perspective of higher efficacy via targeted delivery action can pave a novel way for health experts to plan future research needed to manage post COVID-19 infection effect where a longer efficacy with no side-effects is a key requirement.
... Fukuoka (Chinese elder) extract also exercised auspicious anti-human coronavirus properties. This extract significantly reduced virus yield, plaque generation and virus linking [36]. Moreover, there is preclinical indication that Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry) prevents the replication and viral linking of the human coronavirus NL63. ...
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Coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is an infectious pathology generated by intense severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This infectious disease has emerged in 2019. The COVID-19-associated pandemic has considerably affected the way of life and the economy in the world. It is consequently crucial to find solutions allowing remedying or alleviating the effects of this infectious disease. Natural products have been in perpetual application from immemorial time given that they are attested to be efficient towards several illnesses without major side effects. Various studies have shown that plant extracts or purified molecules have a promising inhibiting impact towards coronavirus. In addition, it is substantial to understand the characteristics, susceptibility and impact of diet on patients infected with COVID-19. In this review, we recapitulate the influence of extracts or pure molecules from medicinal plants on COVID-19. We approach the possibilities of plant treatment/co-treatment and feeding applied to COVID-19. We also show coronavirus susceptibility and complications associated with nutrient deficiencies and then discuss the major food groups efficient on COVID-19 pathogenesis. Then, we covered emerging technologies using plant-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We conclude by giving nutrient and plants curative therapy recommendations which are of potential interest in the COVID-19 infection and could pave the way for pharmacological treatments or co-treatments of COVID-19.
... μM) as being effective at decreasing human coronavirus NL-63 inoculum and attachment in cell culture. 50 It also appears that elder bioactives have immunomodulatory properties; however, it is not clear whether they prime the immune system by stimulating cytokine production 51 or reduce inflammation. 52 Evaluation of elder bioactivity is further complicated by the parallel use of flowers and berries in multiple food and botanical preparations and frequent lack of clarity on the exact origin of the extract in the scientific abstracts. ...
... More promising findings are now demonstrating that EE can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 ACE-2 binding in vitro(Boroduske et al., 2021). Recently, EE was able to reduce the virus yield, plaque formation, production of HCoV-NL63 particles in vitro and prevent virus attachment via the ACE-2 receptor(Weng et al., 2019). Based on the in vitro studies available it would suggest that EE does have anti-viral protective properties by preventing the initial progression of viral replication and may also have protective properties against SARS-CoV-2. ...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has been triggered by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although recent studies demonstrate that SARS‐CoV‐2 possibly does not directly infect endothelial cells (EC), the endothelium may be affected as a secondary response due to the damage of neighboring cells, circulating pro‐inflammatory cytokines, and/or other mechanisms. Long‐term COVID‐19 symptoms specifically nonrespiratory symptoms are due to the persistence of endothelial dysfunction (ED). Based on the literature, anthocyanins a major subgroup of flavonoid polyphenols found in berries, have been well researched for their vascular protective properties as well as the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD)‐related deaths. Elderberries have been previously used as a natural remedy for treating influenza, cold, and consequently cardiovascular health due to a high content of cyanidin‐3‐glucoside (C3G) a major anthocyanin found in the human diet. The literature reported many studies demonstrating that EE has both antiviral and vascular protective properties that should be further investigated as a nutritional component used against the (in)direct effect of SARS‐CoV‐2 in vascular function. Practical applications While previous work among the literature looks promising and builds a suggestion for investigating elderberry extract (EE) against COVID‐19, further in vitro and in vivo research is required to fully evaluate EE mechanisms of action and its use as a supplement to aid current therapies.
... A very high efficacy was reported (EC50 of 1.17 ± 0.75 μg/mL). Subsequent analysis of the phenolic constituents of the extracts identified caffeic acid as the most potent compound (EC 50 of 3.54 ± 0.77 μM; or ~0.64 ± 0.14 μg/mL) in anti-viral assays [148]. Caffeic acid has also been found to inhibit the virus attachment to the host cell [149]. ...
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The unexpected emergence of the new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected more than three hundred million individuals and resulted in more than five million deaths worldwide. The ongoing pandemic has underscored the urgent need for effective preventive and therapeutic measures to develop anti-viral therapy. The natural compounds possess various pharmaceutical properties and are reported as effective anti-virals. The interest to develop an anti-viral drug against the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from natural compounds has increased globally. Here, we investigated the anti-viral potential of selected promising natural products. Sources of data for this paper are current literature published in the context of therapeutic uses of phytoconstituents and their mechanism of action published in various reputed peer-reviewed journals. An extensive literature survey was done and data were critically analyzed to get deeper insights into the mechanism of action of a few important phytoconstituents. The consumption of natural products such as thymoquinone, quercetin, caffeic acid, ursolic acid, ellagic acid, vanillin, thymol, and rosmarinic acid could improve our immune response and thus possesses excellent therapeutic potential. This review focuses on the anti-viral functions of various phytoconstituent and alkaloids and their potential therapeutic implications against SARS-CoV-2. Our comprehensive analysis provides mechanistic insights into phytoconstituents to restrain viral infection and provide a better solution through natural, therapeutically active agents.
... SARS-CoV-2 virus ingestion, replication can easily be inhibited by inhibiting human ACE-2 receptor (Galani and Andreakos, 2021). Weng et al., (2019) showed that the phenol-rich extract of Sambucus formosana Nakai inhibited viral replication of human coronavirus NL63. Triterpenoids and flavonoid glycosides isolated from the ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia L. exhibited antiviral activity against human coronavirus. ...
Article
Background : The worldwide corona virus disease outbreak, generally known as COVID-19 pandemic outbreak resulted in a major health crisis globally. The morbidity and transmission modality of COVID-19 appear more severe and uncontrollable. The respiratory failure and following cardiovascular complications are the main pathophysiology of this deadly disease. Several therapeutic strategies are put forward for the development of safe and effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2 virus from the pharmacological view point but till date there are no specific treatment regimen developed for this viral infection. Purpose : The present review emphasizes the role of herbs and herbs-derived secondary metabolites in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus and also for the management of post-COVID-19 related complications. This approach will foster and ensure the safeguards of using medicinal plant resources to support the healthcare system. Plant-derived phytochemicals have already been reported to prevent the viral infection and to overcome the post-COVID complications like parkinsonism, kidney and heart failure, liver and lungs injury and mental problems. In this review, we explored mechanistic approaches of herbal medicines and their phytocomponenets as antiviral and post-COVID complications by modulating the immunological and inflammatory states. Study design : Studies related to diagnosis and treatment guidelines issued for COVID-19 by different traditional system of medicine were included. The information was gathered from pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions approaches. The gathered information sorted based on therapeutic application of herbs and their components against SARSCoV-2 and COVID-19 related complications. Methods : A systemic search of published literature was conducted from 2003 to 2021 using different literature database like Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science to emphasize relevant articles on medicinal plants against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and Post-COVID related complications. Results : Collected published literature from 2003 onwards yielded with total 625 articles, from more than 18 countries. Among these 625 articles, more than 95 medicinal plants and 25 active phytomolecules belong to 48 plant families. Reports on the therapeutic activity of the medicinal plants belong to the Lamiaceae family (11 reports), which was found to be maximum reported from 4 different countries including India, China, Australia, and Morocco. Other reports on the medicinal plant of Asteraceae (7 reports), Fabaceae (8 reports), Piperaceae (3 reports), Zingiberaceae (3 reports), Ranunculaceae (3 reports), Meliaceae (4 reports) were found, which can be explored for the development of safe and efficacious products targeting COVID-19. Conclusion : Keeping in mind that the natural alternatives are in the priority for the management and prevention of the COVID-19, the present review may help to develop an alternative approach for the management of COVID-19 viral infection and post-COVID complications from a mechanistic point of view.
... The proficiency about their salutary activities and functions has been passed on from generation to generation. The new trends in biotechnology and medicine have enabled the utilisation of natural-origin compounds to a more significant extent than within the previous decades, mainly because the dietary supplements and Nutraceuticals [41,42] . ...
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In nature, there are plenty of medicinal herbs and plants which contain active compounds decisive for their diverse prophylactic/ therapeutic behaviour against many human diseases. A thorough analysis of these phyto-compounds for antimicrobial activities has considered greater importance in the context of recent days. There is an urgent need for alternative medicine to control the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and its different variants, including delta strain and Omicron. Extensive research has revealed that identification and establishment of anti-viral activities of various prospective medicinal plants were limited due to: (a) infectious nature of viruses (b) absence of uncoupling techniques for the invention of anti-viral components from plants. With time progression of vector-based attempts, during which non-infectious molecular replica of an epidemic might be utilised for beneficial screening purposes alongside the development of separation techniques, offers the prospect for medicinal plants usage in current drug for the betterment of the society generally. The anti-viral mechanism of those agents could also be elucidated based on their scavenging abilities, inhibiting viral DNA replication, antioxidant activities, RNA synthesis, inhibition of the viral invasion, or inhibiting the viral propagation. A sizable amount of testing substances like phytochemicals and their synthetic residues are identified by consolidating in vitro and in vivo studies in various biological assays. In this review, comprehensive information on the recent advancement of plant-derived divergent phytochemicals as a probable non-conventional anti-viral substitute has been well explained.
... Fukuoka (Chinese elder) extract also exercised auspicious anti-human coronavirus properties. This extract significantly reduced virus yield, plaque generation and virus linking [36]. Moreover, there is preclinical indication that Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry) prevents the replication and viral linking of the human coronavirus NL63. ...
Article
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Citation: Brahmi, F.; Vejux, A.; Ghzaiel, I.; Ksila, M.; Zarrouk, A.; Ghrairi, T.; Essadek, S.; Mandard, S.; Leoni, V.; Poli, G.; et al. Role of Diet and Nutrients in SARS-CoV-2
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The Covid-19 pandemic is a major catastrophe in recent times that has taken a toll over the global scale in terms of the casualties, economic impact, and human beings' lifestyle. Scientists and researchers worldwide are dedicated to counter this issue using large-scale drug discovery and analysis to explore both the vaccination and the cure for Covid-19. However, almost all of the tested medicinal options cover allopathic medicines. A major issue associated with the above approach is the side effects that present a lacuna in arriving at an agreeable solution. To date, there are a total of >150,000,000 Covid-19 cases have been reported. However, to date, there is no report available on the scope and application of natural medicines in the treatment of the Covid-19. This review aims to target this area while covering the economic and other impacts of the Covid-19 on human life, the significance of greener solutions in countering drug development, and the possible solutions of the Covid-19 using herbal drug treatment.
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Transmissible Covid-19, caused by novel corona virus since last of 2019 has outspread widely until now. Where, India was the second most affected country and 3rd in mortality rate. In world ancient history, medicinal plants were played a crucial role to cure several diseases. In present study, we show some novel natural medicinal plant metabolites as the potential inhibitors against papain-like protease (PLpro), main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), transmembrane proteinase Serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) of Covid-19. Plant metabolites were having been proven to inhibit SARS-CoVs, which also actively walkable against Covid-19.
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Neurodegenerative disease presents itself in a complex array of illnesses that is increasingly affecting the geriatric population. There has not been research on a common cause since there are a culmination of reasons that are probable ranging from genetic to environmental factors. Antioxidants have been known to prevent and protect against the damage that is otherwise caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, high-capacity antioxidant juices supplemented into the diet of animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, rats, and humans will allow for the study of the possible benefits. Although a conclusion and common causation on the usage of antioxidant-rich nutrients and longevity have not been explicitly found yet, there is a correlation between the polyphenol content of antioxidant-rich substances and the longer lifespan and reduced health issues within many animal species. This combination of preventative medicine and nutrition is known in one term as nutraceuticals. In addition to the prevention of chronic health problems, the antioxidant-rich substances mentioned, specifically Aronia melanocarpa, may be utilized to enhance sport performance. This may be achieved by reducing the cell damage that occurs with high impact physical activity.
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Viral pneumonia has been a serious threat to global health, especially now we have dramatic challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately six million cases of community-acquired pneumonia occur every year, and over 20% of which need hospital admission. Influenza virus, respiratory virus, and coronavirus are the noteworthy causative agents to be investigated based on recent clinical research. Currently, anaphylactic reaction and inflammation induced by antiviral immunity can be incriminated as causative factors for clinicopathological symptoms of viral pneumonia. In this article, we illustrate the structure and related infection mechanisms of these viruses and the current status of antiviral therapies. Owing to a set of antiviral regiments with unsatisfactory clinical effects resulting from side effects, genetic mutation, and growing incidence of resistance, much attention has been paid on medicinal plants as a natural source of antiviral agents. Previous research mainly referred to herbal medicines and plant extracts with curative effects on viral infection models of influenza virus, respiratory virus, and coronavirus. This review summarizes the results of antiviral activities of various medicinal plants and their isolated substances, exclusively focusing on natural products for the treatment of the three types of pathogens that elicit pneumonia. Furthermore, we have introduced several useful screening tools to develop antiviral lead compounds.
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The current outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes an alarming number of deaths in 221 countries around the world. Nowadays, there is no specifc and effective drug regimen for curing COVID-19. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, several medicinal plants with promising results in the previous SARS-CoV could be used to treat SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. This work assesses proven medicinal plants as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) and spike (S) receptors by employing in silico methods. Molecular docking studies and 3D structure-based pharmacophore modeling were performed to identify the molecular interactions of potential active molecules with the Mpro and (S) receptor of SARS-CoV-2. The druglikeness and ADME properties were also predicted to support the drug-like nature of the selected active molecules. The results indicated that the most favorable ligand was Terrestriamide with (ΔG: ─8.70 kcal/mol; Ki: 0.417 μM) and (ΔG: ─7.02 kcal/mol; Ki: 7.21 μM) for Mpro and (S) receptor, respectively. Terrestriamide is also supported with a high drug-likeness value and appropriate ADME profle. Furthermore, to improve drug delivery, the cyclodextrin inclusion complex was calculated based on semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods. Terrestriamide/γ− cyclodextrin is the most favorable pathway of inclusion complex formation and could be used to treat COVID-19.
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Background: : The outbreak of COVID-19 has swiftly spread across China and all over the world, resulting in severe contagious pneumonia. However, no specific anti-COVID-19 drugs or methods are available for the treatment of this acute and fatal disease. In recent years, as the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been universally acknowledged, it has been brought to a crucial status domestically and overseas for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: : We searched relevant literature, electronic databases, and official statements, diagnoses and protocols to retrieve studies and applications related to traditional Chinese medicine for COVID-19 in terms of regulations and policies, clinical evidence, preclinical rationale and big data analysis and then summarized the discovery and development of potential drugs and their targets. Results: : Clinicians, researchers, governments, the public, colleges, institutes and companies collected and classified associated policies, regulations and actual contributions, searched clinical trials and preclinical experimental outcomes from databases, studied potential TCM drugs with possible mechanisms, retrieved numerous big data analysis method and gathered pooled results of compounds along with their effective targets to make traditional Chinese medicine vital to cover all stages of patients in the treatment and control of COVID-19. Conclusion: : Traditional Chinese medicine provides new evidence to support the clinical value of TCM for COVID-19.
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We describe an outbreak of severe respiratory illness associated with human coronavirus NL63 in a long-term care facility in Louisiana in November 2017. Six of 20 case-patients were hospitalized with pneumonia, and 3 of 20 died. Clinicians should consider human coronavirus NL63 for patients in similar settings with respiratory disease. © 2018, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.
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Background The prevalence, symptom course, and shedding in persons infected with the four most common human coronaviruses (HCoV) ‐229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43 are poorly described Objectives We estimate their prevalence and associated symptoms among college students identified via a social network study design. Patients/Methods We collected 1‐3 samples (n=250 specimens) from 176 participants between October 2012 and January 17, 2013: participants with acute respiratory infection (ARI) (cough and body aches or chills or fever/feverishness) and their social contacts. Virus was detected using RT‐PCR. Results 30.4% (76/250) of specimens tested positive for any virus tested and 4.8% (12/250) were positive for two or more viruses. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs [22.0%; 55/250]), rhinovirus (7.6%; 19/250), and influenza A (6.4%; 16/250) were most prevalent. Symptoms changed significantly over time among ARI participants with HCoV: the prevalence of cough and chills decreased over 6 days (p=0.04, and p=0.01, respectively), while runny nose increased over the same period (p=0.02). HCoV‐NL63 was the most frequent virus detected 6 days following symptom onset (8.9%), followed by rhinovirus (6.7%). Conclusions During a 3‐month period covering a single season, HCoVs were common, even among social contacts without respiratory symptoms; specific symptoms may change over the course of HCoV‐associated illness and were similar to symptoms from influenza and rhinovirus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Background. The pharmaceutical and food industries expect detailed knowledge on the physicochemical properties of elderberry fruit extracts, their stability and microbiological quality, as well as the polyphenol content in elderberry cultivars. The characteristics of the extracts might be additionally modified by citric acid, which improves the stability of anthocyanins and protects processed fruits and syrups from pathogenic microorganisms. The choice of the method with citric acid was a consequence of the physicochemical characteristics of elderberry pigments, which are not stable under the effect of light in alcoholic solutions. The aim of study was to analyze the properties of elderberry fruit extracts regarding polyphenol content and antiradical activity, as well as their stability and microbiological quality. Material and methods. The plant material consisted of fruit from four cultivars (Alleso, Korsor, Sampo, Samyl) of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.). The following were determined in fruit extracts: polyphenolic content (HPLC), antiradical activity (ABTS and DPPH) and stability and microbiological quality. Results. The HPLC analysis of polyphenols demonstrated that the extracts from fruits collected from cv. Samyl had the highest 3-sambubioside cyanidin content and those from cv. Korsor contained the highest quantity of 3-glucoside cyanidin. The extracts from cv. Sampo fruit had a dominant 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside cyanidin and 3,5-diglucoside cyanidin content. The highest quercetin (5.92 mg 100 mg⁻¹ of extract) and caffeic acid (1.21 mg 100 mg⁻¹ of extract) content was found in fruit extracts from cv. Alleso. The cultivars Samyl and Korsor had a higher level of anthocyanins and higher antiradical activity (ABTS) in fruit extracts than cv. Alleso and Sampo. The antiradical activity (DPPH) of fruit extracts from elderberry cultivars assessed in this research was similar. The degradation index for all fruit extracts was similar (DI = 1.035). The microbiological species detected in extracts were classified as moulds (Penicillum sp., Aspergillus sp.) and yeasts (Rhodotorula sp., Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Saccharomyces sp.). Conclusions. The research findings may support the selection of certain cultivars for industrial applications. The high stability of anthocyanins and low level of microbiological impurities in elderberry extracts ensure the high quality of such a raw material in food and pharmaceutical processing.
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Background: The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread worldwide and infected a large proportion of the human population. Discovery of new and effective drugs for the treatment of influenza is a crucial issue for the global medical community. According to our previous study, TSL-1, a fraction of the aqueous extract from the tender leaf of Toonasinensis, has demonstrated antiviral activities against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) through the down-regulation of adhesion molecules and chemokine to prevent viral attachment. Methods: The aim of the present study was to identify the active compounds in TSL-1 which exert anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus effects. XTT assay was used to detect the cell viability. Meanwhile, the inhibitory effect on the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus was analyzed by observing plaque formation, qRT-PCR, neuraminidase activity, and immunofluorescence staining of influenza A-specific glycoprotein. Results: Both catechin and gallic acid were found to be potent inhibitors in terms of influenza virus mRNA replication and MDCK plaque formation. Additionally, both compounds inhibited neuraminidase activities and viral glycoprotein. The 50% effective inhibition concentration (EC50) of catechin and gallic acid for the influenza A (H1N1) virus were 18.4 μg/mL and 2.6 μg/mL, respectively; whereas the 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) of catechin and gallic acid were >100 μg/mL and 22.1 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, the selectivity indexes (SI) of catechin and gallic acid were >5.6 and 22.1, respectively. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that catechin might be a safe reagent for long-term use to prevent influenza A (H1N1) virus infection; whereas gallic acid might be a sensitive reagent to inhibit influenza virus infection. We conclude that these two phyto-chemicals in TSL-1 are responsible for exerting anti-pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus effects.
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Background: The pharmaceutical and food industries expect detailed knowledge on the physicochemical properties of elderberry fruit extracts, their stability and microbiological quality, as well as the polyphenol content in elderberry cultivars. The characteristics of the extracts might be additionally modified by citric acid, which improves the stability of anthocyanins and protects processed fruits and syrups from pathogenic microorganisms. The choice of the method with citric acid was a consequence of the physicochemical charac teristics of elderberry pigments, which are not stable under the effect of light in alcoholic solutions. The aim of study was to analyze the properties of elderberry fruit extracts regarding polyphenol content and antiradical activity, as well as their stability and microbiological quality. Methods: The plant material consisted of fruit from four cultivars (Alleso, Korsor, Sampo, Samyl) of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.). The following were determined in fruit extracts: polyphe- nolic content (HPLC), antiradical activity (ABTS and DPPH) and stability and microbiological quality. Results: The HPLC analysis of polyphenols demonstrated that the extracts from fruits collected from cv. Samyl had the highest 3-sambubioside cyanidin content and those from cv. Korsor contained the highest quantity of 3-glucoside cyanidin. The extracts from cv. Sampo fruit had a dominant 3-sambubioside-5-gluco- side cyanidin and 3,5-diglucoside cyanidin content. The highest quercetin (5.92 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) and caffeic acid (1.21 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) content was found in fruit extracts from cv. Alleso. The cultivars Samyl and Korsor had a higher level of anthocyanins and higher antiradical activity (ABTS) in fruit extracts than cv. Alleso and Sampo. The antiradical activity (DPPH) of fruit extracts from elderberry cultivars as- sessed in this research was similar. The degradation index for all fruit extracts was similar (DI = 1.035). The microbiological species detected in extracts were classified as moulds (Penicillum sp., Aspergillus sp.) and yeasts (Rhodotorula sp., Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Saccharomyces sp.). Conclusions: The research findings may support the selection of certain cultivars for industrial applications. The high stability of anthocyanins and low level of microbiological impurities in elderberry extracts ensure the high quality of such a raw material in food and pharmaceutical processing.
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Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE), a metallo-peptidase is the best known important drug target in the treatment of hypertension and responds to broad range ACE inhibitors such as Captopril. Whilst, many phytochemical compounds including alkaloids and flavonoids were also reported with anti-hypertensive activity. On the other hand, ACE2 is considered as an interesting new cardio-renal disease target as it is close and unique ACE homologue. In this scenario, the anti-hypertensive activities of 17 phytochemical compounds were analyzed through docking studies with ACE2. Also, the other ACE inhibitors with reported IC50 values were considered for docking interactions and used as training set. Further, the best docked phytochemical compound Rosemarinic acid and the training set compounds with ACE inhibitor activity were used to design the pharmacophore and validated. The generated 3D pharmacophore is subjected to screen the compounds with the significant chemical features against May bridged database consisting of more than one lakh compounds and subsequently, the hit compounds were screened using various filters such as estimated activity, Lipinski's rule of five, and ADMET properties and resulted Eight compounds. The anti-hypertensive activities of these 5 compounds with good fit values were selected for further docking studies with ACE2. The five compounds PD 00533, CD 01374, CD 04888, CD 01278 and BTB 04932 exhibited the best docking scores and also favors the necessary hydrogen bond interactions with in the activity site of ACE and thus identified as novel leads with anti-hypertensive activity.
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The aim: The in-vitro antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF), a combination of Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice with addition of Betaglucan 1,3 / 1,6, Zincum gluconium, Acidum ascorbicum, was studied against human pathogenic viruses: Influenza A H1N1 (FluA H1N1), Rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV14), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Parainfluenzavirus subtype 3 (Para 3), and Adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). Method: Antiviral activity was assessed using plaque-reduction assays after adding the test substance post infection of the MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells with the viruses. Ribavirin Virazol and - in case of Adenovirus an internal laboratory standard - were used as positive controls. Cytotoxic effects of VBF and VBF Control onto the virus permissive MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells were examined. Non-toxic concentrations of VBF were determined by the Methylthiazoletetrazolium test (MTT-Test). Results and conclusions: In all antiviral studies VBF showed (2.1%) a dose-dependent antiviral activity against FluA H1N1 and HRV14 at non-toxic concentrations. A very strong effect was demonstrated in concentrations of 2.5% and 1.25% where replication of H1N1 and HRV14 was nearly completely blocked. Dose-dependent antiviral activity was detectable against RSV in a concentration range of 1.25% to 0.63% of the test item. Due to toxic side effects of a 2.5% concentration at least a "minor effect" of about 30% (1.25% solution) against Para 3 infected HEp-2 cells could be determined. Concerning Adeno 5 not any antiviral activity could be demonstrated in all studies with all tested substance concentrations of VBF. VBF Control did not show any cytotoxicity and antiviral effects. Further research is needed to elucidate clinical effect of VBF.
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Lonicera japonica Thunb, rich in chlorogenic acid (CHA), is used for viral upper respiratory tract infection treatment caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, ect in China. It was reported that CHA reduced serum hepatitis B virus level and death rate of influenza virus-infected mice. However, the underlying mechanisms of CHA against the influenza A virus have not been fully elucidated. Here, the antiviral effects and potential mechanisms of CHA against influenza A virus were investigated. CHA revealed inhibitory against A/PuertoRico/8/1934(H1N1) (EC50 = 44.87 μM), A/Beijing/32/92(H3N2) (EC50 = 62.33 μM), and oseltamivir-resistant strains. Time-course analysis showed CHA inhibited influenza virus during the late stage of infectious cycle. Indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated CHA down-regulated the NP protein expression. The inhibition of neuraminidase activity confirmed CHA blocked release of newly formed virus particles from infected cells. Intravenous injection of 100 mg/kg/d CHA possessed effective antiviral activity in mice, conferring 60% and 50% protection from death against H1N1 and H3N2, reducing virus titres and alleviating inflammation in the lungs effectively. These results demonstrate that CHA acts as a neuraminidase blocker to inhibit influenza A virus both in cellular and animal models. Thus, CHA has potential utility in the treatment of the influenza virus infection.
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Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) has a long ethnobotanical history across many disparate cultures as a treatment for viral infection and is currently one of the most-used medicinal plants worldwide. Until recently, however, substantial scientific research concerning its antiviral properties has been lacking. Here, we evaluate the state of current scientific research concerning the use of elderberry extract and related products as antivirals, particularly in the treatment of influenza, as well as their safety and health impacts as dietary supplements. While the extent of black elder's antiviral effects are not well known, antiviral and antimicrobial properties have been demonstrated in these extracts, and the safety of black elder is reflected by the United States Food and Drug Administration approval as generally recognized as safe. A deficit of studies comparing these S. nigra products and standard antiviral medications makes informed and detailed recommendations for use of S. nigra extracts in medical applications currently impractical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The extraction yield, total phenols, caffeic acid derivatives (CAD), and antioxidant properties of 50% ethanolic Echinacea purpurea flower extract were determined. The in vitro inhibitory effects of 50% ethanolic extract and CAD on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) linked with type 2 diabetes were also investigated. The extraction yield, total phenols, and total CAD of the extract were 27.04%, 195.69 mg CAE/g and 78.42 mg/g, respectively. Cichoric acid (56.03 mg/g) was the predominant CAD compound in the extract. The extract exhibited good antioxidant properties. The extract and CAD inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the tested samples, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid (IC50 of 1.71-1.81 mg/mL) had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, cichoric acid (IC50 of 0.28 mg/mL) showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Both chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid (IC50 of 0.11-0.14 mg/mL) demonstrated higher ACE-inhibitory activity. The in vitro results suggest that E. purpurea extract and CAD have good potential for managing hyperglycemia and hypertension. Overall, the data suggest it is a choice for developing antihyperglycemia and antihypertension compounds from field-grown E. purpurea.
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Gallic acid (GA) is a natural phenolic compound that possesses various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, anticancer, antiviral and cardiovascular protection activities. In addition, numerous studies have reported that antioxidants possess antiviral activities. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important causes of chronic liver diseases worldwide, but until recently, only a small number of antiviral agents had been developed against HCV. Therefore, the present study investigated whether GA exhibits an anti-HCV activity. The effects of GA on HCV expression were examined using a subgenomic HCV replicon cell culture system that expressed HCV nonstructural proteins (NSs). In addition, GA cytotoxicity was evaluated at concentrations between 100-600 mg/ml using an MTT assay. Huh-7 replicon cells were incubated with 300 mg/ml GA for different times, and the HCV-RNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was used as an antioxidant control and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured during the exposure. The results indicated that GA did not produce a statistically significant cytotoxicity in parental and HCV replicon cells. Furthermore, GA downregulated the expression levels of NS5A-HCV protein (~55%) and HCV-RNA (~50%) in a time-dependent manner compared with the levels in untreated cells. Notably, GA treatment decreased ROS production at the early time points of exposure in cells expressing HCV proteins. Similar results were obtained upon PDTC exposure. These findings suggest that the antioxidant capacity of GA may be involved in the downregulation of HCV replication in hepatoma cells.
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Background/purpose: Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 is recognized in association with upper or lower respiratory tract illnesses in children. This study surveyed the prevalence of HCoV-NL63 and influenza viruses in patients with influenza-like illness in Taiwan during 2010-2011. Methods: Throat samples from 107 hospitalized patients with pneumonia and 175 outpatients with influenza-like illness were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction assays with virus-specific primers, and then virus-positive specimens were confirmed by sequencing the polymerase chain reaction products. Results: HCoV-NL63 infection was identified in 8.4% (9/107) of hospitalized patients with pneumonia, but not found in outpatients with influenza-like illness. Age distribution of HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized patients with pneumonia indicated that the group aged 16-25 years (20%) had the highest positive rate compared with the other groups, and exhibited a similar age-specific pattern to influenza A/H1N1 infection, but not influenza A/H3N2 and B infections in hospitalized patients. Seasonal prevalence of HCoV-NL63 infection was late winter, overlapping the highest peak of the influenza A/H1N1 epidemic during December 2010 to March 2011 in Taiwan. Co-infection of HCoV-NL63 and influenza A/H1N1 was detected in three hospitalized patients. Clinical manifestation analysis indicated that the main symptoms for HCoV-NL63 infection included fever (88.9%), cough (77.8%), and pneumonia (100%). Co-infection caused significantly higher rates of breathing difficulties, cough, and sore throat than those of single infection with HCoV-NL63 and influenza A/H1N1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a low level of heterogeneity between Taiwan and global HCoV-NL63 strains. Conclusion: Understanding epidemiology of HCoV-NL63 in Taiwan provides an insight for worldwide surveillance of HCoV-NL63 infection.
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A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of four major ingredients in the Sumbucus chinensis Lindl., namely chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulaic acid. The chromatographic separation was performed on a phenomenex C 18 column (250×4.6mm, 5 µm) with gradient elution using methanol-0.05 % formic acid in water, and a detector wavelength of 326 nm. The linear ranges of the four compounds were 1.552-15.52 μg.ml -1 (r=0.9998), 0.0691-0.691 μg.ml -1 (r=0.9996), 0.148-1.48 μg.ml -1 (r=0.9997) and 0.174-1.74 μg.ml -1 (r= 0.9997), respectively. The recoveries of the four compounds were in the range 98.2 %-100. 7 %. The results indicated that this developed assay method was rapid, accurate, and reliable and could be readily used as a quality control method for the Sumbucus chinensis Lindl.
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Unlabelled: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is an alphacoronavirus that was first identified in 2004 in the nasopharyngeal aspirate from a 7-month-old patient with a respiratory tract infection. Previous studies showed that HCoV-NL63 and the genetically distant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV employ the same receptor for host cell entry, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), but it is largely unclear whether ACE2 interactions are sufficient to allow HCoV-NL63 binding to cells. The present study showed that directed expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on cells previously resistant to HCoV-NL63 renders them susceptible, showing that ACE2 protein acts as a functional receptor and that its expression is required for infection. However, comparative analysis showed that directed expression or selective scission of the ACE2 protein had no measurable effect on virus adhesion. In contrast, binding of HCoV-NL63 to heparan sulfates was required for viral attachment and infection of target cells, showing that these molecules serve as attachment receptors for HCoV-NL63. Importance: ACE2 protein was proposed as a receptor for HCoV-NL63 already in 2005, but an in-depth analysis of early events during virus infection had not been performed thus far. Here, we show that the ACE2 protein is required for viral entry but that it is not the primary binding site on the cell surface. Conducted research showed that heparan sulfate proteoglycans function as adhesion molecules, increasing the virus density on cell surface and possibly facilitating the interaction between HCoV-NL63 and its receptor. Obtained results show that the initial events during HCoV-NL63 infection are more complex than anticipated and that a newly described interaction may be essential for understanding the infection process and, possibly, also assist in drug design.
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an etiology for a number of diseases in humans. Traditional Chinese herbs have been reported to be effective for treating EV71 infection. However, there is no report about the antiviral effects of CHA against EV71. In this study, plaque reduction assay demonstrated that the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of CHA on EV71 replication is 6.3 µg/ml. When both CHA (20 µg/ml) and EV71 were added, or added post-infection at different time points, CHA was able to effectively inhibit EV71 replication between 0 and 10 h. In addition, CHA inhibited EV71 2A transcription and translation in EV71-infected RD cells, but did not affect VP1, 3C, and 3D expression. Furthermore, CHA inhibited secretions of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and MCP-1 in EV71-infected RD cells. Altogether, these results revealed that CHA may have antiviral properties for treating EV71 infection.
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Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) are well known as supportive agents against common cold and influenza. It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus. The antimicrobial activity of the elderberry extract was determined by bacterial growth experiments in liquid cultures using the extract at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The inhibitory effects were determined by plating the bacteria on agar plates. In addition, the inhibitory potential of the extract on the propagation of human pathogenic H5N1-type influenza A virus isolated from a patient and an influenza B virus strain was investigated using MTT and focus assays. For the first time, it was shown that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria of Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses. Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. The activities shown suggest that additional and alternative approaches to combat infections might be provided by this natural product.
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A ionization technique in mass spectrometry called Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART TOF-MS) coupled with a Direct Binding Assay was used to identify and characterize anti-viral components of an elderberry fruit (Sambucus nigra L.) extract without either derivatization or separation by standard chromatographic techniques. The elderberry extract inhibited Human Influenza A (H1N1) infection in vitro with an IC(50) value of 252+/-34 microg/mL. The Direct Binding Assay established that flavonoids from the elderberry extract bind to H1N1 virions and, when bound, block the ability of the viruses to infect host cells. Two compounds were identified, 5,7,3',4'-tetra-O-methylquercetin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)chroman-3-yl-3,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate (2), as H1N1-bound chemical species. Compound 1 and dihydromyricetin (3), the corresponding 3-hydroxyflavonone of 2, were synthesized and shown to inhibit H1N1 infection in vitro by binding to H1N1 virions, blocking host cell entry and/or recognition. Compound 1 gave an IC(50) of 0.13 microg/mL (0.36 microM) for H1N1 infection inhibition, while dihydromyricetin (3) achieved an IC(50) of 2.8 microg/mL (8.7 microM). The H1N1 inhibition activities of the elderberry flavonoids compare favorably to the known anti-influenza activities of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu; 0.32 microM) and Amantadine (27 microM).
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Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae) is wide spread in temperate and sub-tropical zones. The consumption of its berries has been associated with health benefits especially for its high content of natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, in particular anthocyanins. In this work we investigated the polyphenolic composition and the in vitro antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, BCB and FRAP-ferrozine (FRAP-FZ) assays) of S. nigra berries, collected in four different Sicilian areas (Italy). Elderberries are considered one of the fruits with highest anthocyanins content, the amount of phenolic compounds, other than anthocyanins, is approximately 1.5 times greater than the latter. The LC-MS analyses have revealed an opposite trend in the polyphenols pattern in Sicilian populations. Moreover, a statistical correlation was found between cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside and antioxidant activity evaluated by FRAP-FZ and ABTS assays. In conclusion, Sicilian S. nigra berries are appealing for its antioxidant potential and for its particularly high content of anthocyanins.
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