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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of reading workplace bullying vignettes on negative affect. A within-subjects descriptive design and convenience sample was used. Fifty participants completed the Negative Affect Scale after reading written bullying vignettes and completed the Transportation Narrative questionnaire. Results provide evidence that the participants were transported into the vignettes. Additionally, descriptive statistics and a repeated measure ANOVA revealed a significant increase in negative affect over time. Written vignettes can provide a means to better understand how workplace events can impact cognitive performance. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

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Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore rural nurses’ perceptions regarding disruptive behavior and its impacts on interdisciplinary relationships, patient safety, and patient outcomes. Methods: Montana nurses working at either of two rural facilities, one a small hospital and the other a critical access facility, participated in the study. The study replicated a larger study conducted by Rosenstein and O’Daniel (2005) in the VHA West Coast hospital network. A questionnaire was sent to nurses electronically via their agency’s email system to assess perceptions of disruptive behavior and its effects on patient outcomes. Findings: Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study, yielding a 47.5% response rate. Disruptive behavior was reported to be displayed more often by nurses than physicians in this study. Nurses perceived that disruptive behavior is linked to adverse events, and may also have a negative impact on patient safety and satisfaction. In addition, participants perceived a link between disruptive behavior and the psychological and behavioral variables impacting individual nurses. Finally, the majority of respondents indicated that their facility lacked appropriate reporting and counseling policies for addressing disruptive behavior. Conclusions: Like their VHA West Coast counterparts, nurses working in rural settings experience disruptive behavior and believe there is a link between disruptive behavior and negative patient outcomes. However, results from this pilot study suggest that disruptive behavior by nurses in rural settings is more prevalent than that of physicians, findings that contradict previous work. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14574/ojrnhc.v14i1.300 Key words : Disruptive behavior, workplace incivility, patient outcomes, patient safety, rural nursing
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This integrative literature review assesses the relationship between hospital nurses' work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes and recommends directions for future research based on examination of the literature. Using an electronic search of five databases, 18 studies published in English between 1999 and 2016 were identified for review. All but one study used a cross-sectional design, and only four used a conceptual/theoretical framework to guide the research. No definition of work environment was provided in most studies. Differing variables and instruments were used to measure patient outcomes, and findings regarding the effects of work environment on patient outcomes were inconsistent. To clarify the relationship between nurses' work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes, researchers should consider using a longitudinal study design, using a theoretical foundation, and providing clear operational definitions of concepts. Moreover, given the inconsistent findings of previous studies, they should choose their measurement methodologies with care.
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Background: Negative work environments influence the ability of nurses to provide optimal patient care in a safe environment. Aim: The purpose of the study was to test a model linking workplace bullying (WPB) and lateral violence (LV) with job stress, intent to leave, and, subsequently, nurse-assessed patient adverse outcomes (safety issues). Design: This descriptive-correlational study examined the relationships between study variables and used a structural equation model to test the validity of the proposed theoretical framework. Methods: A convenience sample of 508 clinical nurses working in eight general hospitals in Daejeon, South Korea, completed a questionnaire on measures of WPB, LV, job stress, intent to leave, and nurse-assessed patient safety. Analysis of moment structures was used to estimate a set of three models with competing measurement structures for WPB and LV and the same structural model. Akaike Information Criterion was used for model selection. Results: Among the three proposed models, the model with complex factor loadings was selected (WPB and LV were both associated with verbal abuse and physical threat). WPB directly and indirectly influenced nurse-assessed patient safety. Job stress directly influenced intent to leave, and intent to leave directly influenced nurse-assessed patient safety. Conclusions: The results of the study support the proposition that WPB, job stress, and intent to leave may be associated with nurse-perceived adverse outcomes (patient safety issues) in hospitals. Nurse perceptions of WPB were associated with nurse-assessed patient safety outcomes (adverse events) directly and through mediating job stress and intent to leave. LV was not associated with the mediators or nurse-assessed adverse outcomes (safety).
Article
Aims and objectives: To explore the association between workplace bullying and workplace environment factors among nurses in Japan. Background: Workplace bullying among nurses is increasing globally and occurs more frequently than among other professions. However, there is little information on the impact of workplace environment factors on nurse bullying in Japan. Design: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Methods: Participants were 1152 nurses recruited at seminars or training courses outside of their workplaces in Tokyo. Workplace bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Participants were considered to have been 'bullied' if they reported experiencing at least one negative act on a daily or weekly basis. Workplace environment factors were measured using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, which comprises five domains: nurse participation in hospital affairs; nursing foundations for quality of care; nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses; staffing and resource adequacy; and collegial nurse-physician relationships. Results: A total of 898 (78·0%) questionnaires were returned, of which 825 (71·6%) were analysed. Altogether, 153 (18·5%) nurses were considered 'bullied.' The three most frequent negative acts reported as occurring on a weekly or daily basis were 'someone withholding information which affects your performance' (6·7%), 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload' (4·4%) and 'being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage)' (3·6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that 'bullied' were associated with low scores on two work environment domains: nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses and staffing and resource adequacy. Conclusions: Effective nurse manager leadership and support as well as appropriate staffing management may positively influence workplace bullying among nurses in Japan. Authentic leadership styles and allowing nurses to easily request days off might also be important. Relevance to clinical practice: Nurse managers' leadership may influence nurses' workplace bullying.
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In this article we introduce the concept of workplace incivility and explain how incivility can potentially spiral into increasingly intense aggressive behaviors. To gain an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie an "incivility spiral," we examine what happens at key points: the starting and tipping points. Furthermore, we describe several factors that can facilitate the occurrence and escalation of an incivility spiral and the secondary spirals that can result. We offer research propositions and discuss implications of workplace incivility for researchers and practitioners.
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A series of 48 vignettes of bullying was constructed by crossing (a) four kinds of social contact (physical aggression, verbal aggression, relational aggression, and non-aggression) with (b) male and female bullies, (c) male and female and victims, and (d) reaction of the victim (aggressive, passive, and no reaction). Teachers rated vignettes for seriousness. Physical aggression was perceived as more serious than any other kind of bullying, and vignettes that depicted female bullies and male victims were perceived as least serious across all kinds of bullying. Results are discussed in terms of applied implications for teachers in school settings and directions for future research.
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When will bystanders of workplace mobbing show antisocial or prosocial behaviour toward the victim? Results of a 2 × 2 vignette study (N = 177) suggest that high perceived responsibility of the victim for the onset of the mobbing evokes anger and consequently antisocial bystander behaviour, whereas low perceived responsibility generates sympathy and consequently prosocial bystander behaviour. The results further indicate that bystanders will show more antisocial behaviour and less prosocial behaviour toward the victim when they anticipate stigma by association. The implications of these results for interventions seeking to influence bystanders' behaviour in the context of workplace mobbing and for further research on this bystander behaviour are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Inappropriate behaviors of healthcare workers can threaten the delivery of safe, quality care. The purpose of this research was to develop a research instrument specific to the construct of horizontal violence and conduct foundational psychometric testing of the newly developed instrument. The overall findings on the fit indices suggest that this model does adequately measure the underlying construct of horizontal violence. The instrument can be used as a way to determine the existence and extent of horizontal violence in practice settings and used to augment the study of the work environment, particularly in relation to healthy work environments.
Article
AimsThe aim of the study was to examine the relationship between bullying and burnout and the potential buffering effect psychological detachment might have on this relationship.Background There is evidence to suggest that bullying is relatively widespread in the nursing profession, with previous studies indicating that bullying is associated with higher levels of burnout. There is, however, limited research focusing on potential moderators of the relationship between bullying and burnout.DesignA cross-sectional quantitative study conducted with self-completed, anonymous questionnaires.Methods The study was conducted in 2011 with 762 Registered Nurses in Australia. Two hypotheses were tested with validated measures of bullying, psychological detachment and burnout. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression.ResultsBullying is positively associated with burnout. Psychological detachment does not significantly moderate the relationship between bullying and burnout.Conclusion The results indicate that bullying exacts a strong negative toll on nurses. Ensuring there are workplace policies and practices in place in healthcare organizations to reduce the instances of bullying and proactively address it when it does occur would therefore seem crucial. Individuals may also lower their risk of burning out by psychologically detaching from work.
Article
A broad theory of depression is proposed based on a blend of Hume's (D. Hume, 1978, A Treatise of Human Nature. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Original work published 1739) concept of a valenced world and Damasio's (A. R. Damasio, 1994, Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, NY: Putnam) somatic marker hypothesis. It is proposed that behavior is governed by a hedonic detector system coupled to working memory. Depression is assumed to reflect a malfunction of the hedonic detector, involving the inappropriate setting of its positive−negative neutral point. This simple assumption allows a coherent account of depression that links the neurobiological, behavioral, and psychological evidence with a plausible evolutionary hypothesis. Alternative hypothesis are discussed, and methods of investigating the hedonic detector are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In the present study, attitudes of elementary school teachers toward different types of bullying (verbal, physical, and relational) were investigated. Six written vignettes describing all types of bullying were given to 405 elementary school teachers (F = 218; M = 187). Results indicated that teachers perceived relational bullying, specifically, social exclusion, less serious than verbal and physical bullying. Unlike previous findings, however, the teachers considered verbal bullying behaviors more serious than physical bullying behaviors and were also more empathetic toward the victim physically bullied and the victim verbally bullied than the victim relationally bullied. Coherent with the findings of empathy, they were also more likely to intervene in verbal and physical bullying behaviors than relational bullying behaviors. Gender of the participant was a significant factor for all variables. The most rated intervention strategy was having a serious talk with the bully, regardless of the type of victimization. Multiple regression analysis illustrated that seriousness and empathy scores both predicted the need for intervention scores significantly in all types of bullying. The findings of this study highlight the importance of increasing teachers’ awareness and knowledge about all types of bullying, their consequences, and intervention skills to lessen bullying behaviors.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of subtle forms of workplace mistreatment (bullying and incivility) on Canadian nurses' perceptions of patient safety risk and, ultimately, nurse-assessed quality and prevalence of adverse events. Workplace mistreatment is known to have detrimental effects on job performance and in nursing may threaten patient care quality. A total of 336 nurses from acute care settings across Ontario responded to a questionnaire that was mailed to their home address in early 2013, with a response rate of 52%. Bullying and incivility from nurses, physicians, and supervisors have significant direct and indirect effects on nurse-assessed adverse events (R = 0.03-0.06) and perceptions of patient care quality (R = 0.04-0.07), primarily through perceptions of increased patient safety risk. Bullying and workplace incivility have unfavorable effects on nurse-assessed patient quality through their effect on perceptions of patient safety risk.
Article
AIM:: The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between three types of bullying (person-related, work-related, and physically intimidating) with two types of outcomes (psychological/behavioral responses of nurses and medical errors). In addition, it investigates if the three types of bullying behaviors vary with age or gender of nurses and if the extent of bullying varies across different facilities in an institution. Nurses play an integral role in achieving safe and effective health care. To ensure nurses are functioning at their optimal level, health care organizations need to reduce negative components that impact nurses' job performance and their mental and physical health. Mitigating bullying from the workplace may be necessary to create and maintain a high-performing, caring, and safe hospital culture. Using an internal e-mail system, an e-mail requesting the participants to complete the questionnaire on Survey Monkey was sent to a sample of 1,078 nurses employed across three facilities at a university hospital system in Midwest. Two hundred forty-one completed questionnaires were received with a response rate of 23%. Bullying was measured utilizing the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). Outcomes (psychological/behavioral responses of nurses and medical errors) were measured using Rosenstein and O'Daniel's (2008) modified scales. Person-related bullying showed significant positive relationships with psychological/behavioral responses and medical errors. Work-related bullying showed a significant positive relationship with psychological/behavioral responses, but not with medical errors. Physically intimidating bullying did not show a significant relationship to either outcome. Whereas person-related bullying was found to be negatively associated with age of nurses, physically intimidating bullying was positively associated with age. Male nurses experienced higher work-related bullying than female nurses. Findings from this study suggest that bullying behaviors exist and affect psychological/behavioral responses of nurses such as stress and anxiety and medical errors. Health care organizations should identify bullying behaviors and implement bullying prevention strategies to reduce those behaviors and the adverse effects that they may have on psychological/behavioral responses of nurses and medical errors.
Article
G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
Article
Research on workplace bullying, which has just recently passed the 20 year mark, has grown significantly over this duration of time. We provide an extensive review of the extant literature, with a focus on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying. We organize our review of the extant literature by level of analysis, which allows us to understand workplace bullying from each major level of analysis, while simultaneously identifying those levels at which research has been sparse. We then develop a conceptual model based on our review that similarly depicts theoretical and/or empirical findings from the extant literature, but in a succinct manner. Based on our review and conceptual model, we identify and highlight a number of key avenues for future research that will help extend the current workplace bullying literature.
Article
To examine the relationship between nurses' exposure to workplace bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology and the protective role of psychological capital (PsyCap). Workplace bullying has serious organisational and health effects in nursing. Few studies have examined the relation of workplace bullying to serious mental health outcomes, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Even fewer have examined the effect of intrapersonal strengths on the health impact of workplace bullying. A survey of 1205 hospital nurses was conducted to test the hypothesized model. Nurses completed standardized measures of bullying, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and PsyCap. A moderated regression analysis revealed that more frequent exposure to workplace bullying was significantly related to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology regardless of the PsyCap level. That is, PsyCap did not moderate the bullying/PTSD relationship in either group. Bullying exposure and PsyCap were significant independent predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in both groups. Efficacy, a subdimension of PsyCap, moderated the bullying/Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder relationship only among experienced nurses. Workplace bullying appears to be predictive of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology, a serious mental health outcome. Workplace bullying is a serious threat to nurses' health and calls for programmes that eliminate bullying and encourage greater levels of positive resources among nurses.
Article
Limited research exists on the impact of bullying across psychological and/or organizationally orientated outcomes for nurses working within different nursing contexts. Research that has explored these outcomes has not considered the potential confounding effects of negative affectivity (NA). This study's aim was to examine the extent hospital and aged care nurses are impacted by bullying on these outcomes, while considering NA. A total of 267 hospital nurses/midwives and 168 aged care nurses from an Australian healthcare organization responded to a survey. The results revealed hospital nurses/midwives who experienced bullying reported higher levels of psychological distress, as well as lower commitment and job satisfaction levels. Aged care nurses who experienced bullying reported lower levels of well-being and commitment. NA was a significant covariate for most analyses. Thus, nurses across these contexts are affected by bullying in relation to psychological and organizational-orientated outcomes over and above the effects of NA, particularly for commitment.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
RODWELL J. & DEMIR D. (2012) Psychological consequences of bullying for hospital and aged care nurses. International Nursing Review Aim: This study examines the psychological consequences of workplace bullying by negative affectivity (NA) and demographics for hospital and aged care nurses. Introduction/Background: Nurses are particularly vulnerable to workplace bullying, with suggestions that oppressed group behaviours may play a role. Bullying is a potent stressor that can negatively impact psychological well-being, which, with NA and demographics, may be important in understanding the consequences of nurse bullying. Such factors are yet to be examined together across different nursing contexts. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted across hospital and aged care nurses working within a medium to large Australian healthcare organization in October 2009. The sample comprised 233 (29.1%) hospital and 208 (43.8%) aged care nurses. Analyses of covariance were used to evaluate the data. Results: For hospital nurses, psychological distress was noted as an impact of bullying, while depression was the impact for aged care nurses. Full-time aged care nurses reporting bullying had higher psychological distress scores, compared with part-time workers in the same area. NA was a significant covariate across both outcomes in both contexts. Discussion/Conclusion: This study demonstrates that bullying has detrimental consequences for the mental health of nurses in both hospital and aged care contexts. The results support the suggestion that nurses are an oppressed group at high risk of bullying, confirm the intrinsic nature of NA to the bullying process, and highlight the importance of employment type for aged care nurses. Given the shortage of nurses, managers need to give higher priority to addressing workplace bullying and implementing zero tolerance policies.
Article
A growing body of research suggests that smoking portrayals in movies influence adolescent tobacco use. However, the mechanism for this influence remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on narrative transportation theory, particularly as applied to movies and smoking. We propose that this theory can provide a valuable framework for guiding research on the role of entertainment media in smoking and other addictive behaviors. We review empirical work on transportation theory and highlight the psychological mechanisms underlying transportation effects. ‘Transportation into narrative worlds’ refers to cognitive, emotional and imagery engagement into a narrative (including movies and entertainment media). We link this work with research on the effects of movie smoking. Research suggests that individuals who are more highly transported into narratives show greater attitude, belief and behavior change. Transportation effects work through reducing counterarguing, creating connections (identification and liking) with characters and increasing perceptions of realism and emotional involvement. We propose several future directions and research challenges for applying a transportation framework to the issue of entertainment media effects on smoking and tobacco disparities. Understanding factors contributing to transportation may provide a more nuanced view of who will be affected by movie smoking, and understanding the psychological processes underlying narrative persuasion may guide intervention efforts. Narrative transportation theory suggests that individuals' cognitive, emotional and imagery immersion in a narrative is a key mechanism of attitude, belief and behavior change. This theory provides a potentially generative and psychologically grounded framework for increasing knowledge about the boundary conditions and processes underlying the effects of entertainment media on tobacco use.
Article
There is increasing interest in understanding how relationships promote children’s understanding of their own and others’ thoughts and feelings. A key question in this research is whether children’s ability and motivation to represent and nderstand anothers’ thoughts and feelings is a function of the quality of the relationship with that individual or, alternatively, a more general characteristic of the child that is similarly expressed across relationship contexts. The current study sought to extend previous research by assessing mentalising behaviour in early adolescence and examining intra-individual differences in adolescents’ mentalising behaviour about self and other in different relationships. The research design exploited the natural experiment of the secondary school, in which children develop very diverse relationships with different teachers. In the spring of the academic year, a vignette-based, semi-structured interview was administered, and students’ understanding and attributions of mental states of their most and least liked teachers were coded using a newly developed system. Results indicated that there were significant intra-individual differences in adolescents’ mentalising; the psychological sophistication with which adolescents understood and described another’s behaviour was predicted from the affective quality of the relationship. In addition, there was significantly less incongruity or distortion in adolescents’ mentalising about their most liked teacher compared with their least liked teacher, highlighting the need to consider not only the presence but also the ‘accuracy’ of mentalising.
Article
Vie, T. L., Glasø, L. & Einarsen, S. (2012). How does it feel? Workplace bullying, emotions and musculoskeletal complaints. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 165–173. The present study examines experienced emotions among self-labelled victims of ongoing workplace bullying and tests whether emotions mediate the relationship between exposure to bullying and health in the form of musculoskeletal complaints. A total of 1,024 employees from a Norwegian public transport company participated in the study, in which 116 self-labelled victims were identified. Ten positive and 10 negative emotions were measured (PANAS). The results showed significant differences in emotional experiences between victims and non-victims regarding all 10 negative emotions and one out of 10 positive emotions. Victims felt less “interested” and more “afraid,”“upset,”“angry,”“guilty,”“nervous,”“hostile,”“frustrated,”“ashamed,”“scared” and “stressed” than did non-victims. Further, the results pointed to both positive and negative emotions as mediators of the relationship between exposure to bullying and musculoskeletal complaints. In particular the negative emotion “stress” acted as a significant mediator regarding this relationship. Hence, emotions seem to be central to understanding the detrimental effects of bullying on the victims’ health.