RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF BLENDED LEARNING MODEL ON TERTIARY INSTITUTION
STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN RESEARCH METHODS AND STATISTICS COURSE
VERA NKIRU NWADINOBI Ph.D
Department of Educational Psychology/Guidance & Counselling
Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State.
DR OLIVE OJOGBO Ph.D
Department of Guidance and Counselling Education Resource Centre Zone 7, Abuja
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of blended learning instructional
model on tertiary institution student's performance in General Education Research Methods. Two
research hypothesis guided the study. Apre-test/post-test control group quasi experimental research
design was adopted in the study. The population of the study was made up of 110 two hundred level
students drawn from the tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Two instruments used in the study were
Research Methods Student Achievement Test (RMSAT) and Blended Learning Model (BLM). Mean
Standard deviation and t-test were used in the analysis of data. The results of the study showed that
blended learning instructional model was -more effective in enhancing student's achievement in Research
Methods than conventional teaching method. The findings also revealed that there was no significant
difference between the academic achievement of male and female students taught with blended model in
the experimental group as shown by their mean ratings. Based on the findings, recommendations were
made among others that government should, supply sufficient JCT teaching equipment, organize
computer, conferences, trainings, seminars and workshops for lecturers in tertiary institutions on the use
of blended learning instructional model and online learning in the teaching of various courses especially
General Education Research Methods. Adequate power supply by both the government and school
authorities was also recommended for effective use of the JCT facilities by lecturers for effective service
Keywords: blended learning model, research methods, and tertiary institution.
Learning is one of the most fundamental concepts in counseling psychology. It is very important for
teachers, students, parents and for all those who are interested in understanding controlling and
predicting behaviour. (Chukwurah, 2009). Learning can be seen as a relatively permanent change in the
behavior, thoughts or feelings of individuals as a result of experience. Students and learners are exposed
to different experiences in schools and when these experiences leads to a change in their behavior and
ways of reasoning one can say that learning has taken place. There are different methods and techniques
in education used by teachers to bring about learning experiences that will make the learner achieve
maximally in schools. The traditional teaching model of learning is face to face learning whereby the
teacher is in front of the students imparting knowledge to them. The internet revolution of the modern
world makes it necessary for teachers and counsellors to make a paradigm shift from the old method of
teaching to a blended learning model. Blended learning is a combination of different learning techniques
(Ndirika, 2015). Many education techniques such as presentations, demonstrations, answer-question
brainstorming, case study, co-operative learning and problem centered learning can be conducted in on-
line based environments. Young in Abidoye (2015) describes blended learning as a method of instruction
that combined on line with face to face learning activities that are integrated in a planned, pedagogically
valuable way and where some of the face to face is replaced by online activities. Wilson & Smilanich in
Okafor (2016) see the blended learning as the implementation of the most effective learning solutions in a
coordinated way to achieve the desired learning targets. Infact, it can be explained from the authors
definitions that blended learning model is used by teachers to blend the perfect aspects of web-based
learning and the traditional face to face learning for students maximum academic achievement.
General Education Research methods (Ed 341) as a course of study hi tertiary institutions has a
unique and distinct problem for its search for solution to problems or answers to questions. As a course of
study or discipline it follows a systematic scientific approach in finding solutions to educational problems.
Findings from educational research lead to development and refinement of educational theories.
This course teaches students how to conduct research, statistics and computer usage and it is a
General Education course for all students both at degree and NCE levels. Often times students carryover
this course and some even fail to graduate as a result of not being able to pass the Education research
method course. George (2000) once stated that technology plays a vitalrole in helping learners and
teachers meet higher standard and perform at increased levels by promoting alternative and nnovative
approaches to teaching and learning. Singh and Reed in Y apici and Akbayin (2012) defined blended
learning as the transfer of "right" skills to the "right" person at the "right" time by matching the "right"
learning technologies with the "right" learning style for the purposes of achieving the learning objectives.
Other researchers stated that blended learning has certain advantages such as flexibility and comfort in
the learning, environment, increase in the level of learning, increase in performance in learning, increase
in interest in learning, good quality interaction and low cost (Garnham & Kaleta, 2002; Young 2002;
Collins 2003). Aladejen2009, applied the blended learning model in teaching the subject of evolution, the
results obtained showed that there was a significant difference between the post test scores in favour of
the experimental group,
Furthermore, gender disparities have been noticed and observed by various research lecturers as
concerning performance and achievement in academic achievement. Research findings, show that male
students are better academically than female students (Adebayo in Abidoye 2015). However there are a
good number of studies that revealed that gender differences in academic performances does not exist
(Abidoye, 2009). To have a better academic achievement and positive attitude towards Ed 341 and Edu
214 General & statistics courses Research methods there is need for lecturers to have a positive attitude
and a sound knowledge and information background, to use blended learning model which is a
combination of techniques to bring about learning. Because there is dearth of researches on the use of
blended learning instructional model on Research Methods and Statistics, course delivery, the researcher
has taken up the challenge to conduct this study.
Statement of the problem
Observations have shown that General Education Research Method and Statistics (ED 341) and (EDU
214) are characterized with the use of face to face traditional method of lecturing and teaching which
does not give room for active participation and improvement in the academic achievement of students in
the course. In other words most students fail to graduate in time because Research Method which is seen
as the 11 almighty" Research could not be passed by them. Therefore the need for a paradigm shift from
the traditional method of face to face teaching to employment of modern web-based technological
instructional approach is paramount for maximum students achievement. The study therefore state the
problem thus will there be relative effectiveness of blended learning instructional model on tertiary
institution students’ academic achievement in General Education Research Methods and statistics course
in Anambra State.
Hypothesis: the following null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study;
1. There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of students taught with blended
learning instructional model approach and their counterparts taught with traditional teaching
method as shown by their mean ratings.
2. There is no significant difference hi the academic achievement of male and female students
taught with blended learning instructional model as shown by their mean ratings.
The study adopted pre-test post-test control group, quasi-experimental research design.
Experimental research design allows for manipulation of the independent variable which is blended
learning in order to determine its effects on the dependent variable which is academic achievement. The
population of the study was made up of 110 two hundred level students drawn from Nwafor Orizu College
of Education Nsugbe, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University
Igbariam arid Fed College of Education, Umunze all in Anambra State, Two departments were used in
each of the four tertiary institutions selected for the study. The schools were selected because each of the
schools have a well-equipped 1CT center with internet facilities, the schools all mount Education Courses
of which research methods and statistics is one of the General Education Course. The students were
later sub-divided into experimental and control groups. Two instruments were used in the study, 57 in the
experimental group while 53 were in the control group. Two instruments were used in the study and they
Research Methods are Student Achievement Test (RMSAT) and Blended Learning Model (BLM).
Research Methods Students Achievement Test.
This instrument has a response format. It aims at measuring the acquisition level of students on
the Research method course contents especially on problem identification. The instrument has two
sections (A & B). Section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B consists of 20
multiple choice items A to D. The instrument was validated by experts two from the department of
curriculum and instruction and two experts for department of counseling psychology of Nnamdi Azikiwe
Their comments and observations helped to modify some of the items and eliminated some completely.
The instrument was later administered on trial pretest to 25 students from fed polytechnic Oko to ensure
reliability. The reliability coefficient of 0.86 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha.
Blended Learning Model - This consists of research method course contents linked with website and
which can be assessed in the internet, through computer system. It is a stimulus response model. The
model was validated by two experts in the computer departments in Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
Nsugbe. Two lecturers also from the department of curriculum and instruction also went through the
model. The model was reviewed based on their comments and corrections. Before commencement of the
treatment, both the students and lecturers have been trained on how to make use of computer and the
internet facilities. The students were given a username and a password had already been put in the
computer system. The course lecturers and other Research assistants were duly trained for the purpose.
Application: The application was carried out Educational research in the first semester of 2015/2016
academic year. In the research method and statistics course for the content unit of typologies of
Participants were selected based on their performance in their 100 level according to their results from
their heads of departments. The application process lasted 10 weeks. In order to create the online
dimension of the blended learning environment, a website was designed for the purpose of the study.
Before the application commenced, the pretest was applied to both groups. Also before the application,
the students in the experimental group were trained in two course hours by the researcher. During this
training, first the students in the experimental group were informed about the blended learning model and
about what they were expected to do. Secondly, the website was introduced to the experimental group
students through the internet with the help of a computer connected to a projector in the classroom. They
were demonstrated in practice how to sign up the website and what to pay attention to while following up
the activities, students were provided with annotated films taking them through the steps of data entry and
analysis using SPSS. Blended learning model used in this study entailed lecture on the typologies of
educational research using a combination of electronic technology assisted materials with face to face
lecturing in interactive manner with counseling psychology students in the research class. In other words
a balance between the traditional method of face to face platform and online virtual learning environments
was established while lecturing so as to achieve the stated objectives of the course. The lecturer started
first with placing student in small groups of 6-8 depending on the number of available computer on
campus. The lesson started as large class discussion session on the concept and importance of
Educational Research with lots of probing questions from lecturer to guide or direct students discussion.
In addition the students were given an assignment (homework) that they were supposed to search for
before coming to the classroom. They were asked to bring the homework to the classroom and also
through online. It was also announced to them that they were expected to allocate at least 45mins a week
to carry out the activities presented through internet. The research assignments were presented and the
course content was taught in the face to face setting through question and answer, discussion methods.
The lecturer evaluated the activities via the internet with the help of a computer in Research and Statistics
course; a quiz to be responded, a forum environment for discussing the points mat the students did not
understand was designed. In the control group, the course contents were taught via the face to face
learning in the classroom environment.
THE APPLICATION SCHEDULE
WE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
1. Training for introducing blended learning.
2 Application of research methods achievement
test and blended learning model.
3 Through the website designed as appropriate to
die blended learning model, the research
methods content concept of educational research
and importance; typologies of educational
research were taught
4 The topic educational research process was
taught via the blended learning model.
5 The topic problem identification in research was
taught via blended learning model.
6 The topic roles of educational research was
taught via the blended model learning.
7 The topic techniques and instrument for data
collection was taught using blended learning
8 The topic qualities of a good educational
problem were taught using blended learning
9 The topic psychometric properties of research
instruments was taught using blended model.
10 The students were taught the steps of data entry
and analysis using SPSS.
With the help of the traditional teaching methods
(presentation, questions & answer and discussion)
the course content of the concept of Educational
research and importance, typologies of educational
research were taught
The educational research process was taught via the
face to face method.
The topic problem identification was taught via the
traditional teaching method.
The topic roles of educational research was taught via
the face to face method.
The topic techniques of instrument for data collection
was taught via the traditional teaching method.
The topic quality of a good educational problem was
taught using traditional face to face method.
The topic psychometric property of research
instruments was taught using face to face method.
The students were taught the steps of data entry and
analysis SPSS displayed on the traditional black
board in a face to face encounter.
The lesson page was designed as appropriate to the weekly outline thus before coming to the classroom
in line with the contents of the research methods and statistics course, the students were able to examine
the contents to be taught that week using CD-ROMS which contained the topics of discussion. The
students were able to follow up the topics through. Summary page, presentations in video format,
animations and different websites related the course of study. In addition, there were parts for image
galleries, a dictionary and quizzes and a form.
Furthermore the system allowed determining the students' sign and sign out time for the website,
the activities they carried out and the duration of the time the students spent on the activities. Such
information provided the lecture with the opportunity to direct the students on the next applications to be
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of students taught with
blended learning instructional model and their counterparts though with the traditional teaching method.
Table 1: t-test analysis of post test scores of both experimental and control groups
Instructional strategies N Mean x SD df t-vale Sig
Experimental group control group. 57 13.63 2.58 1.08 4.93 0.00
53 11.19 2.62
From the table above, the calculated probability value is less than the declared probability value of 0.5.
The null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference between the-academic
achievement of students taught with blended learning instructional approach and those students taught
with traditional face to face teaching method, is hereby not accepted. This implication is that there is a
significant effect of blended learning approach on student academic achievement in research methods
and statistics course.
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between the academic achievement of male and female
students taught with blended learning instructional approach as shown by their mean ratings.
Table 2: t-test analysis of post-test scores of male and female students taught with blended learning
Gender N Meanx SD df t-value Sig
Male 22 13.68 1.99 55 0.15 0.908
Female 35 13.60 2.91
Table 2 above indicates that there is no significant difference (t/55 = 0.15, P>.05) between the post test
scores of male students of the experimental group (x = 13.68) and that of the female students (x = 13.60).
Hence the null hypothesis 2 which states that there is no significant difference between the academic
achievement of male and female students taught with blended learning instructional approach as shown
by their mean ratings is hereby accepted. This implies that there exists no significant gender difference
between the academic achievement of student in the research methods and statistics course when taught
with blended learning instructional model.
Discussion of Findings
The main aim of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of blended learning instructional
model on tertiary institution student's academic achievement in General Education Research Methods
and Statistics course. The results of the study as shown, from hypothesis 1 revealed that the blended
learning instructional model contributed more to the student academic achievement in Research Methods
and statistics course than traditional lecturer approach. This finding is in tandem with those of earlier
studies Aladejeria (2009) and Abidoye (2015). These studies both agreed and concluded from their
investigations that blended learning and web based environment learning approaches were more
effective in enhancing student's academic achievement than the traditional face to face lecturer method.
Research hypothesis 2 also revealed that male students taught with blended learning model
achieved slightly by higher in Research Method and Statistics course than their female counterparts,
however the hypothesis of no significant difference was accepted because the difference was not
significant. The findings agrees with previous study of Abidoye (2015), who found out that gender
difference in academic performance does not exist when students are exposed with blended learning in
geography course. However Awoniyi (2000) disagreed with the findings of the present study because his
study revealed that there was a significant gender difference in the use of internet facilities and computer
based learning teaching.
Based on the findings and discussion the following conclusions were drawn in the study Blended learning
instructional model is effective in enhancing student's achievement in General Education Research
Method &. Statistics course as compared with traditional face to face lecturer method. Secondary there is
no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students taught with blended
learning instructional model.
Implication for Education and counseling. This study is important to education and counseling since it
demonstrated that blended learning is effective in tertiary education as well. Therefore an effective
teaching and learning can be achieved by blending the advantages of the web environment with face to
face interaction the courses which have more visual elements such as Research Methods and statistics
course. It is also important to tertiary institution, counsellor who will adopt blended leaning model in
counselling to help students achieve maximally and minimum the society and phobia towards Research
Methods & statistics course teachers and lecturers who will use the blended learning instructional model
should develop their computer internet literacy rate. This could be achieved through in service training
courses to be held in such web-supported applications.
The following recommendations are made for improvement.
1. Government should supply sufficient 1CT teaching equipments, organize computer conferences,
seminars and workshop for tertiary institution lecturers, on the use of blended learning
instructional model and online learning in the teaching of various courses especially General
Education Research Methods and Statistics course.
2. Adequate power supply by both the government and school authorities must be made available
for the electrical appliances to be used in teaching and learning of General Education Research
Methods and Statistics.
3. Both male and female students should be encouraged to develop interest in the Research
Methods and Statistics course since both are equally good in the course
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