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Abstract

Currently multi-joint, position specific isometric tests (MJIT) are commonly used as part of the monitoring of an athlete’s progress. Strong associations between isometric force-time curve parameters have been found. Perhaps the most commonly used test is the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). The IMTP was created in the early 1990’s and its use has grown since that time. One sport for which it has been used extensively from the early 1990’s to the present, particularly by the authors, is Weightlifting. The relationships between weightlifting performance and IMTP force-time characteristics are quite strong, particularly for RFD. The IMTP is not only useful in assessing a weightlifter’s performance but also can be used for monitoring fatigue.
... Multijoint isometric tests are commonly used to assess force production capabilities at various joint angles in athlete monitoring programs (30,40). Isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and isometric squat (ISQ) are common isometric multijoint tests. ...
... These tests provide assessments of isometric maximum strength (i.e., isometric peak force [IPF]) and force-time characteristics (i.e., rate of force development [RFD] and impulse) with minimal test-induced fatigue (6,30). In sports focused on strength and power (e.g., weightlifting and rugby), IMTP has been incorporated within athlete monitoring programs to (a) aid in shorter measurement time (3,31,34,36,38) and (b) provide association between dynamic performances such as 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat (21), weightlifting competition total (4), and squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump height (21,34). ...
... force at 100-250 ms 5 0.84-0.94) (6), which can provide practitioners with information to create individual athlete physical profiles (6,21,30). Interestingly, a recent study by Suarez et al. (31) suggests that a modified IMTP should be incorporated using a shortened version of IMTP in athlete monitoring programs. The authors (31) demonstrated good intrasession reliability for the 1second IMTP IPF (coefficient of variation [CV] 5 3.3%, ICC 5 0.97) and RFD200 (CV 5 8.4%, ICC 5 0.93). ...
Article
The purposes of this study were to investigate intrasession and intersession reliability of variables obtained from squat jump (SJ), shortened isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), and isometric squat (ISQ) protocols and to evaluate relationships between isometric and dynamic performance and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat (BSQ). Eleven moderately resistance-trained men participated (27.8 6 3.9 years; 175.0 6 7.2 cm; 87.2 6 11.4 kg). Subjects completed familiarization in the IMTP and ISQ, followed by 1RM BSQ at least 48 hours before the first performance test. Two performance tests occurred at 7-day intervals including SJ, IMTP, and ISQ. SJ variables included jump height (SJH), body mass (BM), peak force (PF), and peak power (PP). Isometric midthigh pull and ISQ variables included isometric peak force (IPF); relative IPF; rate of force development at 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds; and impulse at 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds. SJ, IMTP, and ISQ kinetic variables were considered reliable if intraclass correlations (ICCs) and coefficients of variations (CVs) were .0.80 and,10%. Intrasession and intersession reliability criteria were met for SJH, BM, PF, and PP (ICC 5 0.91–1.00, CV 5 0.5–9.1%). Isometric peak force and impulse at 200 and 250 milliseconds met intrasession and intersession reliability criteria for IMTP and ISQ (ICC 5 0.90–0.99, CV 5 2.1–8.1%). Significant large correlation was observed between 1RM BSQ and ISQ peak force (p 5 0.038, r 5 0.63), but not between 1RM BSQ and shortened IMTP peak force (p 5 0.11, r 5 0.50). Shortened IMTP and ISQ peak force and impulse are reliable kinetic variables, and ISQ peak force is indicative of 1RM BSQ in moderately resistance-trained men.
... Administering a partial movement test is a safer and more time-efficient method than traditional 1RM testing. The IMTP produces relatively little fatigue and has a low potential for injury [30], but it proved to be less effective in predicting the competitive performance of OW than other tests [31]. When considering the concept of neuromuscular fatigue, it is important to note that isometric versus dynamic measurements do not provide the same results. ...
Article
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Load management is an extremely important subject in fatigue control and adaptation processes in almost all sports. In Olympic Weightlifting (OW), two of the load variables are intensity and volume. However, it is not known if all exercises produce fatigue of the same magnitude. Thus, this study aimed to compare the fatigue prompted by the Clean and Jerk and the Snatch and their derivative exercises among male and female participants, respectively. We resorted to an experimental quantitative design in which fatigue was induced in adult individuals with weightlifting experience of at least two years through the execution of a set of 10 of the most used lifts and derivatives in OW (Snatch, Snatch Pull, Muscle Snatch, Power Snatch, and Back Squat; Clean and Jerk, Power Clean, Clean, High Hang Clean, and Hang Power Clean). Intensity and volume between exercises were equalized (four sets of three repetitions), after which one Snatch Pull test was performed where changes in velocity, range of motion, and mean power were assessed as fatigue measures. Nine women and twelve men participated in the study (age, 29.67 ± 5.74 years and 28.17 ± 5.06 years, respectively). The main results showed higher peak velocity values for the Snatch Pull test when compared with Power Snatch (p = 0.008; ES = 0.638), Snatch (p < 0.001; ES = 0.998), Snatch Pull (p < 0.001, ES = 0.906), and Back Squat (p < 0.001; ES = 0.906) while the differences between the Snatch Pull test and the derivatives of Clean and Jerk were almost nonexistent. It is concluded that there were differences in the induction of fatigue between most of the exercises analyzed and, therefore, coaches and athletes could improve the planning of training sessions by accounting for the fatigue induced by each lift.
... To maintain a high level on consistency and to ensure the objective of the test was understood, participants were presented with an audio recording stating the general instruction, "when you pull, we will be measuring how much force you can produce, as well as how quickly you can produce that force". This was immediately followed by either i) the conventional instruction: "focus on pulling as hard and as fast as possible" (CON); 14,15 ii) the instruction: to "focus on pulling as fast as possible" (FAST); or iii) the instruction to "focus on pulling as hard as possible" (HARD). Following each instruction, the tester provided a countdown and a signal to pull with each pull lasting four seconds. ...
Article
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Purpose: The isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) is commonly used to assess maximal and rapid (i.e., explosive) strength in athlete populations. The conventional IMTP instruction is to pull “as hard and fast as possible” (CON). However, previous studies using other isometric tests indicate that the use of ‘hard’ and ‘fast’ independently can result in different test outcomes. This investigation assessed the impact of a ‘hard’ only (HARD) and ‘fast’ only (FAST) instruction on IMTP kinetics when compared to the conventional combined instruction. Methods: Over three separate testing sessions, 17 National level, male, youth footballers (age: 16.4±1.3yr, mass: 69.7±8.0kg, height: 1.75±0.07m) completed three trials of the IMTP under each instruction. Peak force (N) and rapid force production, measured as impulse (N.s-1) over 50ms, 75ms, 100ms, 150ms, and 200ms were extracted and brought forward for analysis. To determine the presence of a statistical difference between conditions, a repeated measures ANOVA was employed while Cohen’s d effects sizes were used to quantify the magnitude of practical difference between each condition. Results: There was no significant or practically relevant impact of instruction condition on peak force (P > 0.05, d=0.08-0.27), or impulse over any time frame (P > 0.05, d=0.01-0.16). Conclusion: Practitioners can be confident that the conventional IMTP instruction is suitable for continued use in this athlete population.
... Administering a partial movement test is a safer and more time-efficient method than traditional 1RM testing. The IMTP produces relatively little fatigue and has a low potential for injury [30], but it proved to be less effective in predicting the competitive performance of OW than other tests [31]. When considering the concept of neuromuscular fatigue, it is important to note that isometric versus dynamic measurements do not provide the same results. ...
Preprint
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Load management is an extremely important subject in the control of fatigue and adaptation process in almost all sports. In Olympic Weightlifting (OW), some of the load variables are known, namely intensity and volume. However, the type of exercise remains unknown in specific terms, this is because empiricism tells us that some exercises induce greater fatigue than others, nonetheless we do not know specifically the value for this quantification. Thus, this work intends to evaluate the amount of fatigue provoke by various types of OW exercises. We resorted to an experimental quantitative design, where we induced fatigue in adult individuals with weightlifting experience of at least 2 years, through the execution of a set of 10 of the most used exercises in OW, in which the intensity and volume between them were equalized (4 sets of 3 repetitions), after which a Snatch Pull test was performed and changes in maximum and medium velocity, range of motion and medium power were evaluated as fatigue measurement, between before and after the protocol of each exercise through the linear transductor Vitruve (Vitruve encoder; Madrid, Spain). Nine women and 12 men have participated in the study (age, 29.67±5.74years and 28.17±5.06years; height, 158.78±6.70cm and 174.50±6.07cm; body weight, 60.84±7.34kg and 79.46±5.32kg; %body fat, 17.76±7.63% and 16.98±5,14%, respectively). For the total sample, significant differences were found in the range of motion (ROM) of Snatch Pull, Snatch and Back Squat (respectively, p<0.001 and ES=0.986; p=0.003 and ES=0.731 ; p=0.021 and ES=0.547) and also on C&J ROM (p=0.015 and ES=0.582), in the mean power variable, significant differences were found in Power Snatch, Snatch, Snatch Pull and Back Squat and C&J (respectively, p=0.043 and ES=0.472; p=0.048 and ES=0.460; p=0.003 and ES=0.729; p=0.009 and ES=0.636 ; p=0.037 and ES=0.488), in peak velocity, significant differences were found in Power Snatch, Snatch, Snatch Pull and Back Squat (respectively, p=0.008 and ES=0.638; p<0.001 and ES=0.998; p<0.001 and ES=0.906 ; p<0.001 and ES=0.906), in the mean velocity variable, significant differences were found in Snatch Pull and Back Squat (respectively, p=0.030 and ES=0.509; p=0.003 and ES=0.727). When genders were analyzed separately, on the female group, significant differences were noticed in Snatch ROM, Snatch Pull and Back Squat (respectively, p=0.006 and ES=1.218; p=0.001 and ES=1.776; p=0.002 and ES=1.474), in the mean power variable, significant differences were found in Snatch, Snatch Pull and Back Squat (respectively, p=0.006 and ES=1.227; p=0.002 and ES=1.512 ; p=0.001 and ES=1.679), at peak velocity significant differences were revealed in Snatch, Snatch Pull and Back Squat (respectively, p=0.002 and ES=1.469; p=0.005 and ES=1.258; p<0.001 and ES=2.058), for the mean velocity variable, significant differences were found in Snatch, Snatch pull and Back squat (respectively, p=0.006 and ES=1.228; p=0.003 and ES=1.372 ; p=0.001 and ES=1.660). In the male group, differences were found in the ROM of Snatch Pull, C&J and Clean (respectively, p=0.042 and ES=0.663; p=0.004 and ES=1.033; p=0.020 and ES=0.786) also, significant differences in mean power were only found in C&J (p=0.009 and ES=0.910, at peak velocity were revealed significant differences in Power Snatch, Snatch and Snatch Pull (respectively, p=0.009 and ES=0.910; p=0.025 and ES=0.745; p=0.039 and ES=0.675), the mean velocity showed significant differences only in the C&J (p=0.011 and ES=0.876). It is thus concluded that there are differences in the induction of fatigue between most of the exercises analyzed, and that the female gender seems to be more resistant to fatigue than the male gender, in relation to exercises derived from C&J, however in the exercises derived from snatch the reverse seems to happen in most variables except at maximum speed, in which both genders present similar fatigue in the analyzed exercises.
... The IMTP may also provide basketball researchers and practitioners with an option to test players who do not have the competency to undertake maximal dynamic strength testing. Furthermore, highly sensitive variables (e.g., early-phase force development across time bands) measured during the IMTP may be used to monitor player fatigue [176]. Therefore, a strength profile comprising the IMTP, bench press, and back squat may allow basketball researchers and practitioners to develop baseline levels of strength that support training prescription and are also able to guide return to play from injury. ...
Article
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Background As basketball match-play requires players to possess a wide range of physical characteristics, many tests have been introduced in the literature to identify talent and quantify fitness in various samples of players. However, a synthesis of the literature to identify the most frequently used tests, outcome variables, and normative values for basketball-related physical characteristics in adult male basketball players is yet to be conducted. Objective The primary objectives of this systematic review are to (1) identify tests and outcome variables used to assess physical characteristics in adult male basketball players across all competition levels, (2) report a summary of anthropometric, muscular power, linear speed, change-of-direction speed, agility, strength, anaerobic capacity, and aerobic capacity in adult male basketball players based on playing position and competition level, and (3) introduce a framework outlining recommended testing approaches to quantify physical characteristics in adult male basketball players. Methods A systematic review of MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify relevant studies. To be eligible for inclusion, studies were required to: (1) be original research articles; (2) be published in a peer-reviewed journal; (3) have full-text versions available in the English language; and (4) include the primary aim of reporting tests used and/or the physical characteristics of adult (i.e., ≥ 18 years of age) male basketball players. Additionally, data from the top 10 draft picks who participated in the National Basketball Association combined from 2011–12 to 2020–21 were extracted from the official league website to highlight the physical characteristics of elite 19- to 24-year-old basketball players. Results A total of 1684 studies were identified, with 375 being duplicates. Consequently, the titles and abstracts of 1309 studies were screened and 231 studies were eligible for full-text review. The reference list of each study was searched, with a further 59 studies identified as eligible for review. After full-text screening, 137 studies identified tests, while 114 studies reported physical characteristics in adult male basketball players. Conclusions Physical characteristics reported indicate a wide range of abilities are present across playing competitions. The tests and outcome variables reported in the literature highlight the multitude of tests currently being used. Because there are no accepted international standards for physical assessment of basketball players, establishing normative data is challenging. Therefore, future testing should involve repeatable protocols that are standardised and provide outcomes that can be monitored across time. Recommendations for testing batteries in adult male basketball players are provided so improved interpretation of data can occur.
... Isometric measures of strength have been used for decades to monitor athletic progress. 1 Recently, the isometric squat has been utilized to detect changes in kinetic variables among athletes. 2 A strong relationship between isometric squat variables and one-repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat has been found in various studies. ...
Poster
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Determining the efficacy of using the isometric squat as an indicator of performance in powerlifting competition.
... However, differences in joint angles, external joint torque (Kipp et al., 2012) and temporal patterns of VGRF (Chavda et al., 2020) between the first and second pull gives rise to the supposition that the assessment of maximal force characteristics specific to the first pull may reveal additional information regarding the neuromuscular characteristics associated with superior weightlifting performance. In a recent review on the use of the IMTP in weightlifters, Stone et al. (2019) proposed conducting a maximal isometric assessment across multiple positions of the pull, including the start position of the clean or snatch lifts. It was suggested that this information could inform the prescription of training by addressing position-specific strength deficits in the pull. ...
Article
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This investigation compared the maximal isometric force capacity between the start position of the first pull (IPSP) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and their relationship with weightlifting competition performance in twenty national and international, male and female weightlifters. Isometric strength assessment and competition performance data collected as part of the routine sport science services of a national weightlifting performance programme were used for this study. Differences in isometric peak force (PkF) and allometrically scaled peak force (PkFa) between the IPSP and IMTP were evaluated using a paired-samples t-test. The relationships between absolute and allometrically scaled IPSP, IMTP, Total (TOT), Snatch (SN) and Clean & Jerk (CJ) variables were analysed using Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation. Fisher's r-to-z transformation was used to statistically compare the correlation values between the IPSP and IMTP with weightlifting performance measures. The IMTP PkF and PkFa were significantly greater than the IPSP PkF and PkFa, respectively, across combined (COM), male (M) and female (F) groups (p = < 0.001). However, the IPSP PkF exhibited significantly greater correlations with SN (r = 0.94 vs. 0.83, p < 0.05) and TOT (r = 0.95 vs. 0.86, p < 0.05) than the IMTP PkF in the COM group. In addition, the IPSP PkFa exhibited a significantly greater correlation with allometrically scaled snatch (SNa) (r = 0.83 vs. 0.51, p < 0.05) than the IMTP PkFa in the COM group. No significant correlations were observed between the IPSP PkFa and IMTP PkFa across M, F and COM groups. These findings suggest that the maximal force capacity in the IPSP is a greater determinant of weightlifting performance than in the IMTP, however, each may be representative of independent neuromuscular qualities. Coaches and practitioners working with weightlifters may consider implementing the IPSP assessment in addition to the IMTP to evaluate the strength characteristics specific to the different phases of the pull.
Article
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The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the literature and provide a robust estimate of the correlations between lower-body, multijoint, isometric and dynamic neuromuscular assessment variables and snatch (SN) and clean and jerk (C&J) performance in competitive weightlifters. A comprehensive search through 3 electronic databases (PubMed,SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science)returned 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed on Pearson’s correlations between SN and C&J performance and 15 variables from 5 neuromuscular assessments—countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP),back squat (BS), and front squat (FS) one repetition maximum (1RM). The FS and BS 1RM exhibited nearly perfect correlations (r = 0.93 to 0.94), whereas the IMTP peak force exhibited very large correlations (r = 0.83 to 0.85). The IMTP force at 250 ms exhibited very large correlations (r = 0.77 to 0.78), and the CMJ and SJ peak power exhibited very large to nearly perfect correlations (r = 0.88 to 0.92). These findings illustrate the importance of lower-body maximal and time-limited force-producing capabilities in weightlifters. Moreover, each assessment offers at least one variable that exhibits a correlation of >0.70. Therefore, these assessments may be used to gauge weightlifting performance potential.
Article
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The relationship between asymmetry and performance is still undetermined in the literature. Methods of assessing asymmetry have been inconsistent and focused on the analysis of jumping asymmetry. Dual ground reaction forces are prevalent in athlete monitoring, though underutilized in asymmetry research. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of countermovement jump (CMJ) impulse asymmetry to performance in collegiate soccer athletes. Male and female athletes were selected from an ongoing athlete research repository database of NCAA D-I soccer athletes. All athletes contributed two maximal effort unweighted (CMJ0) and weighted countermovement jumps (CMJ20) using the mean for calculations. Propulsive phase asymmetry scores (PrPAS) and positive impulse asymmetry scores (PIAS) were calculated to determine the magnitude of asymmetry for each prospective phase. Statistically significant correlations were found between CMJ0 jump height and unweighted PIAS (r = −0.43) in females. Males had statistically significant correlations between CMJ20 jump height and weighted PIAS (r = −0.49). Neither unweighted PrPAS nor weighted PrPAS produced statistically significant correlations (r < 0.26) to their prospective jump heights. When assessing CMJ asymmetry, it is recommended to conduct both weighted and unweighted CMJ testing, utilizing PIAS as the metric to be assessed. Keywords: asymmetry; symmetry; ground reaction force; jumping
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Strength and power constitute vital predictors for an individual’s quality of life and athletic performance. Measurement of these two parameters is very important in the world of sports science and medicine and necessitates a high level of accuracy and reliability. Several tests are used to measure strength and power, including the isometric maximal voluntary contraction test, the 1-repetition maximum test, and the Wingate test, as well as other tests that target upper and lower limbs. The unique characteristics present in each of these tests entail a subsequently unique mode of application during the process of rehabilitation. This helps athletic trainers and medical personnel evaluate recovery and decide on a potential return to sport. A comprehensive holistic approach that includes multiple testing, psychosocial assessment, and a gradual return to activity is best to achieve promising outcomes and preinjury athletic levels. Level of Evidence V, expert opinion
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