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Since the 1970’s the Content-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval (CBIR) has been an active area. Nowadays, the rapid increase of video data has paved the way to the advancement of the technologies in many different communities for the creation of Content-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval (CBVIR). However, greater attention needs to be devoted to the development of effective tools for video search and browse. In this paper, we present Visione, a system for large-scale video retrieval. The system integrates several content-based analysis and retrieval modules, including a keywords search, a spatial object-based search, and a visual similarity search. From the tests carried out by users when they needed to find as many correct examples as possible, the similarity search proved to be the most promising option. Our implementation is based on state-of-the-art deep learning approaches for content analysis and leverages highly efficient indexing techniques to ensure scalability. Specifically, we encode all the visual and textual descriptors extracted from the videos into (surrogate) textual representations that are then efficiently indexed and searched using an off-the-shelf text search engine using similarity functions.
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An Image Retrieval System for Video?
Paolo Bolettieri, Fabio Carrara, Franca Debole, Fabrizio Falchi, Claudio
Gennaro, Lucia Vadicamo, and Claudio Vairo
Institute of Information Science and Technologies,
Italian National Research Council (CNR),
Via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa, Italy
{firstname.surname}@isti.cnr.it
Abstract. Since the 1970’s the Content-Based Image Indexing and Re-
trieval (CBIR) has been an active area. Nowadays, the rapid increase of
video data has paved the way to the advancement of the technologies
in many different communities for the creation of Content-Based Video
Indexing and Retrieval (CBVIR). However, greater attention needs to be
devoted to the development of effective tools for video search and browse.
In this paper, we present Visione, a system for large-scale video retrieval.
The system integrates several content-based analysis and retrieval mod-
ules, including a keywords search, a spatial object-based search, and a
visual similarity search. From the tests carried out by users when they
needed to find as many correct examples as possible, the similarity search
proved to be the most promising option. Our implementation is based on
state-of-the-art deep learning approaches for content analysis and lever-
ages highly efficient indexing techniques to ensure scalability. Specifically,
we encode all the visual and textual descriptors extracted from the videos
into (surrogate) textual representations that are then efficiently indexed
and searched using an off-the-shelf text search engine using similarity
functions.
Keywords: content-based image indexing ·neural networks ·multime-
dia retrieval·similarity search ·object detection
1 Introduction
Video data is the fastest growing data type on the Internet, and because of the
proliferation of high-definition video cameras, the volume of video data is ex-
ploding. Visione [1] is a content-based video retrieval system that participated
for the first time in 2019 to the Video Browser Showdown (VBS) [11], an inter-
national video search competition that evaluates the performance of interactive
video retrievals systems. The VBS 2019 uses the V3C1 dataset that consists
of 7,475 video files, amounting for 1000h of video content (1082659 predefined
c
Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
G. Amato et al. (Eds.): SISAP 2019, LNCS 11807, pp. 332–339, 2019.
Final authenticated publication: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32047-829
?Work partially supported by the AI4EU project (EC-H2020 - Contract n. 825619)
2 P. Bolettieri et al.
segments) [15] and encompasses three content search tasks: visual Known-Item
Search (visual KIS),textual Known-Item Search (textual KIS) and ad-hoc Video
Search (AVS). The visual KIS task models the situation in which someone wants
to find a particular video clip that he has already seen, assuming that it is con-
tained in a specific collection of data. In the textual KIS, the target video clip is
no longer visually presented to the participants of the challenge but it is rather
described in details by text. This task simulates situations in which a user wants
to find a particular video clip, without having seen it before, but knowing the
content of the video exactly. For the AVS task, instead, a textual description
is provided (e.g. “A person playing guitar outdoors”) and participants need to
find as many correct examples as possible, i.e. video shots that fit the given
description.
In this paper, we describe the current version of Visione, an image retrieval
system used to search for videos, presented for the first time at VBS2019. After
the first implementation of the system, as described in [1], we decide to focus
our attention on the query phase, by improving the user interaction with the
interface. And for that reason, we introduce a set of icons for the object location
and, inspired by other system involved in VBS of the previous years (e.g. [10]),
we integrate the query-by-color sketch. In the next sections, we describe the
main components of the system and the techniques at the bottom of the system.
2 System Components
Visione is based on state-of-the-art deep learning approaches for the visual con-
tent analysis and exploits highly efficient indexing techniques to ensure scalabil-
ity. In Visione, we use the keyframes made available by the VBS organizers (1
million segments and keyframes1), focusing our work on the extraction of rel-
evant information on these keyframes and on the design of a clear and simple
user interface.
In the following, we give a brief description of the main components of the
system: the User Interface and the Search Engine (see Figure 1).
2.1 User Interface
The user interface, shown in the upper part of Figure 1, provides a text box to
specify the keywords, and a canvas for sketching objects to be found in the target
video. Inspired by one of the system on VBS2018, we integrate also the query-by-
color sketches, realized with the same interface we used for the objects (canvas
and bounding box). The canvas is split into a grid of 7×7 cells, where the user can
draw simple bounding boxes to specify the location of the desired objects/colors.
The user can move, enlarge or reduce the drawn bounding boxes for refining the
search. In the current version of the system, we realize a simple drag & drop on
the canvas using icons for the most common objects. Furthermore with the same
1https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tv2019/data.html
An Image Retrieval System for Video 3
Fig. 1. The main components of Visione: the User Search Interface, and the Indexing
and Retrieval System
mechanism we define a color palette available as icons, to facilitate the search
by color: for each cell of the grid (7×7), we calculate the dominant colors using
a K-NN approach, largely adopted in color based image segmentation [13].
Moreover, another new functionality added to the old system [1], is the possi-
bility of using some filters, such as the number of occurrences of specific objects,
and the type of keyframes to be retrieved (B/W or color, 4:3 or 16:9). At brows-
ing time, the user browsing through the results can use the image similarity
to refine the search, or group the keyframes (in the result set) that belong to
the same video. Finally, the user interface offers the possibility to show for each
keyframe of the result set, all the keyframes of the video of the selected keyframe,
and play the video starting from the selected keyframe: this can help to check if
the selected keyframe matches the query. A standard search in Visione, for all the
tasks, could be done by drawing one or more bounding boxes of objects/colors,
or by searching for some keywords, and often by combining them.
4 P. Bolettieri et al.
2.2 Search Engine
Retrieval and browsing require that the source material is first of all effectively
indexed. In our case, we employ state-of-the-art deep learning approaches to
extract both low-level and semantic visual features. We encode all the features
extracted from the keyframes (visual features, keywords, object locations, and
metadata) into textual representations that are then indexed using inverted files.
We use a text surrogate representation [6], which was specifically extended to
support efficient spatial object queries on large scale data. In this way, it is
possible to build queries by placing the objects to be found in the scene and
efficiently search for matching images in an interactive way. This choice allows us
to exploit efficient and scalable search technologies and platform used nowadays
for text retrieval. In particular, Visione relies on the Apache Lucene2.
In the next section, we describe in detail the techniques employed to obtain
useful visual/semantic features.
3 Methodologies
Visione addresses the issues of CBVIR modeling the data using both the simple
features (color, texture) and derived features (semantic features). Regarding the
derived features, Visione relies heavily on deep learning techniques, trying to
bridge the semantic gap between text and image using the following approaches:
for keywords search: we exploit an image annotation system based on
different Convolutional Neural Networks to extract scene attributes.
for object location search: we exploit the efficiency of YOLO3as a real-
time object detection system to retrieve the video shot containing the objects
sketched by the user.
for visual similarity search: we perform a similarity search by computing
the similarity between the visual features represented using the R-MAC [17]
visual descriptor.
Keywords. Convolutional Neural Networks, used to extract the deep features,
are able to associate images with categories they are trained from, but quite
often, these categories are insufficient to associate relevant keywords/tags to
an image. For that reason, then, Visione exploits an automatic annotation sys-
tem to annotate untagged images. This system, as described in [2], is based
on YFCC100M-HNfc6, a set of deep features extracted from the YFCC100M
dataset [16], created using the Caffe framework [8]. The image annotation sys-
tem is based on an unsupervised approach to extract the implicitly existing
knowledge in the huge collection of unstructured texts describing the images of
YFCC100M dataset, allowing us to label the images without using a training
model. The image annotation system also exploits the metadata of the images
validated using WordNet [5].
2https://lucene.apache.org/
3https://pjreddie.com/darknet/yolo/
An Image Retrieval System for Video 5
Fig. 2. Search Engine: the index for both object location and keywords.
Object Location. Following the idea that the human eye is able to identify
objects in the image very quickly, we decide to take advantage of the new tech-
nologies available to search for object instances in order to retrieve the exacted
video shot.
For this purpose, we use YOLOv3 [14] as object detector, both because it is
extremely fast and because of its accuracy. Our image query interface is subdi-
vided into a 7 ×7 grid in the same way that YOLO segments images to detect
objects. Each object detected in the single image Iby YOLO is indexed using
a specific encoding ENC conceived to put together the location and the class
corresponding to the object (codloccodclass ). The idea of using YOLO to detect
objects within video has already been exploited in VBS, e.g. by [18], but our ap-
proach is distinguished by being able to encode the class and the location of the
objects in a single textual description of the image, allowing us to search using
a standard text search engine. Basically for each image Ientry on the index,
we have a space-separated concatenation of ENC s, one for all the possible cells
(codloc) in the grid that contains the object (codclass) where:
loc is the juxtaposition of row and col on the grid
class is the name of the object as classified by YOLO.
In practice, through the UI the users can draw the objects they are looking
for by specifying the desired location for each of them (e.g., tree and vehicle in
Figure 1). Meanwhile, for each object, the UI encodes appropriately the request
to interrogate the index, marking all the cells in the grid that contain the object.
For example, for the query in Figure 1, we will search for entries Ion our index
that contain the sequence p1tree p2tree ... p6tree, where piis the code of the
i-th cell (with 1 i6 since the tree icon covers six cells). Note that, a cell
of a sketch can contain multiple objects. As showed in Figure 2, for the image
with id 2075, we extract both keywords (beach, cloud, etcetera), using the image
annotation tool, and object location (3dperson, etcetera), exploiting the object
detector, and later we index these two features in a single Lucene index.
Visual Similarity. Visione also supports visual content-based search function-
alities, which allows users to retrieve scenes containing keyframes visually similar
to a query image given by example. To start the search the user can select any
6 P. Bolettieri et al.
keyframe of a video as query. In order to represent and compare the visual con-
tent of the images, we use the Regional Maximum Activations of Convolutions
(R-MAC) [17]. This descriptor effectively aggregates several local convolutional
features (extracted at multiple position and scales) into a dense and compact
global image representation. We use the ResNet-101 trained model provided
by [7] as feature extractor since it achieved the best performance on standard
benchmarks. To efficiently index the R-MAC descriptor, we transform the deep
features into a textual encoding suitable for being indexed by a standard full-text
search engine, such as Lucene: we first use the Deep Permutation technique [3]
to encode the deep features into a permutation vector, which is then transformed
into a Surrogate Text Representation (STR) as described in [6]. The advantage
of using a textual encoding is that we can efficiently exploit off-the-shelf text
search engines for performing image searches on large scale.
4 Results
For the evaluation of our system, we took advantage of the participation to the
VBS competition, which was a great opportunity to test the system with both
expert and novice users.4For each task, a team receives a score based on response
time and on the number of correct and incorrect submissions.
KIS tasks. During the competition, the strategy used for solving both the
KIS tasks was mainly based on the use of queries by object locations and key-
words. Queries by color-sketch were used sparingly since they resulted to be
less stable and sometimes degrades the quality of results obtained with the key-
words/object search. As showed in Figure 3, for our system the textual-KIS task
was the hardest, accordingly to the observation done by the organizers of the
competition in [12], where they note that textual-KIS task is much harder to
solve than visual tasks.
AVS tasks. In this tasks, keywords/object and the image similarity search
functionalities were mainly used. In particular, the image similarity search re-
sulted to be notably useful to retrieve keyframes of different videos with similar
visual content.
We experienced how an image retrieval system could be useful for video
search, for the (Textual KIS) the results were not particularly satisfying, but for
the AVS task are very promising. A problem on the textual KIS is a too specific
categorisation of the object which decreased the recall: sometimes users does
not distinguish between car or trunk or vehicle and they may use one of them
(as textual query) indistinctly. However, for the YOLO detector the difference
is quite significant and this leads to low recall. Globally speaking, one of the
main problem was due to a rather simple user interface. In fact, Visione was
not supporting functionality like query history, multiple submissions at once, or
any form of collaboration between the team members: this leads to redundant
submissions and “slow” submission of multiple instances.
4http://www.videobrowsershowdown.org/example-browsers/infos-and-results-2019/
An Image Retrieval System for Video 7
Fig. 3. The VBS2019 competition results for the three tasks AVS, KIS-textual and
KIS-visual (score between 0 and 100). The bold line highlights the result of our system.
5 Conclusion
We described Visione, a system presented at the Video Browser Showdown 2019
challenge. The system supports three types of queries: query by keywords, query
by object location, and query by visual similarity. Visione exploits state-of-the-art
deep learning approaches and ad-hoc surrogate text encodings of the extracted
features in order to use efficient technologies for text retrieval. From the experi-
ence at the competition, we ascertained a high efficiency regarding the indexing
structure, made to support large scale multimedia access but a lack of effective-
ness on keywords search. As a result of the system assessment made after the
competition, we decide to invest a more effort on the keywords-based search,
trying to ameliorate the image annotation part: we plan to integrate dataset of
place, concept and categories ([19], [4], [9]), and automatic tools for scene un-
derstanding. Furthermore, we will improve the user interface to make it more
usable and collaborative.
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... A first release of VISIONE [1,6], which participated in the 2019 edition of the Video Browser Showdown (VBS) [11], is described in details in [2]. VBS is an international video search competition that is held annually since 2012 [13]. ...
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This paper presents the second release of VISIONE, a tool for effective video search on large-scale collections. It allows users to search for videos using textual descriptions, keywords, occurrence of objects and their spatial relationships, occurrence of colors and their spatial relationships, and image similarity. One of the main features of our system is that it employs specially designed textual encodings for indexing and searching video content using the mature and scalable Apache Lucene full-text search engine.
... Within this framework, we developed a content-based video retrieval system VISIONE [30,31], to compete at the Video Browser Showdown (VBS) [32], an international video search competition that evaluates the performance of interactive video retrievals systems. VISIONE is based on stateof-the-art deep learning approaches for the visual content analysis and exploits highly efficient indexing techniques to ensure scalability. ...
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