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FORMALIZING A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: THE STAKEHOLDERS' PERSPECTIVE

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Abstract

It is expected that by the year 2050, 66% of the world’s population will live in urban areas, necessitating the efficient management of land and urban space, namely the requirement for multi-dimensional land management systems (MLMS). In most countries, current LMS are two dimensional, representing the reality on a plane. This research aims at outlying guidelines designed for augmenting existing 2D LMS to multi-dimensional ones, by investigating theoretical (conceptual) and technical inferences related to the adding of the height dimension, the time dimension and the scale dimension (scale dimension may also refer to levels of details). Sustainable multi-purpose land management systems for serving various end-users is essential, therefore, our study is based on a Delphi questionnaire, which aims at understanding the perspective of diverse stakeholders and experts who may use LMS, as well as mapping their requirements and expectations from the LMS. Questions were categorized into two groups: i) theoretical, focusing on semantic and mathematical definitions; and, ii) technical, focusing on functionalities, databases, data collection, etc. As a preliminary assessment, responses of eight experts, from different fields and countries, to the questionnaire were analysed and summarized. The results are presented in this paper, including the main issues that experts pointed out, as well as suggested classes, fields, procedures and functionalities that might be required from a multi-purpose MLMS.
Formalizing a multi-dimensional land management system: the stakeholders' perspective
Ruba Jaljolie1 and Sagi Dalyot1 *
1Mapping and Geo-Information Engineering, The Technion, Haifa 3200003, Israel; e-mail: sruba93@campus.technion.ac.il;
dalyot@technion.ac.il
KEY WORDS: 5D Modelling, 3D City Modelling, Land Management System, Cadastre, Sustainability, Delphi
ABSTRACT:
It is expected that by the year 2050, 66% of the world’s population will live in urban areas, necessitating the efficient management of
land and urban space, namely the requirement for multi-dimensional land management systems (MLMS). In most countries, current
LMS are two dimensional, representing the reality on a plane. This research aims at outlying guidelines designed for augmenting
existing 2D LMS to multi-dimensional ones, by investigating theoretical (conceptual) and technical inferences related to the adding
of the height dimension, the time dimension and the scale dimension (scale dimension may also refer to levels of details). Sustainable
multi-purpose land management systems for serving various end-users is essential, therefore, our study is based on a Delphi
questionnaire, which aims at understanding the perspective of diverse stakeholders and experts who may use LMS, as well as
mapping their requirements and expectations from the LMS. Questions were categorized into two groups: i) theoretical, focusing on
semantic and mathematical definitions; and, ii) technical, focusing on functionalities, databases, data collection, etc. As a preliminary
assessment, responses of eight experts, from different fields and countries, to the questionnaire were analysed and summarized. The
results are presented in this paper, including the main issues that experts pointed out, as well as suggested classes, fields, procedures
and functionalities that might be required from a multi-purpose MLMS.
1. INTRODUCTION
Multi-dimensional land management system (MLMS) is a
framework for achieving, handling and analysing the
restrictions, responsibilities and rights (RRR) of land properties
in space (Jaljolie et al., 2018), time and different levels of detail.
As the population is rapidly growing, land resources become
scarcer and more valuable. This leads to complex and dense
urban construction, especially in industrial and commercial
centers, which leads to overlap and integration of structures in
space. Thus, enforcing the requirement for efficient usage of
land, meaning that perspectives for exploiting land resources
vertically, among others, need to be constructed. To achieve
this, advanced LMS are necessary, such as offering techniques
for modelling multi-dimensional data, enabling the spatial
analysis of urban space and operating engineering applications.
However, the time dimension, as well as having different levels
of details (LODs), are integral parts of urban development, and
thus the 3D LMS might operate better if it includes temporal
and LODs aspects. The temporal aspect is important since new
trends in land and real estate management continue to emerge
(e.g., 18-hours city), in conjunction with continues changes in
land cover (e.g., complex structures, infrastructure and streets),
which necessitate persisting track and adaptations in land
registration systems for handling time alongside space.
Moreover, discussions about sustainable multi-purpose MLMS
for serving various end-users have been raised, which might
require different LODs and granularities. These urgent demands
from LMS coincide with advances in technology that enable
high performance of comprehensive and rich spatial analysis,
functionalities, queries, and process on large data volumes.
Current research on MLMS put most emphasis on various
technical aspects, mainly in terms of database and visualization,
such as modelling different time stamps of 3D spatial locations,
creating change history maps and constructing data models in
several LODs. Still, mapping the functionalities and
prerequisites of MLMS is far from complete, where the clear
objectives of these systems (i.e., services they should provide)
are still required, mainly since they affect the systems’
configuration and its data structure, together with the embedded
functionalities and processes. Critical questions and change of
ideas that will serve as working grounds are still not fully made
and determined, such as Is the establishment of a real estate
management system (serving for, e.g., taxation, transfer of
ownership) is the final goal, or is it a tool that will serve other
domains as well?". Also, will such a system be designed to
support decision-making and applications needed for risk
management, shadow estimation and utility networks
administration? If yes, then which LODs are needed for each
specific field involved in the MLMS, and which data update
regularities are required? In addition to these issues, it is
important to formalize uniform semantic and mathematical
definitions of relevant terminologies that are based on the
perceptions of the involved parties, i.e., the stakeholders, which
also should be well defined. For example, the term "time
dimension" in the land management context is not yet finalized,
and it is not agreed whether a single dimension will be
sufficient for handling complex aspects of time (Oosterom,
Stoter, 2012), like: updates, analysis, scheduling and display
(Langran, 1992); such that various different definitions are
required to be illustrated.
Since MLMS is oriented for serving stakeholders and experts
(among others), it is vital to understand their perspective
regarding the above-described issues, and to qualitatively asses
their expectations from a functional MLMS. It is also important
to realize and model emerging unique and influential trends in
real estate that directly affect land resources. For that, we
designed a Delphi study, meaning an iterative questionnaire
addressed to experts, for investigating and hence understating
the future trends and data requirements that these experts expect
from MLMSs. The experts participating in this study include
the fields of real estate, urban planning, transportation, cadaster
and geodesy. The questions are written in a manner that does
not guide the respondent to a specific answer, but rather in a
way that enables inferring as much information as possible. The
questions are categorized under two groups: 1) Semantic and
mathematical definitions focusing on the contributions,
importance, and practicalities of MLMSs. For example, the
question "How many dimensions are needed for describing
temporal changes" is required since several studies consider
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-4/W15, 2019
14th 3D GeoInfo Conference, 24–27 September 2019, Singapore
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-27-2019 | © Authors 2019. CC BY 4.0 License.
27
temporal as more than a single dimension, as it may represent
several sorts of changes, such as geometrical, topological,
thematic or other changes related to the features of properties;
2) Data management, e.g., data structure and data model,
functionalities and processes, data collection, accuracy, and
visualization. A sample question in this context is: "Could you
provide examples of continuous property changes that are
important to track and supply for serving your discipline? What
is the required tracking frequency?". The purpose of this
question is to detect the required frequency of collecting and
updating data in MLMSs. As an example, the answers received
here vary: some disciplines demand only discrete information,
e.g. tax authorities, while others need continuous change
information, e.g. environmental monitoring organizations (as
suggested in Krigsholm, et al., 2018).
This paper presents the preliminary outcome of this study, and
the general guidelines that should be incorporated in the
formalizing of MLMSs. Applications of LMS vary, for
example, urban planning requires historical archiving, cultural
heritage analysis and tracking urban development trends. On the
other hand, applications for risk management in a natural
disaster, need indoor 3D models in numerous LODs. These
show that integrating temporal and scale aspects in MLSM need
to be analyzed and well formalized beforehand. In our study, we
aspire to firstly specify the disciplines that will use LMSs, and
the way they will use it. According to these, we will recommend
a formalization of all aspects required in an applicative MLMS,
which will serve various experts from various fields having
different needs. These will include, among others, data
structure, processes and functionalities that are related to all
dimensions. The technical framework of MLMS needs to be
determined in advance, but it is also crucial to specify its long-
term purposes and the appliances it offers.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Time
The topic of optimally storing and systematically managing
continues changes in LMS is still undetermined. Different
studies suggest different approaches, for example, (Nebiker et
al., 2014) suggests using dense image matching and object-
based image analysis for creating change detections based on
greyscale and colour aerial photographs, for the purpose of
observing changes in landscape.
Multi-purpose LMS involves moving objects (or continuously
evolving objects). For serving real estate purposes, the value of
a property might be grasped as a moving financial object since
it changes as a function of time, and it is not a geometric entity.
For providing urban planning functionality, urban density can
be understood as a semantic moving object, landowner is a
moving object as well, since ownership may be transferred by
inheritance or transactions. Earth surface and orthometric height
also changes as a result of nature or human factors. (Güting,
Schneider, 2005) provide examples of moving region entities,
such as: countries that move as result of reunification, splitting
into two (or more) parts and occupation; shrinking forests and
lakes as a result of human or natural phenomenon; continental
shifts. These examples show the need for treating moving
objects in LMS by integrating the time dimension.
For managing the time dimension, using real-time databases is
considered, which are defined as database systems that include
all features on traditional database system; in addition to
enforcing time-constraints in a form of data validation duration
or transaction deadlines or both (Salem et al., 2018).
2.2 LODs and scaling
(Allard, 2009) suggests three approaches for presenting various
scales in public transportation maps: 1. Separate maps: users get
separate maps in different scales (small- and large-scale maps)
and can pick a map in the scale that fits their specific needs, but
cannot see both maps concurrently. 2. Parallel maps (Insets):
users get one primary map in a small scale, on which exists
other inset larger-scale map that zoom in on a specific
concentrated area 3. Variable scale maps: maps that present
overcrowded areas in large-scales and less crowded areas in
small-scales.
Various LODs (e.g., general cartographic / land cover model,
models of buildings without texture, models of buildings in an
area with texture, etc.) would be needed in LMS for performing
typical processes and functionalities required in different fields.
For example, in transportation field, navigators need general
small-scale maps that depict whole scenes, as well as larger-
scale maps the details specific crowded areas (Allard, 2009),
(Harrie et al., 2002).
Presenting data in various LODs involves technical and
conceptual problems related to generalization. "It should be
clear how former area objects are converted to line objects. For
example, collapsing road polygons to lines might require
additionally that former road areas are assigned to (which?)
neighbouring area objectsCollapsing polygons to lines is not
always trivial. For example, roundabouts are introduced at
smaller scales as points because of the linear road network
replacing road polygons. However, in 1:10K database
roundabouts are not encoded, but can be interpreted by humans
from the polygons" ( Stoter et al., 2011 744).
3. METHODOLOGY
As stated in the abstract, the purpose of this research is to outlay
guidelines for augmenting existing 2D LMS to multi-
dimensional ones, by investigating theoretical and technical
inferences related to the adding of the height dimension, the
time dimension and the scale dimension. For this goal, we
pursue a Delphi approach, which is defined as an iterative
survey, directed at specialists in the field, for understating the
future trends affecting specific arena (in this case MLMSs), in
which no working model exist. We adopted Delphi study since
we seek to suggest an optimal structure of MLMS based on the
perceptions of potential end-users. The diversity of the survey's
participants is important for exposing different - and even
contradicting - opinions regarding particular topic, as-well-as
mapping common points, on which they all agree, hence, try to
reveal their consensus - if exists - on matters involved in the
survey. Starting from the common points, we provide
suggestions related to the data structure (i.e., classes and fields),
processes, functionalities and queries that need to be embedded
into multi-purpose MLMS. We also stimulate new issues
regarding the creation of MLMS that until now was not
sufficiently emphasized.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-4/W15, 2019
14th 3D GeoInfo Conference, 24–27 September 2019, Singapore
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-27-2019 | © Authors 2019. CC BY 4.0 License.
28
3.1 Disciplines and stakeholders
Two-parts Delphi questionnaire1 was published online among
potential stakeholders of future 5D LMS. The feedbacks of 5
online participants were included in the analysis, as well as 3
personal interviews that were carried out. The 8 participants
included - among others experts of urban planning and real
estate, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), spatial analysis
and spatial science, municipalities engineer. Participants had
generally long years of experience in academic and/or technical
background, and were from various countries.
3.2 potential end-users of MLM
According to the responses, potential disciplines to use LMS
include urban planning organizations, jurisdictional
organizations (e.g. registration authorities), mapping and
surveying institutions, municipalities, cadastre departments,
real-estate market specialists, spatial analysts and GIS experts,
transportation analysts and planners, real estate assessment and
appraisal firms, etc.
3.3 Main Consensuses
Respondents had conflicting opinions regarding specific issues
but agreed on others, like the need to combine agencies
involved in mapping and registration processes, and the need to
fit data structure to various end users and applications.
3.3.1 Combined agencies: Participants agreed that multi-
purpose systems that allow smooth collaboration - or even
unification - between different organizations would be effective,
sustainable and enable quicker procedures. Jurisdictional and
mapping agencies are mostly separated, and combining these
two institutions will provide more general and collective
representation of the reality. Based on the experiences of the
municipalities engineering departments, it takes long time for
an urban plan to be initiated, resulting in institutional delays
(especially mapping and jurisdictional); had one uniform,
smooth and online procedure existed for handling
municipalities applications, projects would advance faster and
more effectively. However, even if uniform procedures existed,
experts from at least two different fields are still required to be
involved in such a process, for avoiding surplus complications.
Both lawyers and land surveyors should take part, they must
collaborate, but do not have to physically work in the same
organization. To sum up, it is recommended to unify and
combine processes and institutions, however, combination does
not necessarily mean that the same person should be able to do
all the tasks, neither it means working in the same physical
space. Governments should take steps for combing these
separated institutions, more research, or even a pilot may be
required, for examining the efficiency of doing that.
3.4 Other issues and examples
The experts from different fields and backgrounds stated
concerns that were not usually emphasized, such as the need of
researching 3D urban planning instead of multi-dimensional
land management or cadastral systems.
1 Online survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/88H85H5
3.4.1 3D registration vs. 3D urban planning: 3D
registration systems are ineffective and cannot exist without 3D
planning, which should be investigated, researched and
implemented beforehand to investigating 3D registration. Even
if the world have enabled 3D registration, it would not be
helpful without 3D planning, since planning occurs before
licensing and registrations.
3.5 Time dimension
Crucial or not? Based on the stakeholders perspectives, time
dimension is crucial for specific applicants, but less important
for others. The frequency of collecting data varies according to
different fields. For example, effective urban planning requires
real-time update of databases, while this is not required in
cadastre. This is because there is almost no continuously
evolving or continuously moving objects in cadastre. Though
continuous update of the time dimension might not be always
crucial for cadastre and registry, it is crucial for public
transportation analysis and planning. Parameters, such as
optimal public transportation frequency, bus stations' location
and bus routes, depend on the surrounding: which buildings
exist in a neighbourhood, how many departments are in each
building, and how many people live in each department; these
data are time dependent and utilise time-dimension.
The analysis of population growth is vital for future urban
planning, such as determining the optimal location and density
of public buildings in a neighbourhood. If databases hold
dynamic information that represent construction density,
population growth, urban trends, and other urban attributes of
the last few years, an extrapolation can be used for predicting
the same attributes for upcoming years. The question raised in
this context is again about the required frequency of updating
databases, and regarding the time resolution. The participants
did not give a specific answer (value) to this issue, although
they agreed that the time dimension is required in diverse
resolutions for serving diverse users and application though.
3.5.1 Suggested approaches for updating databases: one
approach suggests determining, beforehand, a rate of updating
databases, which could be once a year, a month, a week or any
other rate based on the different users' needs; data in between
would be lost though.
Another approach recommends on flowingly and continuously
updating databases each time a change is detected in the real-
world. The second approach is much more comprehensive, and
includes more data and details; however, data management
might become more complicated. While this approach enables
obtaining snapshots for any time stamp, the technical aspect and
the volume of memory required for storing data should not be a
concern. An example of practical utilization for this approach is
reflected from engineering departments of municipalities, which
suffer from the disability to track all the changes that take place
in the land cover in their administration zones. Consequently,
the citizens might not comply with the permitted construction
rights - nor with the existing plans, and it is difficult for
administrators to identify deviations; real-time update of LMS
would help them to overcome this challenge.
3.6 LODs dimension:
Perspectives about the needed LODs varied. Most participants
agreed that LODs are a function of applications and users. In
urban areas, for example, the required LODs varies, where in
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-4/W15, 2019
14th 3D GeoInfo Conference, 24–27 September 2019, Singapore
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https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-27-2019 | © Authors 2019. CC BY 4.0 License.
29
dense areas more detailed LODs are required: a LOD that
represent general whole areas, more detailed LOD representing
neighbourhoods, much more detailed LOD representing specific
features, such as buildings or roads. Tabular databases were
suggested for holding entities in various LODs. Since
visualization facilitates understanding of the reality,
recommendations on linking tabular databases to GIS and
visualization software were given.
3.7 Technical aspects: procedures and data structure
Based on the responses, classes, fields, functionalities and
queries for handling 5D LMS were suggested.
3.7.1 Classes:
There is a need to create a "Transaction" class representing real
transaction details. A "Transaction" should not be separated
from an object (Figure 1), since a real transaction is an
operation that regularly involves objects, and should be linked
to them, which may represent a property (e.g., 3D parcel,
apartment) or owners and ownerships of a property. The world
may be represented by objects, while each object holds
information about previous events it has undergone (state-
based), or alternatively, by sequence of events that relate to
different objects, while each event is an entity (event-based).
Respondents were asked whether they prefer to work within
event-based or state-based model, and they expressed their
desire to have both; from the one side, it is easier to understand
observe the total picture of the reality based on objects, rather
than based on transaction sequences. However, there are
situations where registering "Transaction" is also crucial, and
can exist by itself.
Figure 1. The Transaction class should be linked to objects.
An example for that was provided, involving an expropriation
process. The law in Israel allows at most 40% cumulative land
expropriation for public requirements without compensation; if
previously 30% of a specific parcel area was expropriated, then
a new plan can expropriate maximum additional 10% from the
same original parcel. The Israel Land Authority and the
Jerusalem municipality conflicted about the ratio allowed to be
expropriated in a second expropriation for implementing a new
urban plan. Had previous expropriation data was properly
registered, the conflict could be avoided. For such
circumstances, expropriation may be registered as a subclass of
"Transaction". Depicted in Figure 2, the "Expropriation" class
includes fields indicating the date of depositing the plan that
impose expropriation, the purpose of expropriation, its
percentage from the total parcel area, the cumulative
expropriated area and the execution date (i.e. when
expropriation was implemented).
DepositingDate
ExecutionDate
ParcelsNumber
ExpropriationPurpose
ExpropriationPercentage
CummulativePercentage
AddFieldsToExpropriation
GetFields
ReadFromCAD
Expropriation
TransactionDate
TransactionPurpose
AddFieldsToExpropriation
GetFields
ReadFromCAD
Transaction
Figure 2. An example for the "Expropriation" and "Transaction"
classes.
3.7.2 Fields:
For proper time registration and track, respondents expressed
that they would like to have both the valid time and the
transaction time. The valid time refers to the time in the real
world when an event occurs, or a fact that is valid. The
transaction time refers to the time when a change is recorded in
the database or the time interval during which a particular state
of the database exists (Güting, Schneider, 2005). Therefore,
regular classes that are composed of a data structure in 2D or
3D LMS should include two additional fields: "valid time" and
"transaction time ". Valid time and transaction time enable
stakeholders to understand gaps between registration, planning
and reality. In addition, those fields make it easier to detect
deviations from building permits. These two kinds of time can
also serve for different purposes, transaction time may indicate
when a change was registered, i.e., when the database was
updated. A citizen who wants to purchase or sell real estate
property needs an appraisal of the land. In some countries, such
appraisal is based on previous transactions for similar properties
located in the areas. Besides, the utilization of a property in the
last years preceding the transaction date indicates the potentials
of the property, which directly influence its value. For these
reasons, chronological track of land changes is vital, end-users,
especially appraisers, would like to receive up-to-date land
information supplied with both transaction time and valid time.
For managing LODs, regular traditional classes need to include
fields that indicate the LOD of entities and instances of the
class. Besides, an entity in a specific LOD should be linked to
the same entity in other LODs, if exists.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-4/W15, 2019
14th 3D GeoInfo Conference, 24–27 September 2019, Singapore
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-27-2019 | © Authors 2019. CC BY 4.0 License.
30
3.7.3 Functionalities and process:
Among others, two required processes for implementing urban
plans were detected based on the responses, depicted in Figure 3
(Iterative interaction between registration and planning) and
Figure 4 (Conventional stages prior to construction). Both
processes integrate various end-users and show the need of
multi-purpose LMS.
Figure 3. Iterative interaction between registration and planning.
Figure 3 illustrates an iterative process of registration and
planning that involves different users and agencies. Prior to
creating new urban plan, planners should consider the reality
and base their plans on existing maps. Authorities hold maps of
current state of their jurisdictional zone, ownerships of
structures and parcels are regularly registered according to
current state. If an urban plan is permitted, licensed and
implemented, then it is required to register the changes that it
caused. These mean that three iterative steps occur in the world
of planning: (1) registering of existing properties; (2) new
planning according to existing registration; (3) registering again.
Implemented plans include vertical/horizontal split or union,
construction of new apartments or building, with separate
ownerships, land expropriations, and other operations that
necessitate new registration.
In the process of registration, at least two types of agencies are
involved: the mapping agency and the jurisdictional institution,
where planning is performed by separate authorities (e.g.,
municipalities or governments). Changes that occur in one
agency, as well as databases updating, affect the other agencies,
which necessitate updating data in different agencies
simultaneously. This encourage combining agencies work for
performing proper, uniform and smooth procedures without
delays and without conflict.
Figure 4. Conventional stages prior to construction involving
the use of multi-purpose sustainable LMS.
An urban (or any) plan would not be executed/implemented
without licensing. Supervision is performed all the way
simultaneously to implementation. If any conflict between
implementation and planning is detected through supervision,
execution process might be obstructed, otherwise construction
would be launched. If the procedure depicted in Figure 4 ends in
construction, implementation or execution, it should be then
followed by registration (as was illustrated in Figure 1).
For large scale projects, it is aspired that these procedures
would be automatically done, which cannot happen without
interactive, continuous real-time updating of databases, meaning
that integrating the time dimension in LMS would be crucial.
An urban planning authority collaborates with at least three
departments responsible for different tasks (Figure 5), namely:
supervision, licensing and planning. For performing these tasks,
the departments should collaborate and correspond during the
entire time of a project. A multi-purpose MLMS system should
fit for those agencies requirements, queries, databases, data
structure and procedure. Such a system should be interactive,
conscious/alert to modifications/alteration/ adjustments - and up
to date.
Figure 5. The three departments collaborating with an urban
planning authority (system).
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-4/W15, 2019
14th 3D GeoInfo Conference, 24–27 September 2019, Singapore
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31
3.7.4 Queries: new queries arise in MLMS. A potential 3D
query is finding all the buildings that exist in a given radius and
calculating their volume. An expected 4D query is calculating
the rate of density growth over the last ten years. A possible 5D
query is inserting a new volumetric spatial parcel in a MLMS,
as illustrated in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Illustrating a process of inserting a new volumetric
spatial parcel in a MLMS.
CONCLUSIONS
This study is among the few studies implementing Delphi
methodology in the field of land management. We follow
Delphi approach since we aspire to set the requirements and
expectations of MLMS based on potential stakeholders'
perspective. Interviewing experts who have different
experiences and come from diverse fields and countries reveals
new ideas, highlighting issues that were not emphasized until
now, some of which - if adopted could change the whole
research direction of LMS.
For instance, a respondent claimed that, based on his
experience, MLMS cannot exist without multi-dimensional
urban planning systems, implying that it would be wise to pause
research on MLMS, and focus instead on developing multi-
dimensional urban planning systems. Although there was a
consensus on some matters, respondents' opinions varied, and
they disagreed on specific issues. For example, they disagreed
on the difficulty related to the managing of large volumes of
data required for MLMS; some argue that managing big data
would not be considered as a problem in a time when
technological facilities are rapidly developing, while others
claimed that despite the technical advancement, MLMS require
collecting, cleaning, formatting and reorganizing massive
volumes of data, which means investing time and resources just
on the minor affairs, then only moving to analysis stage.
Carrying out the tedious work of extracting massive volumes of
data can be exhausting and challenging, even if relevant
organizations are technologically accessed; for overcoming that,
machine learning might be considered. Among the topics that
experts agreed on are data sources. In their opinion, VGI and
crowdsourcing lack maturity at this stage, and cannot be trusted
to be a primary data source, but they may be used to
complement other conventional sources, such as
photogrammetry.
Overall, the preliminary analysis of the responses shows the
importance and cruciality of creating multi-purpose MLMSs.
Updates in data structure, classes and fields, as well as
functionalities, queries and processes were suggested based on
this analysis. Additional responses would be soon collected and
analysed for expanding these preliminary results.
Large-scale projects are expected to be required for sustainably,
serving future needs of land management in a time when
population density reaches its peak and land resource become
scarcer. This would stimulate the creation of multi-purpose
MLMSs, in which data structure and classes should supply the
requirements of various arenas; diversity of procedures and
functionalities should be provided in MLMS, fitted for different
end-users, written in programming languages that are easy to be
converted to other specific languages used in relevant arenas.
These mean that creating multi-purpose MLMS is a complex
task, and more research and pilots should be performed in
technical and conceptual topics concerned with MLMS. The
option of unifying different agencies involved in land
management processes should also be considered and
investigated.
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This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W15-27-2019 | © Authors 2019. CC BY 4.0 License.
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 1989. Includes bibliographical references (p. [184]-205). Photocopy.
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Allard, J., 2009. The Design of Public Transport Maps-Graphic elements and design operations in the representation of urban navigation systems. Dipartimento INDACO. Milano, Politecnico di Milano. Doctor.
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  • L Harrie
  • L T Sarjakoski
  • L Lehto
Harrie, L., Sarjakoski, L. T., & Lehto, L., 2002. A variablescale map for small-display cartography. International Archives of Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 34(4), 237-242