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The castellaccio of Bivigliano. Integrated survey and enhancement for an emblematic case of research on fortification systems in Northern Tuscany

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Abstract

The international conference "Between East and West: transposition of cultural systems and military technology of fortified landscapes" is organized in order to compare the results and the updates about the several researches made by experts of various nationalities, about the theme of cultural routes and fortified landscapes. The scientific knowledge, the analysis, the documentation and the architectural survey of the heritage in all its meanings, are essential instruments for the understanding and the improvement of any information and sign that history and culture has produced in each places or in a specific geographic area. These signs are in any case the result of the transposition of cultural models, of building technologies and offensive and/or defensive strategies, that have been tested, consolidated and exported for a long time, and that have determined the image of whole territories. The implementation of the knowledge, the specific studies and the documentation programs, also constitute the main basis for the exercise of critical and interpretative activities, in order to training and to develop a particular settlement, city or area. Besides, they are also useful for the expectation of the necessary specific planning for the conservation and the improvement, that are aimed at promoting the conscious development of human activities in that places. This international conference aims at comparing the experiences made in this scientific area, that have allowed the development of operational methods for researches useful for the correct understanding of both the architectures and the historical and archaeological complexes. Furthermore, it also aims at taking into consideration the cultural and environmental contexts of the contemporary history, giving essential advices for a critical reading and a proper evaluation about the conservation actions for this important heritage.
The international conference “Between East and West: transposition of cultural systems and military technology
of fortied landscapes” is organized in order to compare the results and the updates about the several researches
made by experts of various nationalities, about the theme of cultural routes and fortied landscapes. The
scientic knowledge, the analysis, the documentation and the architectural survey of the heritage in all its
meanings, are essential instruments for the understanding and the improvement of any information and sign
that history and culture has produced in each places or in a specic geographic area. These signs are in any
case the result of the transposition of cultural models, of building technologies and offensive and/or defensive
strategies, that have been tested, consolidated and exported for a long time, and that have determined the
image of whole territories. The implementation of the knowledge, the specic studies and the documentation
programs, also constitute the main basis for the exercise of critical and interpretative activities, in order to
training and to develop a particular settlement, city or area. Besides, they are also useful for the expectation
of the necessary specic planning for the conservation and the improvement, that are aimed at promoting the
conscious development of human activities in that places. This international conference aims at comparing
the experiences made in this scientic area, that have allowed the development of operational methods for
researches useful for the correct understanding of both the architectures and the historical and archaeological
complexes. Furthermore, it also aims at taking into consideration the cultural and environmental contexts of
the contemporary history, giving essential advices for a critical reading and a proper evaluation about the
conservation actions for this important heritage.
Between east and west
transposition of cultural systems
and military technology of
fortified landscapes
Between east and west
edited By
sandro parrinello
stefano Bertocci
giovanni pancani
€ 14,00
edited by
Sandro Parrinello
Stefano bertocci
Giovanni Pancani
between eaSt and weSt
tranSPoSition of cultural SyStemS
and military technoloGy of
fortified landScaPeS
The editors would like to thank all those who contributed with their work to the international congress
and given their authorisation for publication. The editors and the organizers cannot be held responsible
for either the contents or opinions expressed in these works. In addition, the authors hereby declare that
the contents of this communication are original ones, or when appropriate, they have the corresponding
authorisation to include, use or adapt long quotations or tables and illustrations from other works.
This is a double blind peer review publication evaluated by experts in the eld of fortied landscapes and
fortresses. The sources and information found within that particular work has been veried by the referee
committee. The referee committee was selected by the scientic committee of the Conference among the
most experts in this eld; peer review referee screened the submitted articles. This process has been chosen
to encourage authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and to prevent the dissemination of
irrelevant ndings or uncorrect interpretations.
© Copyright 2012
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ISBN 978-88-7970-564-6
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Department of Architecture,
Drawing, History, Design,
University of Florence
Forum UNESCO ICOMOS Italia ICOFORT University of
Pavia
University of
Florence
Laboratory of Landscape
Survey & Design,
University of Florence
Province of
Florence
Province of
Arezzo
Municipality of
Poppi
Union of Municipalities of the Casentino Mountains
FRDB - Life Beyond Tourism
CAM 2- Faro Group Technology Inc.
OIKOS srl
Department of Civil
Engineering and Architecture,
University of Pavia
Proceedings of the International Conference “Between East and West: transposition of cultural systems and
military technology of fortied landscapes”. Poppi (AR)-Firenze, Italy May 7-13, 2012.
University of Florence; Department of Architecture, Drawing - History - Design.
University of Pavia; Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture.
Organizing COmmittee
Sandro Parrinello University of Pavia, Italy
Stefano bertocci University of Florence, Italy
Giovanni Pancani University of Florence, Italy
aleSSandro brezzi Director of Rilliana Library, Poppi (AR), Italy
milaGroS floreS román ICOFORT president, USA
SCientifiC COmmittee
PhiliPPe braGard Belgium
tamara blaneS martín Cuba
robert treufeldt Estonia
nicolaS faucherre France
michel Perloff France
athanaSioS nakaSiS Greece
cho Doo won Korea
carloS Scheltema Holland
Stefano bertocci Italy
marco bini Italy
anGelo buGatti Italy
aleSSandra marino Italy
anna marotta Italy
Sandro Parrinello Italy
ciro robotti Italy
Giovanni Pancani Italy
franciSco muñoz eSPejo Mexico
maricruz PailleS Mexico
roberta luciani havran Norway
dominGoS buchoS Portugal
manuel jeSúS ramírez blanco Spain
fernando coboS Spain
Pablo rodríGuez navarro Spain
juan a. rodríGuez-villaSante Prieto Spain
david mitchell UK
douGlaS Pritchard UK
viacheSlav kulinich Ukraine
milaGroS floreS román USA
roy Graham USA
SCientifiC SeCretariat
Sandro Parrinello
Organizing SeCretariat
Silvia bertacchi
Giovanni minutoli
andrea PaGano
WebSite, graphiC deSign
Sara Porzilli
franceSca Picchio
andrea PaGano
INDEX
greetingS
Graziano aGoStini Major of the Municipality of Poppi 15
vincenzo ceccarelli Councillor of the Region Tuscany, President of the Sixth Committee - Environment and Territory 16
rita mezzetti Panozzi Councillor to Cultural Activities and Heritage, to Public Education and Tourism in
the Province of Arezzo 17
marco GamannoSSi Councillor to Planning, Territorial Programming, Parks and Protected Areas in
the Province of Florence 18
Saverio mecca Dean of the Faculty of Architecture, University of Florence 19
uliSSe tramonti
Director of the Department of Architecture, Design-History-Project, University of Florence 20
ferdinando auricchio
Director of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia 21
anGelo buGatti
Director of the Master Degree Course in Building Engineering/Architecture University of Pavia 22
fOrtified landSCape SyStemS and netWOrkS
The documenTaTion of anTonellis forTresses, a research beTween Two worlds. 27
Sandro Parrinello
anTonelli and The spanish forTified caribbean. 34
Milagros Flores Román
analysis of The condiTion of The casTles of valencian province. 38
Manuel Jesús Ramírez Blanco, Jaime Llinares, Ana Valls, Rafael Emilio Marín
casTles of The province of valencia in GeoGraphic informaTion sysTem (Gis). 42
Concepción López González, Simeón Couto López, Francisco Taberner Pastor
The research projecT documenTinG The forTresses of The casenTino area. 45
Giovanni Pancani
casenTino TerriTory and casTles. 48
Marco Bini
casTles in The norThern border of sobrarbe, oriGinaTinG aT The Time of sancho el mayor (11Th cenTury). 52
Susana Mora Alonso-Muñoyerro, Pablo Cruz Franco, Mónica Fernández de la Fuente, Patricia González Amigo,
Marcos Hernanz, María de Juan Pelillo, Natalia Rubio, Adela Rueda Márquez de la Plata, Jesús Sánchez Arenas
culTural landscapes of The miliTary archiTecTure of veracruz. camino real veracruz, mexico via jalapa. 55
Dolores Pineda Campos, Alfonso García y García, Roberto Ramírez Rodríguez
meThodoloGy for The sTudy of a spanish forT in The 18Th cenTury: forT Galeras in carTaGena (spain). 60
Guillermo Guimaraens, Juan Francisco Noguera, Virginia Navalón
The applicaTion of miliTary TreaTises in The desiGn of The spanish forTresses in The second half of The
sixTeenTh cenTury: The work of The palearo fraTino broThers. 64
Andrea Pirinu
feaTures of The archiTecTure of casTles and forTified churches of crusader epoch. 67
Stefano Bertocci
The defence sysTem of cosTanTinople in The middle aGes and The archaeoloGical works in The
byzanTine forTress of yoros/hieron on The bosporus. 70
Asnu Bilban Yalcin
The forTificaTion of medieval caesarea (israël), a defensive melTinG poT. 73
Nicolas Faucherre
from drawinG in The TreaTises To buildinG in The consTrucTion siTes: examples in piemonTe. 76
Anna Marotta
sTudy on The role of The forTified sysTems of TrenTino wiThin The ausTrian hunGarian empire TarGeTed
To The valorisaTion of The forTified heriTaGe. 81
Fiorenzo Meneghelli
casTles in ruins: a proTocol for The planninG of conservaTion and manaGemenT. 85
Lorenzo Appolonia, Gabriele Sartorio, Antonino Sergi, Cécil Dupré, Christophe Guffon, Joël Serralongue, Laurent d’Agostino
forTificaTions alonGside narva river and Their muTual miliTary use ThrouGh cenTuries. 88
Robert Treufeldt
beTween easT and wesTThe phenomenon of forTified landscapes in poland. 91
Lidia Klupsz
The forminG peculiariTies of odessa landscape slopes. 94
Nadezhda Yeksareva, Vladimir Yeksarev
seTTlemenTs forms for The land conTrol and defence in basilicaTa. 97
Antonio Conte, Maria Onorina Panza, Marianna Calia, Dario Boris Campanale
The informaTion sysTem of forTificaTions To proTecT of The access To The fucino lake alonG The
via valeria rouTe beTween The 10Th and 12Th cenTury. 100
Romolo Continenza, Ilaria Trizio
forTified farmhouses in sharq al-andalus on The fronTier beTween chrisTians and
muslims (8Th – 13Th cenTuries). 103
Pablo Rodríguez Navarro
The forTified landscapes of The adriaTic basin. 106
Caterina Palestini
defence of The borders of The Tuscan romaGna TerriTory. 109
Fauzia Farneti
CaSe Study Of military teChnOlOgy
namhansanseonG, mounTain forTress ciTy (republic of korea). 115
Cho Doo Won
The house of The chancellor in huanG chenG. The beTTer example of chinese casTle. 119
Francesco Maglioccola 马 方济
forT oulu: desiGns for world´s norThmosT basTion forTress. 122
Petri Vuojala, Harri Ryynänen
charTreuses eT forTificaTions: le cas de la charTreuse de pierre-chaTel. 125
Giovanni Leoncini
The reconverTion of The forT of bard (valle d’aosTa). 128
Laura Blotto
The diGiTal documenTaTion of sTirlinG casTle. 131
Douglas Pritchard, Chris McGregor, David Mitchell
The ciTadel of Gozo. resToraTion sTraTeGies and valorisaTion of malTa forTified sysTem. 134
Marcello Balzani, Federico Ferrari, Luca Rossato, Alessandra Tursi
The ciTadel of Gozo. 3d modelinG. 137
Leonardo Chiechi, Sabina Macchitella
The priamar in savona. criTical readinG of a besieGed forTress. 140
Michel Perloff
The arezzo 16Th cenTury forTress, beTween hisTory and resToraTion. 143
Maurizio De Vita
The forTress of meldola as represenTed in The sTudies of General marinelli. 146
Silvio Van Riel
The casTle of The counTs sambuy. 149
Nadia Fabris
an anTique ciTy: knidos. 152
Sibel Onat Hattap
a forTress, some sieGes and Thier represenTaTion. 155
Roberto Parenti
ananTe liTTeramnewfoundland: The casTle of pieTrabuona. 158
Alessandro Merlo, Gaia Lavoratti
an early 14Th cenTury florenTine forTress aT fucecchio, in The lower arno valley. 161
Andrea Vanni Desideri
la double enceinTe du chaTeaux de civiTella en valdichiana. 164
Carmela Crescenzi
from defence Tower To culTural symbol: research and presenTaTion of vrsac Tower. 167
Snezana Vecanski
urban renewal on forTified (world) heriTaGe siTes. 170
Karl Kupka
The ladislao ii d’aquino casTle in roccheTTa sanT’anTonio in foGGia. Typical example
amonG The casTles of daunia in The araGonese period. 173
Domenico Spinelli
Theform facTorin The consTrucTion of monTe sanT’anGelo and casTel del monTe. 176
Giovanni Mongiello
The forTificaTions of malTa in The frescoes by maTTeo perez d’aleccio. 179
Ciro Robotti
pOSter
Giovanni baTTisTa anTonelli: Theory, model and realiTy. 185
Sandro Parrinello, Silvia Bertacchi
renaissance GeomeTry in The evanGelisTa menGa casTles. 188
Pasquale Tunzi
Towers of The forTified houses of seGovia. presence in The skyline of The ciTy. 191
Marcos Hernanz, Natalia Rubio
reuTilizaTion of Three spanish casTles: maqueda, peñafiel and simancas. 194
Mónica Fernández de la Fuente, Patricia González Amigo, Jesús Sánchez Arenas
hisToric masonry consolidaTions in The walled complex of buiTraGo del lozoya. 197
Silvia Bootello Almendáriz, Ignacio Mora Moreno
forTified lines aT The souTh of The ciTy of cáceres: The forTified landscape as culTural heriTaGe.
forTified house arvajal-villalobos. 200
Adela Rueda Márquez de la Plata, Pablo A. Cruz Franco
sTudy concerninG The developmenT of miliTary archiTecTure confiGuraTion in The TwenTieTh cenTury
colonial ciTy villa cisneros (currenTly dakhla). 203
Ruth Cebrián Jorge, Natalia Rubio Camarillo
The forTified palace of The house of The kniGhTs of sT. johns hospiTal in jerusalem in The ciTy of valencia. 206
Jorge García Valldecabres, Maria Luisa Navarro García, Daniel Crespo Godino
TechnoloGy of pressinG piles in The consTrucTion of TechnoGenic Ground in The perm reGion. 209
Svetlana V. Maksimova, Ekaterina B. Pimenova, Anna A. Shamarina
The casTellaccio of biviGliano. inTeGraTed survey and enhancemenT for an emblemaTic case of research on
forTificaTion sysTems in norThern Tuscany. 212
Andrea Pagano, Roberto Parenti, Sandro Parrinello
The sysTem of Towers on The amalfi coasT. documenTs, imaGes, consideraTions. 215
Luigi Corniello
The sTronG places of The valley simeTo. The donjon of adrano, paTernò and moTTa. 218
Nello Caruso
sTudy of archiTecTural and decoraTive sTyles of The sacred environmenTs inside The crusader donjons aT
paTernò and adrano. 221
Sara Bua
casTles and forTified sysTems in abruzzo: The case sTudy of acciano. 224
Carlo Raffaelli, Sara Porzilli
acciano walled villaGe: problems of seismic vulnerabiliTy of hisToric forTified cenTers. 227
Giovanni Minutoli
seacoasT defence sysTems: The casTle of roccella jonica and Tower pizzofalcone. 230
Stefano Bertocci, Graziella Del Duca
ThepalaTium sive forTiliTiumof alamanni salviaTi aT ponTe alla badia. 233
Monica Lusoli
meleTo casTle. 236
Linda Puccini
The balTic culTure and Tourism rouTe forTresses (balTic forT rouTe – bfr). 239
Hans-Rudolf Neumann
The ausTrian forTs in TrenTino: memories from The pasT To The fuTure. 240
Giovanna Massari
The forT of The royal siTe of porTici. 243
Annamaria Robotti
boloGna permanenT forTificaTion. 245
Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio, V. Baroncini
morpholoGic sTudy on The casTle of almenara. 248
Pablo Rodriguez-Navarro, Teresa Gil-Piqueras, Filippo Fantini
archeoloGical survey of The casTles and forTificaTions of esfahan from The perspecTive of adminisTraTive
GeoGraphy, from beGinninG of The islamic era To The safavid period. 249
Ali Shojaee Esfahani
exhibitiOn CatalOgue
1) documenTaTion of The anTonellis forTresses. 255
Curator of the exhibition: Sandro Parrinello
2) heriTaGe in danGer. casTles and forTresses in The province of valencia 270
Curator of the exhibition: Manuel Jesús Ramírez Blanco
3) 3d laser scanner survey of counTs Guidis casTle of poppi and pieve a socana. 276
Curator of the exhibition: Stefano Bertocci, Giovanni Pancani
212
Between East and West: transposition of cultural systems and military technology of fortied landscape
The casTellaccio of Bivigliano. inTegraTed survey and enhancemenT for an
emBlemaTic case of research on forTificaTion sysTems in norThern Tuscany.
Andrea Pagano, Sandro Parrinello, Roberto Parenti
Keywords: Castle, Bivigliano (Tuscany-Italy), laser scanner survey
Italo Calvino, in his novel The Castle of Crossed
Destinies (Il Castello dei destini incrociati), tells the
tale of men and women that recount their adventures
using symbols and signs of Tarot cards; an imaginary
method based on the interpretation of characters that
draws the reader into the discovery of hypothetical
realities. Likewise interpreting the signs of ancient ruins
of medieval castles, buried and camouaged on hilltops,
stimulates the mind of the scholars who observe the few
traces and marks that history has left behind for them
to analyse and imagine what such architecture once
displayed.
The study and the examination of the ruins of Bivigliano
Castle in the Province of Florence proposes a critical and
descriptive analysis, not only of the poor remains of the
current medieval settlement, but also of the research methodology, considering the integrated analyse structure
for the development of low cost documentation systems, where the development allows to implement the
knowledge on a dense network of remains that characterise the Italian historic setting.
It is these ruins, these relevant symbols deep in highly historic signicance that if worked out in the still present
state of preservation, can allow us the structuring of a language across which it is possible to understand the
historic background and dene, although only partially, that fabric of territorial relations of which the formal
organization of Tuscan countryside still depends on today.
The present research project takes use of a case study
strictly connected to the research on local territory, that
for years has seen us committed in tracing the design of
the history of the nearby shrine of Monte Senario, an
important religious centre and even today a destination
for pilgrimage and a meeting place for the religious.
The origins of the episcopal property of Senario can be
traced to a bequest by a certain Giuliano da Bivigliano
to the bishop Ardingo of Florence, according to the
documentation from 1323 found in the land registry of
the Florentine episcopacy.
From the documents studied, it emerges that on the
summit of the mountain between 1200 and 1300 there
could be found a well-structured hermitage. It is from
View of the walls of the castle used as a basis for a fence
on private property.
Perspective view of the cloud of points of a detail of the
wall fence.
University of Florence, Italy
University of Pavia, Italy
University of Siena, Italy
213
Poster
studying the documents connected to the affairs of the sanctuary that has come to our knowledge that a castle
was present in that period, rstly mentioned by Francovich and already studied by the monk Franco Maria
Andrea Dal Pino. The topographical surveys reported by Dal Pino have resulted useful in verifying, at a
distance of some decades, the state of conservation of the castle located on a small headland next to the side
of the road that climbs the mountain, neighbouring a private dwelling, part of which is planted on one of the
sides of the castle’s perimeter wall.
Only by arriving at the clearing of the hill, by the part of the ruins of the perimeter wall, is it possible to
understand how strategic is the location, where the view centres perfectly on the gorges of the nearby valley
and all the main routes of access to Florence can be observed. From this particular panoramic spot there can
be clearly seen other hills and locations that suggest a network of grouped fortications that populated the
area thousands of years ago. Once the orography of the site was understood, both relative to the hill system
and to the most detailed morphology of piles of earth that are concealed in the castle ruins, eliminating scrubs
and surface bushes that could compromise the perimeter readings and the accessibility to the station points, a
survey was taken using a laser scanner instrument.
The laser scanner instrument allows us to obtain a three-dimensional prototype made up of a multitude of
points that dene in a virtual space the display of all the elements present on the scene. Furthermore, the high
precision of the information acquired helps to determine, in the phase of data processing, the denition of the
relations between elements in the wall texture and the vegetation that in the years has invaded the location.
View from above of the point cloud of the walls compared with a topographic survey.
214
Between East and West: transposition of cultural systems and military technology of fortied landscape
The three-dimensional survey was taken to try and have greater control on the level of reliability in bidimensional
graphic representation of the numerous deformities on the surface of the ground and walls. La denizione di
sezioni e prospetti riportanti la rafgurazione delle singole pietre The denition of sections and front views
showing the representation of each stone, that in the traditional archaeological survey would have involved the
realisation of numerous processes of data gathering, useful for the realisation of reliable ‘photo patchwork’ for
the redesign of the portions of the walls, was conducted by processing the 3D database using the measurement
in the interior of the virtual environment, where the three-dimensional shape of the archaeological resulted
totally manipulable. In the process that follows the archiving of the high quality of information obtained
from the path of acquisition data of the survey, we would like to explain the reality with objectivity, aimed at
reaching the maximum clarity in the designs, described by the singularities in analysis.
It is from these nal representation products that doubts emerge over the dating of the castle, of which such
straight perimeter walls remind us more of a late medieval fortress rather than a castle from the dark ages, that
is described in the documents studied. The case study therefore becomes an example that the hidden history of
Italian territory, especially when so signicantly connected to a well-dened architectural reality and we refer
in this case to Monte Senario, still has to be largely understood and merits further examination through the use
of instruments, that today are much more available than a few decades ago. To take on an excavation would be
too lavish and perhaps inconvenient in respect to the limited importance of the single case study, but by using
Georadar and non-invasive methods, it will be possible to shrink the area of excavation to smaller portions,
more signicant, that will allow us to better understand how the castle was organised and what where the
principal singularities that determined its history. The drawings and the sections obtained from the pointcloud
are therefore technical elaborations that bring a critical reading and interpretation of the signs, but they are
also the foundation of a beginning for a more suitable design of the development for the research of the castle.
Future investigations with georadar and small deep and targeted excavations on what can already be read from
the surveys, could probably permit us to develop a research project on a greater scale, with the will to bring
together a puzzle where the pieces are buried and to develop methodological systems of reading data through
not invasive and low cost operative protocols.
Autocad drawing of the wall superposed on the cloud of points.
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