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The aim of this present study was to explore antioxidant and bioactive profile of ginger and turmeric. For the purpose, turmeric and ginger (Haldi and Adric) were procured from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab-Pakistan. The study was comprised of different phases. Both of the spices were characterized for their chemical composition and mineral profile. Bioactive compound was extracted by using solvent followed by quantification through the high-pressure liquid chromatography. Furthermore, antioxidant potential including total phenolics content, free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP assay) was analyzed. Results revealed that the antioxidant profile including free radical scavenging activity (47.67 ± 0.19 mg/100 g) and DPPH (80.16 ± 0.23%) of turmeric ginger powder extract was much higher than turmeric and ginger powder extract. Similarly, total phenolics content (103.39 ± 0.58 mg of GAE/g) and flavonoids (4.27 ± 0.05 mg CE/100 g) were much higher in turmeric ginger powder as compared to turmeric powder and ginger powder, respectively. Conclusively, turmeric ginger powder showed higher antioxidant potential.
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International Journal of Food Properties
ISSN: 1094-2912 (Print) 1532-2386 (Online) Journal homepage:
Exploring the biochemical and antioxidant
potential of ginger (Adric) and turmeric (Haldi)
Zunaira Mushtaq, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad Umair Arshad,
Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmed, Huma Bader Ul Ain, Ahsan
Javed, Faqir Muhammad Anjum & Shahzad Hussain
To cite this article: Zunaira Mushtaq, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad Umair Arshad,
Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmed, Huma Bader Ul Ain, Ahsan Javed, Faqir Muhammad
Anjum & Shahzad Hussain (2019) Exploring the biochemical and antioxidant potential of ginger
(Adric) and turmeric (Haldi), International Journal of Food Properties, 22:1, 1642-1651, DOI:
To link to this article:
Published with license by Taylor & Francis
Group, LLC.© 2019 Zunaira Mushtaq,
Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad
Umair Arshad, Farhan Saeed, Muhammad
Haseeb Ahmed, Huma Bader Ul Ain,
Ahsan Javed, Faqir Muhammad Anjum and
Shahzad Hussain
Published online: 22 Sep 2019.
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Exploring the biochemical and antioxidant potential of ginger
(Adric) and turmeric (Haldi)
Zunaira Mushtaq
, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem
, Muhammad Umair Arshad
Farhan Saeed
, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmed
, Huma Bader Ul Ain
, Ahsan Javed
Faqir Muhammad Anjum
, and Shahzad Hussain
Institute of Home & Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistande;
The University of the
Gambia, Serekunda, Gambia;
College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
The aim of this present study was to explore antioxidant and bioactive profile of
ginger and turmeric. For the purpose, turmeric and ginger (Haldi and Adric) were
procured from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab-Pakistan. The study
was comprised of different phases. Both of the spices were characterized for
their chemical composition and mineral profile. Bioactive compound was
extracted by using solvent followed by quantification through the high-
pressure liquid chromatography. Furthermore, antioxidant potential including
total phenolics content, free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay) and Ferric
reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP assay) was analyzed. Results revealed
that the antioxidant profile including free radical scavenging activity
(47.67 ± 0.19 mg/100 g) and DPPH (80.16 ± 0.23%) of turmeric ginger powder
extract was much higher than turmeric and ginger powder extract. Similarly,
total phenolics content (103.39 ± 0.58 mg of GAE/g) and flavonoids (4.27 ±
0.05 mg CE/100 g) were much higher in turmeric ginger powder as compared to
turmeric powder and ginger powder, respectively. Conclusively, turmeric ginger
powder showed higher antioxidant potential.
Received 20 May 2019
Revised 14 August 2019
Accepted 6 September 2019
Turmeric; ginger; arthritis;
curcumin; anti-inflammatory;
Beyond the basic function of providing nutrients, functional foods and nutraceuticals are the
fundamental rudiments of diet-based therapy due to their health improving potential. Among the
health-conscious consumers, the use of such foods is emerging which captured a significant share of
the world market nutrition.
During the last few decades, a group of scientific tests have proven the
value of various biologically active foods which are helpful against life-threatening diseases like
obesity, cancer insurgence, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia. Plants based functional foods,
among the diet-based interventional strategies, are not only rich in phytochemicals but also enhance
wellness and reduce health risk factors.
In the prevention of metabolic syndrome various phyto-remedies including ginger, turmeric,
onion, and garlic, etc., have achieved forefront position.
The consumption of traditional plants is
gradually increasing because of their effectiveness against several physiological threats.
As culinary
preparation, flavoring and seasoning, ginger and turmeric are vital spices being commonly con-
sumed and play a key role in the disease prevention especially arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis is
degenerative joint disease that occurs when all the bones rub against each other and the cartilaginous
cushion lining is deteriorated at the end of the joint. Whereas painful rubbing occurs because of the
CONTACT Faqir Muhammad AnjumVice Chancellor; Muhammad Haseeb Ahmed
Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at
© 2019 Zunaira Mushtaq, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad Umair Arshad, Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmed, Huma Bader Ul Ain,
Ahsan Javed, Faqir Muhammad Anjum and Shahzad Hussain. Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
2019, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 16421651
osteoarthritis cartilage which is connective tissue in bone joints. Ginger is a well-known herb to
contain several bioactive compounds, anti-inflammatory, carminative, antiseptic properties and anti-
oxidants that possesses health-promoting properties.
Turmeric is used for color and flavor, in mustard blends, pickles, and sauces. Turmeric combines the
medicinal characteristics of herbs with foods and has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries.
Turmeric is very helpful for reducing arsenic toxicity, oxidative damage and genotoxicity induced by lead
acetate in animal study. Turmeric is very beneficial in many aspects due to the ingredients like
polyphenols, sterols, triterpenoids, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and alkaloids which are biologically active.
Due to their null toxicity, turmeric and ginger spices have made themselves in good health in comparison
to other medications.
Turmeric efficacy is well known due to its active component curcumin which
affects several signaling pathways and transcription factors. Antioxidant activities of turmeric are
exhibited by numerous functional groups possessed by turmeric. Turmeric and ginger dried rhizomes
are rich in phenolic curcuminoids that are curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin
as well as pungent phenolic compounds like gingerol and shogaol.
Considering the prevalence of
arthritis in the Pakistani community and the claimed health benefits of ginger and turmeric, the current
study includes characterization of turmeric and ginger with special reference to their antioxidant
potential. It includes proximate analysis, mineral profile, and antioxidant profile of both spices.
Materials and methods
Procurement of raw material
The turmeric and ginger (Haldi and Adric) were obtained from the university of Agriculture Faisalabad. The
preferred materials were cleaned to get rid from the dirt and other foreign particles, the cloves of turmeric
ginger were peeled subsequently, for the preparation of ginger and turmeric extract and powders, similarly,
all chemicals and standards were purchased from Merck (Germany) and SigmaAldrich (Tokyo, Japan).
Proximate composition and mineral profile
Proximateanalysis of turmeric and ginger was carried out for moisture content, crude protein, crude fat,
crude fiber, ash, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) according to the standard methods as described in
Mineral concentration and quantification were done by subjecting the diluted wet digested
samples through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian, AA-240, Victoria, Australia). Calcium
(Ca), and iron (Fe) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian AA240,
Australia) while potassium (K), sodium (Na), and phosphorus (P) were assessed by Flame
Photometer-410 (Sherwood Scientific Ltd., Cambridge). The operating conditions for Manganese
determination were wave length 285.5 nm, slit width 1.3 nm, Lamp Current 7.5 nm, Burnner Head
standard type, Flame air Acetylene, Burnner height 7.5 nm, oxidant gas pressure flow rate 160 Kpa, fuel
gas pressure flow rate 7 Kpa.
Preparation of extract of turmeric and ginger powder
Ginger and turmeric extracts were prepared using 50% ethanol and water at 60°C for 60 min (Table 1).
After that, the solvents were removed through Rotary Evaporator (Eyela N-N, Tokyo, Japan). Gingerol
and Curcuminoids rich fraction from turmeric and ginger using different solvent, namely, ethanol and
water at different time intervals (30, 60, and 90) and stable temperature at 50°C (Table 1). Both rhizomes
were cleaned and washed with deionized water and dried in hot air oven for 5 to 6 h and cut in the small
pieces and then crushed in powder form with the help of electronic mill. 70 g of powder was taken into
a thimble and put in a Soxhlet apparatus, and dissolved in different solvents for seven hours.
Analysis of ginger and turmeric extract
The ginger and turmeric extracts were used for the determination of their phytochemicals and
antioxidant potential. To evaluate the anti-oxidative perspective, total phenols (TPC), DPPH radical
scavenging activity (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power)
tests were performed.
Anti-oxidative and phytochemicals profiling of ginger and turmeric
Antioxidant potential and Phytochemical profiling of ginger and turmeric were evaluated through
the recommended procedures.
Determination of total phenolics content (TPC)
Total phenolics were estimated through FolinCiocalteu method followed by.
Accordingly, 50 µL
each of ginger and turmeric extract was added to 250 µL of FolinCiocalteu together with 750 µL of 20%
Na2SO3 solution and volume were made up to 5 mL with distilled water. Absorbance was noted after 2
hours at 755 nm on UV/Visible Spectrophotometer (1210032, Hitachi instruments Inc. Tokyo, Japan)
and the results were expressed as Gallic acid equivalent (mg Gallic acid/g) per dry matter.
Estimation of flavonoids
Flavonoids were determined by the method followed by Ordonez, Gomez, and Vattuone.
For this
purpose, 0.5 mL of 2% aluminum chloride (ethanolic) was mixed with 0.5 ml turmeric and ginger extract.
At room temperature, absorbance was measured after 1 hr at 420 nm. The extracts were evaluated at
a concentration of 1 mg/mL and total Flavonoids were calculated as Quercetin equivalent (mg/g).
Free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay)
The DPPH of turmeric and ginger was measured by the method of Müller, Fröhlich, and Böhm.
For this purpose, DPPH (1 mL) was mixed with extract (4 mL) and the mixture was incubated at
ambient temperature for half an hour. Afterward, the absorbance was observed at 520 nm by using
UV Visible Spectrophotometer.
Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)
FRAP test was performed as the protocol adopted by the Yuan, Velev, and Lenhoff.
In a water bath, for
20 min, sample (0.5 mL) was mixed with the phosphate buffer solution (1.25 mL) and potassium
ferricyanide and incubated at 500 C. After that sample was cooled and mixed with 1.25 mL each of TCA
& distilled water and 0.25 mL of ferric chloride for 10 min and absorbance was observed at 700 nm.
Table 1. Treatments used for solvent extraction.
Treatments Solvent extracts Time
T1 Water 30
T2 Ethanol 30
T3 Water 60
T4 Ethanol 60
T5 Water 90
T6 Ethanol 90
Statistical analysis
The data were obtained by applying completely randomized design (CRD) and further subjected to
statistical analysis using Statistical Package (Microsoft Excel 2016 and Statistix 9.1). Level of
significance was determined (ANOVA, LSD for comparison) using two-factor factorial CRD
where applicable following the principles outlined by Steel et al.
Results and discussions
The characterization of raw material is an essential step to determine its quality and nutritional
value. Current study was intended to investigate the importance of locally grown spices, the study
comprised of two phases, in the first phase ginger and turmeric powder were prepared for the dietary
analysis and mineral composition. Secondly, extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger and
turmeric was done at different time intervals to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ginger and
turmeric. After that, data were collected for the statistical analysis to check the level of significance.
The consequences with argument of study attributes are discussed herein.
Compositional profiling
The nutritional composition of ginger and turmeric was determined by proximate analysis. This
work was carried out to evaluate the potential of the rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and
turmeric (curcuma longa) for its nutritional and therapeutic utility. In the current investigation
moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, ash, and nitrogen-free extract
content were determined in ginger at level of 30.21 ± 0.25%, 0.56 ± 0.055%, 5.01 ± 0.48%,
10.9 ± 0.05%, 84.24 ± 0.85%, 5.033 ± 0.10%, 7.23 ± 0.27% whereas in turmeric the values were
found to be 11.19 ± 0.28%, 8.72 ± 0.41%, 6.99 ± 0.01, 5.08 ± 0.14, 69.01 ± 0.32, 2.90 ± 0.11, and
70.98 ± 0.43, respectively (Table 2). The nutritional composition of turmeric and ginger varies
depending on their harvesting and growing condition. The results obtained for compositional
analyzes are comparable with Osabor, Bassey, and Umoh,
Tanweer, Shahzad, and Ahmed
who found similar results for moisture, protein, fats, carbohydrates, ash, and fiber in turmeric.
Mineral profile
In the current study, mineral, calcium iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc
were present in appreciable amounts ginger 68.28 ± 0.75 mg/100 g, 8.42 ± 0.50 mg/100 g, 128.58 ±
0.52 mg/100 g, 5.18 ± 0.26 mg/100 g, 102.67 ± 0.69 mg/100 g, 2.15 ± 0.10 mg/100 g, 5.51 ± 0.35 mg/
100 g, respectively (Table 3) likewise turmeric was found to have 14.07 ± 0.35 mg/, 19.09 ± 0.33 mg/
100 g, 116.6 ± 0.90 mg/100 g, 7.08 ± 0.26 mg/100 g, 93.9 ± 0.65 mg/100 g, 2.70 ± 0.16 mg/100 g, 1.13 ±
0.11 mg/100 g, respectively. The results are consistent with the previous findings of Ereifej et al.
reported the amounts of Ca, zinc, magnesium, manganese was in the range of 0.49 ± 1.9 mg/100 g,
12.23 ± 0.16 mg/100 g, 1.2 ± 1.43 mg/100 g, 7.33 ± 0.22 mg/100 g, respectively. However, finding of
Tanweer et al.
showed some variations with the current study regarding potassium and phosphorus
Table 2. Proximate composition.
Parameters (%) Ginger Turmeric
Moisture 30.21 ± 0.25a 11.19 ± 0.28b
Crude protein 0.56 ± 0.055b 8.72 ± 0.41a
Crude fat 5.01 ± 0.48b 6.99 ± 0.01a
Crude fiber 10.98 ± 0.05a 5.08 ± 0.14b
CHO 84.24 ± 0.85a 69.01 ± 0.32b
Ash 5.033 ± 0.10a 2.90 ± 0.11b
NFE 7.23 ± 0.27b 7.98 ± 0.43a
410.91 ± 91 mg/100 g, 32.56 ± 1.24mg/100 g in ginger. Likewise Ikpeama, Onwuka, and Nwankwo
reported that calcium phosphorus and potassium, iron present in turmeric as 0.21 ± 0.01%, 0.63 ±
0.02%, 0.46 ± 0.03%, 0.045 ± 0.02%, respectively.
Extraction yield of active ingredients: curcumin and gingerol
Extraction of curcumin Solvents for extraction of active ingredient to extract the active ingredient ethanol
and water was used. Solvent extraction is a vital method for the extraction of bioactive compounds
influenced by numerous factors like the nature of sample, solvent ratio, time and constant temperature.
The mean values presented in Table 4 show that maximum extraction yield of curcumin (0.01870 ± 5.0699
g/100 g) was obtained with 50% ethanol at the 90ºC while the minimum (0.01762 ± 3.7733/100 g)
extraction yield of curcumin was observed in aqueous solvent at the temperature of 30ºC (Figure 1).
The mean value presented in Table 5 demonstrates that maximum extraction yield of gingerol
(1.61 ± 0.008g/100g) was observed with 50% ethanol solvent at the 90ºC temperature whereas, the
minimum (1.32 ± 0.007 g/100 g) extraction yield of gingerol was obtained in water at the 30ºC
temperature. These results are corroborated with the findings of
who reported that at the
increased temperature (up to 60ºC) curcumin yield was increased and then decreased due to further
increased in temperature. The present research work shows higher yields of curcumin and gingerol
than the previous studies.
It occurs due to the composition of turmeric, and different extraction
yield by using the spectrophotometrically analytical techniques. The difference in the results may be
due to the use of different analytical techniques for the assessment of bioactive compounds
(Figure 2).
Effects of treatments on extraction of antioxidants turmeric and ginger powder
Antioxidant indices of ginger and turmeric extract
The Mean values of total phenolics (TPC) in turmeric and ginger investigated in this study are presented
in (Table 6). It isnoticeable from the results that the highest amount of TPC (103.39 ± 0.58) was observed
in (TGP) followed by TP with the amount of 76.14 ± 0.70 GAE/100 g while the least amount 69.11 ± 0.33
Table 3. Mineral profile.
Parameters (%) Ginger Turmeric
Calcium 68.28 ± 0.75a 14.07 ± 0.35b
Iron 8.42 ± 0.50b 19.09 ± 0.33a
Potassium 128.58 ± 0.52a 116.6 ± 0.90b
Phosphorus 5.18 ± 0.26b 7.08 ± 0.26a
Magnesium 102.67 ± 0.69a 93.9 ± 0.65b
Manganese 2.15 ± 0.10b 2.70 ± 0.16a
Table 4. Extraction of curcumin from turmeric.
Extraction of curcumin from turmeric (g/100g)
Solvent detail Observation
Optimized time intervals (mins)
30 60 90
Water solvent X1 0.01756 0.01745 0.01794
X2 0.01784 0.01761 0.01788
X3 0.1772 0.01786 0.01798
Mean 0.01763 0.01764 0.01793
Mean ± Variance 0.01762 ± 3.7733 0.01764 ± 4.2700 0.01793 ± 2.5333
Ethanol solvent X1 0.01856 0.01846 0.01893
X2 0.01804 0.01814 0.01848
X3 0.01871 0.01838 0.01869
Mean 0.01844 0.01861 0.01870
Mean ± Variance 0.01844 ± 1.2363 0.01861 ± 2.5900 0.01870 ± 5.0699
mins30 60
mins 90
0.0186 0.0187
0.0176 0.0176
Ethanol Solvents
Aqueous Solvents
Figure 1. Extraction of curcumin.
Table 5. Extraction of gingerol.
Solvent extraction of gingerol g/100g
Solvent detail Observation
Optimized time intervals (mins)
30 60 90
Water solvent X1 1.3146 1.3895 1.4142
X2 1.3248 1.3159 1.5125
X3 1.3118 1.4012 1.5628
Mean 1.3171 1.3689 1.4965
Mean ± Variance 1.32 ± 0.007 1.368 ± 0.47 1.50 ± 0.76
Ethanol solvent X1 1.4102 1.4828 1.6028
X2 1.4198 1.4798 1.6158
X3 1.4045 1.4791 1.5987
Mean 1.4115 1.4806 1.6058
Mean ± Variance 1.41 ± 0.007 1.48 ± 0.002 1.61 ± 0.008
mins30 60
mins 90
1.3 1.4
Aqueous Solvents
Ethanol Solvent
Figure 2. Extraction of gingerol.
GAE/100 g was recorded in GP (ginger powder) T2, respectively. Frankel and Meyer
stated that the
polyphenolics compounds obtained in spices make a good preventive tool of arthritis. Several studies
Shan, Cai, Sun, and Corke;
Wong, Li, Cheng, and Chen
reported that phenolic compounds in
spices and herbs significantly contribute to their antioxidant properties. Consequently, the elevated total
phenolicscontent of plants extracts result in higher antioxidant activity as reported by Cai, Luo, Sun, and
Ginger and turmeric are very commonly used dietary spices in Indian cooking both in vegetarian and
non-vegetarian preparations. Both of them are cooked at temperatures higher than 100°C. One of the
objectives of this study is to assess the antioxidant prospective of crude spice extract. The crude extracts
of both of the spices contain more than one antioxidant, so it is the synergistic effect of all the potent
antioxidant molecules that cumulatively show their antioxidant activity. The turmeric powder showed
significantly higher antioxidant activity, as it is known to have higher monoterpenic abundance in dry
powder Wojdyło, Oszmiański, and Czemerys
reported that content of TPC in turmeric powder was
825.58 mg GAE/100g and the current study results of are highly consistent with their work .
DPPH radical scavenging activity
The mean values for free radical scavenging activity of both turmeric and ginger are presented in
(Table 6). It is obvious from the results that the maximum value of DPPH was found in TGP
(80.16 ± 0.23%) followed by TP (70.38 ± 0.23%), while least of DPPH content (66.04 ± 0.43%)
was recorded in GP, respectively. Turmeric and ginger (TGP) exhibited a stronger ability
(80.16%) to quench DPPH radicals, than TP (70.38%) and GP (ginger powder) (66.04%) was
observed. The results reported in the present study are corroborated with the finding of.
procedure behind the free radical scavenging activity of Polyphenols radicals which decrease of
oxidative stress and avoid the onset of diseases.
DPPH radical was used as a stable free radical
to determine antioxidant activity of natural compounds reported by Öztürk, Aydoğmuş-Öztürk,
Duru, and Topçu.
DPPH activity of turmeric powder by extracting from the water and ethanol
at different time and temperature.
Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)
The mean values of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) examined in the study are presented
in Table 6. The highest value (47.67 ± 0.19 mg/100 g) of FRAP was observed in TGP (combination of
ginger and turmeric), followed by TP (28.16 ± 0.20 mg/100 g) while the least (27.01 ± 0.12 mg/100 g)
FRAP content was recorded in GP (ginger powder) respectively. Fuhrman et al.
stated that
antioxidants present in plants have preservative effects. Normally this preservative effect is greater
in the plants with more polyphenolics compounds due to the synergistic impact. It is evident from
the results that the turmeric and ginger have high amount of phenolics acid and FRAP that would
act as potential therapeutic in the treatment of arthritis (Figure 3).
Total Flavonoids
The mean values of total Flavonoids (TFC) content of turmeric ginger drink examined in this study
are presented in Table 6. The highest amount of both turmeric and ginger 4.27 ± 0.05 mg/100 g was
observed in TGP, followed by TP 3.88 ± 0.25 mg/100 g while least 2.25 ± 0.06 total Flavonoids
Table 6. Antioxidant indices of ginger extracts.
Treatments Total phenolics (mg GAE/100g) FRAP (mg/100g) DPPH (%) Total flavonoids (mg CE/100 g)
TP 76.14 ± 0.70 28.16 ± 0.20 70.38 ± 0.23 3.88 ± 0.25
GP 69.11 ± 0.33 27.01 ± 0.12 66.04 ± 0.43 2.25 ± 0.06
TGPA 103.39 ± 0.58 47.67 ± 0.19 47.67 ± 0.19 4.27 ± 0.05
TPE: Turmeric Powder extract
GPE: Ginger Powder extract
TGPE: turmeric ginger powder extract
content were recorded in GP (ginger powder) respectively. Ghasemzadeh, Jaafar, and Rahmat
stated that ginger have a higher amount of antioxidant activity. There is a positive relationship
between the TFC and TPC and higher levels of total phenolics compound and total Flavonoids
resulted in higher levels of antioxidant activity. Osman, Rahim, Isa, and Bakhir
reported similar
results about the parameter under study.
Both turmeric and ginger powders were found to be rich in bioactive compounds. Turmeric and
ginger drinks showed appreciable amounts of Flavonoids, total phenolics, FRAP and DPPH. Both
turmeric and ginger are a rich source of nutrients as well as bioactive compounds including
proximate parameters, minerals, and antioxidant compounds. Therefore, novel products with
supplementation of ginger and turmeric extract should be produced and introduced in the
The authors are thankful to the University of Gambia, Gambia and Institute of Home & Food Sciences, Government
College University Faisalabad-Pakistan. The authors also extend their appreciation to the International Scientific
Partnership Program (ISPP) at King Saud University, for funding this research work from project # 0023.
Farhan Saeed
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... Several reports prove turmeric as a herbaceous plant that helps in reducing oxidative stress and treating ailments, dyslipidemia, arthritis, gastrointestinal, and liver problems. It also exhibits bioactivity properties, such as antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic [2] [3]. The rhizomes contain polyphenols, sterol, triterpenoid, diterpene, sesquiterpene, and alkaloid, and most importantly, curcumin, which is an active chemical responsible for many healthy benefits. ...
... Curcumin is one of polyphenols contained in turmeric which grants the bright yellow appearance. It comprises three main curcuminoid complexes, namely curcumin I, curcumin II, and curcumin III [3] [4]. Turmeric is a source of carbohydrate and fiber. ...
Conference Paper
Kombucha is a healthy beverage, traditionally made by fermenting sugared tea using a consortium of yeast and acetic acid bacteria called Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY). This research aimed to utilize turmeric extract as an alternative for the substrate used in the brewing. The chemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, and polyphenol), physical properties (biomass weight and color), and bioactivity (antioxidant and antibacterial properties) of the turmeric kombucha were identified. Turmeric concentration of 2% w/v was used in the fermentation. The variables were inoculum concentration (15% and 30% v/v) and fermentation duration (0, 7, and 14 day(s)). Our results establish the evidence that culture concentration and fermentation duration influenced the physicochemical properties, as well as the bioactivity of turmeric kombucha. As the fermentation was extended, the pH of the sample decreased while the titratable acidity increased. Due to the production of organic acids, the pH at the end of fermentation dropped to 3.33– 3.66 which was lower than the initial pH. The kombucha samples prepared with 15% and 30% of inoculum showed a 1.92-fold and 1.46-fold increase in total acids after 14 days of fermentation. Fermentation also changed the hue of the samples. The kombucha sample moved toward orange hue (68.73–69.68 °) after 14 days of fermentation. Meanwhile, the total polyphenols increased by approximately 1.07 and 1.11-fold than the initial values and their antioxidant activity decreased. The observed turmeric kombucha exhibited antibacterial properties against gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Kombucha prepared from turmeric extract is a good diversification of turmeric with health benefits due to polyphenol content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
... Secara ilmiah, beberapa bentuk kombinasi dari bahan tersebut juga menunjukkan aktivitas farmakologi yang sinergis. Kombinasi ekstrak rimpang kunyit dan jahe terbukti mampu meningkatkan status antioksidan, pemeliharaan probiotik intestinal, dan berpotensi sebagai antiinflamasi yang menjanjikan (Ernst & Durbin, 2019;Madkor et al., 2011;Mushtaq et al., 2019;Sahoo et al., 2019). Kombinasi kayu secang dan rimpang jahe juga terbukti dapat menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan sangat kuat dibanding bentuk tunggalnya (Mahbub & Swasono, 2017;Putri et al., 2021). ...
Full-text available
Seiring dengan perkembangan kasus COVID-19, upaya pemeliharaan kesehatan untuk menjaga dan meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh sangat penting dilakukan. upaya hidup sehat yang perlu diimplementasikan adalah dengan mengatur asupan suplementasi nutrisi baik makronutrisi maupun mikronutrisi. Salah satu jenis pangan nutrasetikal dengan gizi kompleks yang potensial digunakan sebagai nutrasetikal untuk upaya suplementasi adalah yoghurt. Secara tradisional yoghurt juga disebutkan dalam kearifan pengobatan masyarakat Bali yaitu Usadha. Dalam Usadha, yoghurt dikombinasikan dengan bahan-bahan yang terdapat dalam Lontar Usadha Taru Pramana (Usadha yang memuat tentang berbagai jenis tanaman berkhasiat obat). Metode yang digunakan menyusun artikel ini adalah studi literatur sistematik review. Informasi yang relevan dikumpulkan dari Google Scholar, Science Direct, ProQuest, Pubmed, EBSCO. Dipilih artikel terindeks Scopus, Sinta, atau Garuda yang dipublikasi 5 tahun terakhir. Berdasarkan penelusuran pustaka diketahui bahwa penambahan masing-masing ekstrak kunyit, jahe, secang, dan kayu manis pada yoghurt dapat meningkatkan kualitas fisiko-kimia dan kandungan nutrisi pada yoghurt tersebut utamanya antioksidan sehingga berkontribusi dalam pemeliharaan kesehatan serta mampu menjaga stabilitas probiotik yoghurt. Kombinasi yoghurt rempah dengan penambahan rimpang jahe, kunyit, kayu secang, dan kayu manis berpotensi digunakan sebagai suplementasi probiotik-antioksidan untuk mendukung gaya hidup sehat yang berkaitan dengan terjaganya sistem imun.
... Turmeric flour had a carbohydrate content of 78.12% (Table 1), which is the main component of its matrix. Similar results have been described by other authors, with values ranging from 70 to 76.39% (Lim et al., 2011;Mushtaq et al., 2019;Restrepo-Osorio et al., 2020). The ash, protein, and lipid values were 5.48, 5.20, and 1.22 g 100 g -1 , respectively. ...
... TGP (turmeric and ginger powder) was shown to have a greater capacity to quench DPPH radicals than TP (Turmeric Powder) and GP (Ginger Powder) (ginger powder). [19] 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) analyzed the effects of curcumin-rich antioxidant fillets, which were discovered to be ineffective when they were treated with the low-fat content of fish and lowcurcuminoids turmeric extract. [20] Anti-oxidant Activity of Gold nanoparticles (TuAuNps) derived from turmeric had a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effect on oral pathogens compared to their standard of comparison. ...
Full-text available
Spices have long been a part of human diets and commerce. Since the birth of human civilization, medicinal plants have yielded a wealth of information on treating and preventing illness. Still, the growing understanding of the connection between nutrition and health in the food business has increased its relevance and piqued researchers’ interest in deciphering the mechanisms of the action of spices and the plethora of beneficial properties attributed to them. Turmeric is one of the most important spices due to its active bio-chemical activities. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and hypo-glycemic qualities and the ability to promote wound healing and reduce sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation have been revealed in curcumin. Several human disorders, including fibrosis, lupus nephritis, acne, cancer, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome, have been tested in clinics. Consequently, an herb used solely in the kitchen is now used in the clinic. New technologies are being tried in the drug development process to increase the bioavailability of curcumin, such as additives, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and phospholipid complexes. Curcuminoids and other compounds associated with turmeric were examined to learn more about their biological effects and potential applications. Curcumin (diferuloyl-methane), a flavonoid, and many volatile oils, including turmerone, atlan-tone, and zingiberone, are the active ingredients in turmeric. Inhibiting carcinogenesis at three stages: tumor promotion, angiogenesis, and tumor development, curcumin’s capacity Turmeric’s medical and pharmacological advantages in illness prevention and therapy are the subject of this study. The present study deals with the importance of extensive pharmacological activities of turmeric and its role in the medical industry in creating novel medicines to treat various diseases.
... However, Ginger, whose Latin name is Zingiber officinale, is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family, which can grow up to one meter in length, with long leaves and yellow-red flowers. Ginger is a well-known herb to contain several bioactive compounds, anti-inflammatory, carminative, antiseptic properties and antioxidants that possesses healthpromoting properties (Mushtaq et al., 2019). The aim of our study was to evaluate and collate the chemical constituents and antioxidant properties dry rhizomes of Ginger and dry rhizomes of Turmeric. ...
Full-text available
The aim of our study was to evaluate and collate the chemical constituents and antioxidant properties of dry rhizomes of Ginger and dry rhizomes of Turmeric. The assay for quantification of the phenolic compounds in the samples was carried out using the reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). To determine mineral components in samples inductively coupled plasma optical out flow spectroscopy (ICP-OES) procedure was applied. The most abundant phenolic components in turmeric rhizomes are ferulic acid (93.59 mg), benzoic acid (40.09 mg), vanillin (26.69 mg) and p-coumaric acid (23.25mg) respectively. On the other hand, the most common phenolic components in ginger rhizomes are Benzoic acid (33.31mg), Ferulic acid (11.41 mg) and vanillin (11.83 mg). In addition, ethanolic extract ginger (EEG) and ethanolic extract turmeric (EET) had an effective DPPH• scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power activities. According to ICP-OES analysis results of rhizomes and extracts, the potassium was, quantitatively, the most abundant mineral in samples. Subsequently, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus and calcium were identified, respectively.
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During storage, walnuts can undergo oxidation processes that lead to a decay of product quality and the development of rancidity and off-flavor. The present study investigated how the application of a chitosan coating, containing a glycerol ginger extract (GGE) rich in bioactive compounds, can preserve walnut quality during storage. Glycerol can be considered a green extraction solvent, which allows to obtain extract rich in polyphenols and with high radical scavenging activity. GGE employed in the formulation of a chitosan-based coating determined significantly lower (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation and peroxides values in walnuts stored under stressing temperature conditions (45 °C), in comparison to Control (uncoated sample) and even in comparison to the walnuts coated with sole chitosan. Moreover, when artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus spore suspension, walnuts treated with GGE-enriched coating evidenced the lowest disease incidence and the lowest spore concentration. Results obtained encourage the application of coating containing GGE even in other rich lipid matrices that can easily undergo oxidation process or spoilage caused by phytopathogenic fungi.
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Antioxidant (AOX) capacity assays are important analytical tools, used worldwide to measure the AOX capacities of various food commodities. Although numerous protocols have been published to ascertain AOX capacities, there are increasing concerns about the reliability of many of these assays. Poor correlation of results between various assays, as well as problems with reproducibility, consistency, and accuracy, is to blame. Published AOX assays also differ markedly from each other by employing different reaction conditions, using different extracting solvents, and applying dissimilar quantification methods. In this study, AOX capacities of a range of fruit, vegetables, and spices, commonly consumed and of commercial importance in Australia and worldwide, were measured in both hydrophilic and lipophilic solvents by using two different assay systems. As the polyphenolic compounds present in any sample matrix are the main contributors to its AOX properties, the commodities were also analysed for total phenolic content (TPC), again using both solvent systems. Analysis of the results from the current study with values from the published literature exposed the challenges that make direct comparison of any quantitative results difficult. However, a strong mutual correlation of our assay results facilitated a meaningful comparison of the data within the laboratory. Concurrent use of lipophilic and hydrophilic solvents made the results more reliable and understandable. Findings from this study will aid to address the existing challenges and bring a more rational basis to the AOX capacities. This unique analytical approach also provided a platform to build an internal reference database for the commonly consumed and commercially important food commodities with the potential to broaden the scope into a database for similar food matrices.
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This study aimed to determine the essential oil volatile components of ginger and turmeric rhizomes, as well as to determine the total antioxidant capacity of essential oil samples according to the CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) method and free radical scavenging activities of oil samples and standards such as BHA, BHT, and Trolox were determined using a DPPH method. Essential oil analysis of volatile components was also performed on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 SE (Japan) model with Support Rx-5Sil MS capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 μm). Antioxidant capacities of essential oils were evaluated according to the CUPRAC method in millimole Trolox/gram -oil equivalent. GC-MS analysis of ginger showed the presence of 5 major peaks identified as Curcumene (13.46%), Zingiberene (33.92%), α-Farnesene (8.07%), β-Bisabolene (6.39%), and β-Sesquiphellandrene (15.92 %), respectively. GC-MS analysis of Turmeric showed the presence of 3 major peaks identified as Ar-Turmerone (29.24%), α-Turmerone (22.8 %), and β-Turmerone (18.84%). CUPRAC values of calculated antioxidant capacities of essential oil samples were determined as 1.97 ± 0.102 mmolTR/g-oil for Zingiber officinale R. and 3.40 ± 0.071 mmol TR/g-oil for Curcuma longa L. The scavenging effect of turmeric, ginger and standards on the DPPH radical decreased in the order of Trolox>BHA>BHT>Turmeric>Ginger which were 95.25 ± 0.05%, 62.57 ± 0.34%, 61.6 ± 0.3%, 51.45 ± 0.59%, and 50.26 ± 0.09%, at the concentration of 150µg/mL, respectively. Additionally, it revealed that essential oils of turmeric and ginger exhibited effective ferric reducing power.
Introduction The COVID-19 pathophysiology caused by SARS-Cov-2 is closely related to immunoregulation and process of inflammation. There are therapeutic targets in both, which are ideal for the healing process of infected patients. Phytonutrients are closely related to nutrigenomics. Curcumin and gingerol are two types of phytonutrients that have been studied, researched, and developed as therapeutic agents for diseases. Objective This study aimed to examine the potential of curcumin and gingerol as immune regulators and anti-inflammatory agents in SARS-CoV-2 infections using a nutrigenomic approach. Methods This article uses the literature study method. Relevant information was gathered from scientific engines and databases (Google Scholar, Elsevier, Science Direct, Scopus, Wiley Online Library, PubMed) published 2010-2021, the data were analyzed by deductive qualitative descriptive technique. Result and Discussion Curcumin in turmeric and gingerol in ginger has the potential to be used as a therapy for COVID-19 as it could be an immune regulator and anti-inflammatory agent for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Curcumin and gingerol can act as primary and secondary antioxidants that can activate endogenous antioxidant enzymes, regulate cell signaling related to immunity such as interferons, nuclear factor-kappa beta, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, as well as stimulate anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokine homeostasis, especially interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-8). In silico, these two compounds were also proven to have potential as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals by acting as viral protease inhibitors. Conlclusion The combination of curcumin and gingerol showed synergistic activity with increasing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. Thus, it has great potential for use in COVID-19 therapy.
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The studies on the nutritional composition of turmeric and its antimicrobial properties; proximate, vitamin, mineral and phytochemical compositions of the turmeric were determined using standard methods. The results of the analysis shows that it contains 8.92 % moisture content, 2.85 % ash, 9.42 % crude protein, 4.60 % crude fibre, and 6.85 % fat. The methanolic extract of the plant exhibited significant inhibitory actions against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus and Penicillium at a final concentration of 20 mg/ml. The zone of inhibition exhibited by the plant extracts against the tested organisms ranged between 7.0 - 20.0 mm. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the standards, Ampicilin and Fungabacter ranges between 15.0 - 28.0 mm and 13.0 - 30.0 mm respectively. The plant extract compared favourably with the standard antibiotic used. The phytochemical results show that the plant contains 0.45 % saponin, 1.08 % tannin, 0.40 % flavenoid, 0.08 % phenol and 0.03 % sterol.
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Herb and spices namely kesum, ginger and turmeric were extracted by using juice extractor without the additional of solvent. These herb and spices were determined for moisture content and the extracts were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and FRAP ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay). The yield of kesum, ginger and turmeric extraction was 23.6%, 58.6% and 66.4%, respectively. The results showed that, there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for kesum, ginger and turmeric extracts. Kesum extract had the highest total phenolic content followed by ginger and turmeric extract. A significant and positive high Pearson's correlations between TPC and DPPH assay (r = 0.86) and between TPC and FRAP assay (r = 0.91) respectively was observed for all plants extracts. This indicated that phenolic compounds were the main contributor of antioxidant activity in plants. However, there was no synergistic effect observed for all plants extract mixture.
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The present study showed significant initial microbial load, as well nutritional value of ten spices used widely across the world in food preparation. The microbiological tests demonstrated that sumac and cloves had the highest antimicrobial activity with respect to total plate counting and spore forming count. Results showed that chemical composition of the spices and herbs varied significantly. Dry matter content ranged between 83.6% and 92.4%. The highest ash content 10.4% was found in sweet cumin, protein 21.2% in cumin, fat 19.7% in sumac, fiber 59.2% in turmeric and carbohydrates 27.3% in sumac. These spices were also differing in their minerals content. Substantial amounts of Ca, Na, K and Mg were found, while Cu, Fe, P, Mn and Zn were present in trace amounts in all investigated spices.
The activity of antioxidants in foods and biological systems is dependent on a multitude of factors, including the colloidal properties of the substrates, the conditions and stages of oxidation and the localisation of antioxidants in different phases. When testing natural antioxidants in vitro, it is therefore important to consider the system composition, the type of oxidisable substrate, the mode of accelerating oxidation, the methods to assess oxidation and how to quantify antioxidant activity. Antioxidant effectiveness is also determined by the heterogeneity and heterophasic nature of the system, the type of lipid substrate, including its physicochemical state and degree of unsaturation, the types of initiators, notably transition metals, other components and their possible interaction. For this reason there cannot be a short‐cut approach to determining antioxidant activity. Each evaluation should be carried out under various conditions of oxidation, using several methods to measure different products of oxidation. Because most natural antioxidants and phytochemicals are multifunctional, a reliable antioxidant protocol requires the measurement of more than one property relevant to either foods or biological systems. Several recent studies on natural phytochemical compounds produced conflicting results because non‐specific one‐dimensional methods were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. There is a great need to standardise antioxidant testing to minimise the present chaos in the methodologies used to evaluate antioxidants. Several methods that are more specific should be used to obtain chemical information that can be related directly to oxidative deterioration of food and biological systems. © 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
The purpose of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of carotenes and xanthophylls measured by various methods, compared to α-tocopherol, BHA and BHT. Four assays were selected to achieve a wide range of technical principles. Besides αTEAC, which uses ABTS+ radical cation, ferric reducing activity (measured by using FRAP assay), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay were used. In addition, a luminol-chemiluminescence based peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (LPSC) assay, was used. Most of the compounds showed significant differences in their activity of scavenging radicals depending on the assay used. Of the 22 compounds tested, only a few such as lutein, zeaxanthin and capsanthin gave comparable results in the various assays. Surprisingly, in contrast to α-tocopherol, BHA and BHT, carotenoids did not show any DPPH scavenging activity. To standardise the relative contribution of the assays used, weighted means of the values obtained in αTEAC, FRAP, DPPH and LPSC assay were calculated. This strategy was used to assess the antioxidant capacity of several juices and oil samples. The highest lipophilic antioxidant capacity in all assays was observed for sea buckthorn berry juice, followed by tomato juice, carrot juice and orange juice. Within the oil samples, the order of antioxidant capacity depended on the assay used.