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Experimental studies of the Earth's own oscillations in Antarctica and Ukraine in electromagnetic radiation

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Abstract

Using a systemic approach to identifying hidden periodicities through the use of mathematical tools, including both spectral analysis and wavelet transform — the transformation of time series, the frequency variations of electromagnetic activity (EMA) of the Earth in Antarctica and Ukraine, with periods of time and daily ranges have been established. The structure of the vibration spectrum, the existence of stable oscillations, and grouping them on the frequency axis, the range of frequencies at which the Earth EMA occurs most frequently have been determined.
Þ.À. ÁÎÃÄÀÍÎÂ
80 Ãåîôè çè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011
ÓÄÊ 550.8.01:550.8.05:550.82
Ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîáñòâåííûõ
êîëåáàíèé Çåìëè â Àíòàðêòèäå è Óêðàèíå
â ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ èçëó÷åíèÿõ
©©
©©
© Þ. À. Áîãäàíîâ, 2011
ÎÎÎ Þã-íåôòåãàçãåîëîãèÿ, Êèåâ, Óêðàèíà
Èíñòèòóò ãåîôèçèêè ÍÀÍ Óêðàèíû, Êèåâ, Óêðàèíà
Ïîñòóïèëà 5 ìàðòà 2010 ã.
Ïðåäñòàâëåíî ÷ëåíîì ðåäêîëëåãèè Â. Í. Øóìàíîì
Çà ñèñòåìíîãî ï³äõîäó äî âèÿâëåííÿ ïðèõîâàíèõ ïåð³îäè÷íîñòåé íà îñíîâ³ çàñòîñóâàííÿ
ìàòåìàòè÷íîãî àïàðàòó, ùî âêëþ÷ຠÿê ñïåêòðàëüíèé àíàë³ç, òàê ³ âåéâëåò-ïåðåòâîðåííÿ
÷àñîâèõ ðÿä³â, óñòàíîâëåíî ïåð³îäè÷í³ñòü âàð³àö³é åëåêòðîìàãí³òíî¿ àêòèâíîñò³ (ÅÌÀ) Çåìë³
â Àíòàðêòèä³ é Óêðà¿í³ ç ïåð³îäàìè ãîäèííîãî ³ äîáîâîãî ä³àïàçîí³â. Âèÿâëåíî ñòðóêòóðó
ñïåêòðà êîëèâàíü, ôàêò ³ñíóâàííÿ ñò³éêèõ êîëèâàíü ³ ãðóïóâàííÿ ¿õ íà ÷àñòîòí³é îñ³, âèçíà-
÷åíî ä³àïàçîíè ÷àñòîò, íà ÿêèõ ÅÌÀ Çåìë³ âèíèêຠíàé÷àñò³øå.
Using a systemic approach to identifying hidden periodicities through the use of mathema-
tical tools, including both spectral analysis and wavelet transform  the transformation of time
series, the frequency variations of electromagnetic activity (EMA) of the Earth in Antarctica
and Ukraine, with periods of time and daily ranges have been established. The structure of the
vibration spectrum, the existence of stable oscillations, and grouping them on the frequency
axis, th e r a n g e o f frequen c i e s a t w h ich the E a r t h E M A o c curs mos t f r e q u e n tly have b e e n d e t e r -
mined.
Ââåäåíèå. Ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î ãåîôèçè÷åñêîé
ñðåäå, êàê íåêëàññè÷åñêîé íåëèíåéíîé áëî-
êîâîé ñðåäå [Ñàäîâñêèé , 1985 ] , â ïîñëåäíåå
âðåìÿ ñòàëè îáùåïðèíÿòûìè [Ãîëüäèí, 2003].
Èìåþùèåñÿ äàííûå ïðÿìî óêàçûâàþò íà âðà-
ùàòå ë ü í ûé, êð ó ò è ëüíû é è âè õ ðåâî é õà ð àêòå ð
äâèæåíèÿ áëîêîâ, ïëèò è äðóãèõ ãåîëîãè÷åñ-
êèõ ñòðóêòóð ïëàíåòû [Âèõðè ..., 2004]. Ìíî-
ãèå ãåîëîãè è ãåîôèçèêè îòìå÷àþò ñàìîñòî-
ÿòåëüíûé, ñîáñòâåííûé, ñ íåíóëåâûìè äè-
âåðãåíöèÿìè è âèõðÿìè è óïðóãèé õàðàêòåð
òàêèõ äâèæåíèé , êîòîðûå ïðÿìî ñâÿçàíû ñ
äâèæåíèåì ïëàíåòû è ñèñòåìû Çåìëÿ  Ëó-
íà . Â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íå âûçûâàåò ñîìíå -
íèé êàê ñóùåñòâîâàíèå ýôôåêòîâ ïóëüñàöèé
[ Ìèëàíîâñêèé , 1995 ] è òåêòîíè÷åñêèõ ïåðå-
ñòðîåê [Òâåðèòèíîâ, Òâåðèòèíîâà, 2006] ïëà-
íåòû , ãåíåðèðóþùèõ çîíû ñæàòèÿ , ðàñòÿ -
æåíèÿ è ñäâèãà, òàê è èõ âçàèìîñâÿçü ñ âðà-
ùåíèåì Çåìëè [Õàèí, Ëîìèäçå, 2005]. Åñòåñò-
âåííî, ÷òî ðåãèñòðàöèÿ òàêîãî ðîäà ýôôåêòîâ
â ãåîôèçè÷åñêèõ ïîëÿõ áóäåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü
ðàçðàáîòêå íîâûõ ïðåäñòàâëåíèé ãåîäèíàìè-
êè. Èìåííî ïîýòîìó ñîâðåìåííàÿ ãåîôèçè÷åñ-
êàÿ àïïàðàòóðà õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ ðàçâèòèåì óñ-
òðîéñòâ ñ øèðîêîé ïîëîñîé ïðèåìà ñèãíàëîâ
ãåîôèçè÷åñêèõ ïîëåé è ïîâûøåííîé ÷óâñòâè-
òåëüíîñòüþ ê ñëàáûì âîçìóùåíèÿì.
Ê íàñòîÿùåìó ìîìåíòó óâåðåííî ðåãèñò -
ðèðóþòñÿ ñîáñòâåííûå êîëåáàíèÿ ïëàíåòû
[Ëèíüê îâ è äð ., 1982 ; 1989 ; 1996 ; Êîïàå â , Ðó-
äåíêî, 1994; Õàèí, Õàëèëîâ, 2008], ñîáñòâåí-
íûå êîëåáàíèÿ òåêòîíè÷åñêèõ ïëèò è äëèííî-
ïåðèîäè÷åñêèå êîëåáàíèÿ ïðè çåìëåòðÿñåíè-
ÿõ [Ëèíüêîâ , 1963; Ëèíüêîâ, Ïåòðîâà, 1976] .
Äëÿ èäåíòèôèêàöèè òàêèõ êîëåáàíèé ïðåäëî-
æåí òåðìèí ñåéñìîãðàâèòàöèîííûå êîëåáà-
íèÿ Çåìëè. Âûÿâëåííûå îñíîâíûå çàêîíîìåð-
íîñòè è îñîáåííîñòè ñåéñìîãðàâèòàöèîííîãî
ïðîöåññà ñ ïåðèîäàìè áîëåå 1 ÷ çàðåãèñòðè-
ÝÊÑÏÅÐÈÌÅÍÒÀËÜÍÛÅ ÈÑÑËÅÄÎÂÀÍÈß ÑÎÁÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÊÎËÅÁÀÍÈÉ ÇÅÌËÈ ...
Ãåîôèçè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011 81
ðîâàíû â êà÷åñòâå îòêðûòèÿ ÑÑÑÐ ¹ 217 
ßâëåíèå ñåéñìîãðàâèòàöèîííûõ êîëåáàíèé
Çåìëè. Â òî æå âðåìÿ îáçîð ëèòåðàòóðû ïî
ïðîáëåìå ïðîãíîçà çåìëåòðÿñåíèé ïðèâîäèò
ê âûâîäó î íàëè÷èè ñëîæíûõ ñâÿçåé ìåæäó èñ-
òî÷íèêàìè âîçìóùåíèé, äàëüíîäåéñòâóþùåãî
âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ ýëåìåíòîâ ñèñòåìû, èññëåäî-
âàíèå êîòîðûõ íàäî ïðîâîäèòü â ðàìêàõ âñåé
ïëàíåòû êàê åäèíîé íàïðÿæåííîé ñèñòåìû.
Çåìëå êàê ïðîñòðàíñòâåííîìó òåëó ïðèñó-
ùè ÷àñò î ò û è ôîðì û ñî á ñ òâåí í û õ êîëå á à í è é.
Êîëè÷åñòâî óñòàíîâëåííûõ ïàðàìåòðîâ êîëå-
áàíèé èñ÷èñëÿåòñÿ óæå âåëè÷èíàìè òðåòüåãî
ïîðÿäêà, è ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ïåðèîäû ïðîñòè-
ðàþòñÿ íà ìèëëèîíû ëåò. Îíè îòðàæàþò ðàç-
ëè÷íûå àñïåêòû ñèìáèîçà ïîòåíöèàëüíî äîïó-
ñòèìûõ âàðèàíòîâ: îò êîëåáàíèé â ðàìêàõ ìî-
äåëåé ìåõàíèêè ñïëîøíîé ñðåäû äî ïîñòàíî-
âîê, îòðàæàþùèõ ñìåùåíèÿ âíóòðåííåãî ÿäðà
èëè ïëàâàþùåé ëèòîñôåðû.
Âìåñòå ñ òåì ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè ñôîð-
ìèðîâàëèñü ÷åòêèå ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î òîì , ÷òî
èçó÷åíèå ñòðóêòóðû Çåìëè è ïðîèñõîäÿùèõ
â íåé òåêòîíè÷åñêèõ ïðîöåññîâ äîëæíî ïðî-
âîäèòüñÿ â èõ âçàèìîñâÿçè ñ ôàêòîðàìè âíåø-
íåãî îêðóæåíèÿ , òàêèìè êàê âëèÿíèå Ëóíû ,
Ñîëíöà, à òàêæå Êîñìîñà â öåëîì. Âåñüìà óáå-
äèòåëüíûìè ÿâëÿþòñÿ äîâîäû , êàñàþùèåñÿ
âçàèìîäåéñòâèé â ñèñòåìå Çåìëÿêîñìè÷åñ-
êèå îáúåêòû ïîñðåäñòâîì ìåõàíèçìîâ ðåçî -
íàíñíîãî õàðàêòåðà. Ïîýòîìó âîçíèêàåò ïðèí-
öèïèàëüíûé âîïðîñ î òîì, íà êàêèõ èìåííî
÷àñòîòàõ ñâîáîäíûõ êîëåáàíèé Çåìëè ïðåèìó-
ùåñòâåííî ïîääåðæèâàþòñÿ òàêèå âçàèìîäåé-
ñò â è ÿ . Íåäàâíî í à í å ã î áûë äàí âï î ë í å êîíê-
ðåòíûé îòâåò, ê êîòîðîìó, ââèäó ÷ðåçâû÷àé -
íîé âàæíîñòè ïðîáëåìû, î÷åâèäíî, áóäåò ïðî-
ÿâëåí áîëüøîé èíòåðåñ ó÷åíûõ è ñïåöèàëèñ-
òîâ ðàçëè÷íîãî ïðîôèëÿ.
Çà ïîñëåäíèå íåñêîëüêî ëåò ïîëó÷èëà ðàç-
âèòèå ãåîäèíàìè÷åñêàÿ êîíöåïöèÿ, ñîãëàñíî
êîòîðîé ìåõàíèçì âûíóæäåííîé öèêëè÷åñ-
êîé îòíîñèòåëüíîé ðàñêà÷êè è áëóæäàíèé ÿä-
ðà è ìàíòèè Çåìëè íà ãåîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïåðèî-
äàõ âðåìåíè ÿâëÿåòñÿ åäèíûì è ãëàâíûì ìå-
õàíèçìîì, óïðàâëÿþùèì ïëèò-òåêòîíè÷åñêîé
è ïëþì-òåêòîíè÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ Çåìëè
[Áàðêèí, 2002]. Áûëè íàéäåíû ïåðèîäû ñâî-
áîäíûõ êîëåáàíèé äèíàìè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìû ýëà-
ñòè÷íàÿ ìàíòèÿ ÿäðî Çåìëè : 3, 47 ; 4,06 è
4,89 ÷. Àíàëèç ðàçëè÷íûõ ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûõ
íàáëþäåíèé ïîêàçàë , ÷òî âñå ïëàíåòàðíûå
ïðîöåññû äîëæíû èñïûòûâàòü âàðèàöèè ñ
ïåðèîäàìè ÷àñîâîãî äèàïàçîíà  îò 1,497 
äî 24,24 ÷ ( îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî èõ ñîñòàâëÿåò
18).  ýòîé ñâÿçè îáðàùåíî âíèìàíèå íà î÷åíü
èíòåðåñíîå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî. Ñóòü â òîì, ÷òî òå
æå ñàìûå ðèòìû õàðàêòåðíû, êàê ïîêàçàëè èñ-
ñëåäîâàíèÿ îäíîé èç âåñüìà ïðåäñòàâèòåëüíûõ
íàó÷íûõ øêîë (ã. Ïóùèíî, Ìîñêîâñêàÿ îáë.),
äëÿ ôèçè÷åñêèõ , õèìè÷åñêèõ, ôèçèîëîãè÷åñ -
êèõ è áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîöåññîâ ñðåäû îáèòà-
íèÿ ÷åëîâåêà . Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, ñòàíîâÿòñÿ áî -
ëåå ïîíÿòíûìè ýôôåêòèâíûå ìåõàíèçìû èõ
âîçáóæäåíèÿ. Ïðè÷èíû, êîòîðûìè â ïîëíîé ìå-
ðå îáóñëîâëèâàåòñÿ äàííîå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî, æäóò
ñâîåãî îáúÿñíåíèÿ.
Èññëåäîâàíèå äëèííîïåðèîäè÷åñêèõ âîëí
õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ ïîÿâëåíèåì âïîëíå îïðàâ -
äàííûõ äëÿ ýòèõ öåëåé ìåòîäîâ è òåõíîëîãèé,
îñíîâàííûõ , â ÷àñòíîñòè , íà èñïîëüçîâàíèè
åñòåñòâåííîãî ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ
Çåìëè [Âîðîáüåâ è äð., 1975, Ñàëîìàòèí è äð.,
1993, Áîãäàíîâ è äð., 2003, Øóìàí è äð., 2008,
Øóìàí, Áîãäàíîâ, 2008, Anderson et al., 2008 è
äð.]. Â äàííîé ðàáîòå âûÿâëÿþòñÿ íåêîòîðûå
çàêîíîìåðíîñòè êîëåáàòåëüíûõ ïðîöåññîâ Çåì-
ëè â ñïåêòðå ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ èçëó÷åíèé.
Íàçíà÷åíèå ýêñïåðèìåíòà è îñîáåííî-
ñòè ìåòîäà èññëåäîâàíèé . Âîçðàñòàþùàÿ
ðîëü íåñåéñìè÷åñêèõ ìåòîäîâ â èçó÷åíèè ãëó-
áèííûõ íåäð îáóñëîâëåíà èíòåíñèâíûì ðàç-
âèòèåì ïàññèâíûõ çîíäèðóþùèõ ñèñòåì íîâî-
ãî ïîêîëåíèÿ, îñíîâàííûõ íà èñïîëüçîâàíèè
åñòåñòâåííîãî èìïóëüñíîãî ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíî-
ãî ïîëÿ Çåìëè [Øóìàí è äð., 2008]. Êàê ñâè-
äåòåëüñòâóåò îáøèðíûé ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûé
ìàòåðèàë, ëèòîñôåðà ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ìåõà-
íè÷åñêè è ýëåêòðîäèíàìè÷åñêè àêòèâíóþ ñðå-
äó , ñïîñîáíóþ ãåíåðèðîâàòü ýëåêòðîìàãíèò-
íûå âîçìóùåíèÿ. Ïîñëåäíèå , äîñòèãàÿ çåì-
íîé ïîâåðõíîñòè, ñîçäàþò íà íåé ñëîæíóþ
ñòðóêòóðó ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ, îòêðûâà-
þùóþ íîâûé ïåðñïåêòèâíûé êàíàë ïîëó÷å -
íèÿ èíôîðìàöèè î ôèçè÷åñêèõ ïðîöåññàõ â
Çåìëå, åå ñòðîåíèè è ñâîéñòâàõ [Øóìàí, Áîã-
äàíîâ, 2008].
 îòëè÷èå îò ìåòîäà åñòåñòâåííîãî èìïóëü-
ñíîãî ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ [Ñàëîìà-
òèí è äð ., 1993] , îñíîâàííîãî íà òðàäèöèîí-
íûõ ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿõ î ôèçèêå ýëåêòðîìàãíèò-
íîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ íåäð, â ìåòîäå ãåîïîëÿðèòîí-
íîé ñïåêòðîñêîïèè [Áîãäàíîâ, Ïàâëîâè÷, 2008]
îáúåêòîì èññëåäîâàíèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîëå ñïîí-
òàííîé ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîé ýìèññèè, ãåíåðè -
ðóåìîé ïðè èçìåíåíèè íàïðÿæåííî -äåôîð -
ìèðîâàííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ ãîðíûõ ïîðîä ëèòî-
ñôåðû. Òàêîå ïîëå ñëåäóåò îòëè÷àòü îò ïåðå-
ìåííîãî ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ , èíäóöèðó-
åìîãî ìàãíèòîñôåðíûìè (ìàãíèòîòåëëóðè÷åñ-
Þ.À. ÁÎÃÄÀÍÎÂ
82 Ãåîôè çè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011
êîå ïîëå) è àòìîñôåðíûìè (ïîëå ãðîçîâîé àê-
òèâíîñòè) ïðîöåññàìè. Ñâîéñòâà ïîëÿ ñóùåñò-
âåííî îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò ñâîéñòâ èçâåñòíûõ ýëåêò-
ðîìàãíèòíûõ ïîëåé è ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ â ðàì-
êàõ ïðåäñòàâëåíèé î ëèòîñôåðå êàê ýëåêòðî-
äèíàìè÷åñêè àêòèâíîé ñðåäå [Áîãäàíîâ è äð.,
2009]. Ïðè ýòîì ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ, ÷òî ñðåäà íàè-
áîëåå àêòèâíà â ìåñòàõ íàèáîëüøèõ íàïðÿæå-
íèé ãîðíûõ ïîðîä.
Ïðè âîçíèêíîâåíèè ñîáñòâåííûõ êîëåáà-
íèé Çåìëè íàïðÿæåííî-äåôîðìèðîâàííîå ñî-
ñòîÿíèå çåìíûõ ïîðîä èçìåíÿåòñÿ ñ ÷àñòîòîé
ýòèõ êîëåáàíèé . Ýòî îçíà÷àåò , ÷òî èñïóñêàå -
ìîå ãîðíûìè ïîðîäàìè ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîå èç-
ëó÷åíèå òàêæå äîëæíî èçìåíÿòüñÿ âî âðåìå -
íè. Çàäà÷à ýêñïåðèìåíòàëüíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé
ñîñòîÿëà â òîì , ÷òîáû ñ ïîìîùüþ íîâûõ òåõ-
íîëîãè÷åñêèõ óñòðîéñòâ è ïðèåìîâ âûÿâèòü òà-
êèå êîëåáàíèÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ èçëó÷åíèé,
÷àñòîòû êîòîðûõ óæå ïîëó÷åíû ñåéñìîãðàâè-
òàöèîííûìè ìåòîäàìè, è ïîïûòàòüñÿ îòûñêàòü
íîâûå ãàðìîíèêè êîëåáàíèé . Â ðàáîòå ðàñ -
ñìàòðèâàþòñÿ òîëüêî öèêëè÷åñêèå ïðîöåññû.
Àïïàðàòóðíûé êîìïëåêñ äëÿ ðåãèñòðà-
öèè ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ èçëó÷åíèé Çåìëè.
 ñîñòàâ àïïàðàòóðíîãî êîìïëåêñà âõîäÿò: ðå-
ãèñòðàòîð ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ èçëó÷åíèé Àñò-
ðîãîí (ÒÇ Ó 22.2-21176090-001-2007), ïðèåì-
íèê GPS è èíòåðôåéñíûé àäàïòåð, îáåñïå÷è-
âàþùèå âûñîêóþ òåõíîëîãè÷íîñòü è àâòîíîì-
íîñòü ïðîâåäåíèÿ èçìåðåíèé.
 êà÷åñòâå ïåðâè÷íîãî ïðåîáðàçîâàòåëÿ â
àíàëèçàòîðå èñïîëüçóåòñÿ âñòðîåííàÿ àíèçî-
òðîïíàÿ ðàìî÷íàÿ àíòåííà, ñîñòîÿùàÿ èç òðåõ
âçàèìíî ïåðïåíäèêóëÿðíûõ êàòóøåê èíäóê-
òèâíîñòè [ Àëüîøèí , Áîãäàíîâ , 2007 ] . Áëàãî-
äàðÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèþ ñîâðåìåííîé ýëåìåíòíîé
áàçû è öèôðîâîé îáðàáîòêå ñèãíàëîâ óäàëîñü
äîñòè÷ü âûñîêîé òî÷íîñòè (± 5 %) è áîëüøîãî
äèíàìè÷åñêîãî äèàïàçîíà (0,0520 íÒë) èçìå-
ðåíèé ïàðàìåòðîâ ìàãíèòíîé ñîñòàâëÿþùåé
ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ â äèàïàçîíå ÷àñòîò
îò 1 äî 100 êÃö (ïî óðîâíþ 3 äÁ).  ïðèáîðå
ðàçâèòû äîïîëíèòåëüíûå ôóíêöèè: öèôðîâàÿ
ôèëüòðàöèÿ ñèãíàëà, ñîõðàíåíèå äàííûõ èç-
ìåðåíèé â îïåðàòèâíîì çàïîìèíàþùåì óñò-
ðîéñòâå; ðåàëèçîâàí ïåðâè÷íûé ýòàï îáðà -
áîòêè ðåçóëüòàòîâ è îáåñïå÷åíû âîçìîæíîñ-
òè óïðàâëåíèÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ êîìïüþòåðà, â ÷à-
ñòíîñòè, âîçìîæíîñòü àâòîìàòè÷åñêîãî ìîíè-
òîðèíãà óðîâíåé ïîðîãà ðåãèñòðèðóåìîãî ìàã-
íèòíîãî ïîëÿ.
Ðåãèñòðàòîð èçìåðÿåò àêòèâíîñòü èìïóëüñ-
íîãî ïîòîêà, îòîáðàæàåò êîëè÷åñòâî èìïóëü-
ñîâ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ ñ àìïëèòó-
äîé , ïðåâûøàþùåé çàäàííûé ïîðîã , çà çà -
äàííûé èíòåðâàë âðåìåíè è âåëè÷èíó , ïðî-
ïîðöèîíàëüíóþ ñðåäíåìó çíà÷åíèþ íàïðÿ -
æåííîñòè ïîëÿ . Äàííûå èçìåðåíèé çàïèñû -
âàþòñÿ â ïàìÿòü ðåãèñòðàòîðà. Êàê èçâåñòíî,
äëÿ ñòàöèîíàðíîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ïðîöåññà, îá-
ëàäàþùåãî ýðãîäè÷åñêèì ñâîéñòâîì, ñóùåñò-
âóåò ñâÿçü ÷èñëà ïåðåñå÷åíèé çàäàííîãî óðîâ-
íÿ ñî ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòüþ è ñðåäíåêâàäðàòè-
÷åñê è ì çí à÷åí è å ì ÷àñò î ò û ñïåê ò ð à ëüíî é ïë î ò-
íîñòè ýòîãî ïðîöåññà [Òèõîíîâ, Õèìåíêî, 1998].
Äëÿ íèçêî÷àñòîòíîãî ñëó÷àéíîãî ãàóññîâà ïðî-
öåññà ÷èñëî ïåðåñå÷åíèé (÷òî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò
àêòèâíîñòè èìïóëüñíîãî ïîòîêà) ïðîïîðöèî-
íàëüíî åãî ñðåäíåêâàäðàòè÷åñêîé ÷àñòîòå. Â
ñâîþ î÷åðåäü , ñðåäíåå ÷èñëî âûáðîñîâ ñëó-
÷àéíîãî ñòàöèîíàðíîãî ïðîöåññà íåñåò èí -
ôîðìàöèþ îá ýôôåêòèâíîé øèðèíå åãî ñïåêò-
ðà . Ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê íèçêî÷àñòîòíûì ñòàöè-
îíàðíûì ïðîöåññàì ñðåäíÿÿ êâàäðàòè÷åñêàÿ
÷àñòîòà õàðàêòåðèçóåò ýôôåêòèâíóþ øèðèíó
ñïåêòðàëüíîé ïëîòíîñòè. Èçìåðåíèå ÷èñëà èì-
ïóëüñîâ èìååò ïðåèìóùåñòâà ïåðåä èçìåðå-
íèåì èíòåíñèâíîñòè ñèãíàëà (åãî îãèáàþùåé),
ïîñêîëüêó òàêîé ïîäõîä áîëåå ÷óâñòâèòåëåí ê
èçìåíåíèþ êîëè÷åñòâà èçëó÷àòåëåé â ãåîëî-
ãè÷åñêîé ñðåäå.
Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ
îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ îäíîâðåìåííî â äâóõ ðåæè-
ìàõ : ñ ôèêñèðîâàííûì ( ÔÏ ) è ïëàâàþùèì
ïîðîãîì (ÏÏ) îïîðíîãî íàïðÿæåíèÿ. ÔÏ óñòà-
íàâëèâàåòñÿ ïåðåä íà÷àëîì èçìåðåíèé è íå
èçìåíÿåòñÿ â ïðîöåññå ïðîâåäåíèÿ íàáëþäå-
íèé. Â ðåæèìå ÔÏ èçìåðåíèÿ ÷óâñòâèòåëü-
íû ê èçìåíåíèþ ñðåäíåé èíòåíñèâíîñòè ìàã-
íèòíîãî ïîëÿ. Â ðåæèìå ÏÏ âûïîëíÿåòñÿ àâ-
òîìàòè÷åñêàÿ ïîäñòðîéêà ê ñðåäíåìó ïî ïðåä-
øåñòâóþùåìó 10-ñåêóíäíîìó èíòåðâàëó óðîâ-
íþ èíòåíñèâíîñòè ìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ íåïîñðåä-
ñòâåííî ïðè èçìåðåíèÿõ.
Îñîáåííîñòè ìåòîäèêè ïðîâåäåíèÿ íà-
áëþäåíèé. Îñíîâíîé âèä ïîëåâûõ ðàáîò 
âàðèàöèîííûå (ðåæèìíûå) íàáëþäåíèÿ. Èñ-
ñëåäîâàíèÿ â ïåðèîä ñ 2004 ïî 2009 ã. áûëè
ïðîâåäåíû â ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî îðãàíèçîâàííûõ
ïóíêòàõ íàáëþäåíèé : Óêðàèíñêàÿ àíòàðêòè -
÷åñêàÿ ñòàíöèÿ èì. Â.È. Âåðíàäñêîãî (ÓÀÑ) ñ
êîîðäèíàòàìè 65° 1 5
W, 64 ° 1 5
S; ñòàíöèÿ íà
òåððèòîðèè Óêðàèíû ïîä Õàðüêîâîì ñ êîîðäè-
íàòàìè 50° N, 3 5 ° 5 1
E . Äâ å ñò à í ö è è áû ë è ðàñ-
ïîëîæåíû íà ðàññòîÿíèÿõ 500êì îò ýïè-
öåíòðîâ çåìëåòðÿñåíèé (ÓÀÑ è Õàðüêîâ), ò. å.
â çîíå ìåäëåííûõ çåìëåòðÿñåíèé, è ñîáñòâåí-
íî ãðàâèòàöèîííûõ ñìåùåíèé (îïîëçíåé, ëåä-
íèêîâûõ ñìåùåíèé) . Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ îñóùåñòâ-
ÝÊÑÏÅÐÈÌÅÍÒÀËÜÍÛÅ ÈÑÑËÅÄÎÂÀÍÈß ÑÎÁÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÊÎËÅÁÀÍÈÉ ÇÅÌËÈ ...
Ãåîôèçè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011 83
ëÿëàñü ñ èíòåðâàëîì 1 ñ. Îñè àíòåííû X î ðè-
åíòèðîâàíû íà Þæíûé è Ñåâåðíûé ïîëþñû
ñîîòâåòñòâåííî . Îñòàëüíûå îñè ñîñòàâëÿþò
ïðàâóþ ñèñòåìó êîîðäèíàò. Ñóòî÷íûå èçìå-
íåíèÿ ñèãíàëà ðàññìîòðåíû íèæå â ðåæèìå
ÔÏ äëÿ êàíàëà Y.
Âëèÿíèå ïîìåõ. Âî âðåìÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ íà-
áëþäåíèé íåîáõîäèìî ó÷èòûâàòü âîçìîæíûå
èñêàæåíèÿ çà ñ÷åò ýêçîãåííûõ ôàêòîðîâ ,
âêëþ÷àþùèõ â ñåáÿ èîíîñôåðíûå èñòî÷íè -
êè , àòìîñôåðíîå ýëåêòðè÷åñòâî è òåõíîãåí -
íûå ïîìåõè. Íàïðèìåð, ìíîãîëåòíèé îïûò íà-
áëþäåíèé íà ñòàöèîíàðíûõ ñòàíöèÿõ ïîêà -
çàë, ÷òî âî âñåõ ñëó÷àÿõ âåëè÷èíà ïîìåõ çà-
âèñèò îò âðåìåíè ãîäà, ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîãî ïî-
ëîæåíèÿ ó÷àñòêà ðàáîò, âðåìåíè ñóòîê, âëèÿ-
íèÿ èîíîñôåðû.
Íà ðèñ. 1, à ïîêàçàí õîä ñóòî÷íîé àêòèâ -
íîñòè ñèãíàëà â êàíàëå Y (ðåæèì ÔÏ) ïðè
íàáëþäåíèÿõ 6 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2008 ã. â Õàðüêîâ-
ñêîé îáë. , Óêðàèíà . Ðåçêîå èçìåíåíèå ñðåä-
íåãî óðîâíÿ ñèãíàëà, îòìå÷åííîå ñòðåëêàìè,
àññîöèèðóåòñÿ ñ âðåìåíåì âîñõîäà ( 4 : 57 ) è
çàõîäà Ñîëíöà (18 : 10).
Íà ðèñ. 1, á ïðåäñòàâëåíà ñðåäíÿÿ àêòèâ-
íîñòü ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ, íàáëþ-
äàâøåãîñÿ â àïðåëå 2008 ã. íà ëîêàëüíîé ñòà-
öèîíàðíîé ñòàíöèè, ðàñïîëîæåííîé â 100 êì
îò îñíîâíîé (Óêðàèíà). Õîðîøî âèäíî êîðîò-
êîå ðåãóëÿðíîå óâåëè÷åíèå ñèãíàëà â êîíöå
êàæäîãî ÷àñà ( îòìå÷åíî ñòðåëêàìè) , ñâÿçàí-
íîå ñ âêëþ÷åíèåì íàñîñà äëÿ ïîëèâà çåìåëü.
Íà ðèñ. 1, â ïîêàçàíî ñóòî÷íîå èçìåíåíèå
ñèãíàëà â êàíàëå Y (ðåæèì ÔÏ) äëÿ íåêîòî-
ðûõ äíåé íåäåëè. Íàêîïëåíèå îñóùåñòâëÿëîñü
íà ïðîòÿæåíèè òðåõ íåäåëü . Ñòàöèîíàðíàÿ
ñòàíöèÿ ðàñïîëàãàëàñü â ðàéîíå ïðîìûøëåí-
íûõ ïîìåõ. Äëÿ âûõîäíûõ äíåé (ñì. ðåçóëüòà-
òû äëÿ âîñêðåñåíüÿ) íåò êàêèõ-ëèáî çíà÷èìûõ
îñîáåííîñòåé ñèãíàëà. Â òî æå âðåìÿ â ðàáî-
÷èå äíè (ñì. ðåçóëüòàòû äëÿ ñðåäû, ðèñ. 1, â)
ñðåäíèé óðîâåíü ñèãíàëà èçìåíÿåòñÿ â 89
è 1718 ÷, ÷òî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íà÷àëó è êîíöó
ðàáî÷åãî âðåìåíè.
Íà ðèñ. 1, ã ïîêàçàí ôðàãìåíò ïîëåâûõ èç-
ìåðåíèé ( ñèãíàë Y, ðåæèì ÔÏ) . Âèäíî , ÷òî
õàðàêòåð ñèãíàëà ïîñëå 12 ÷ èçìåíèëñÿ äîñ-
òàòî÷íî ñèëüíî (îáëàñòü À). Óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî
â ýòîò ïåðèîä ñâîéñòâà ñèãíàëà, âêëþ÷àÿ åãî
÷àñòîòíûå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè è äëèòåëüíîñòü, ñî-
îòâåòñòâóþò òàê íàçûâàåìûì æåì÷óæíûì íå-
ïðåðûâíûì Pc3 ïóëüñàöèÿì ãåîìàãíèòíîãî ïî-
ëÿ [Ãóëüåëüìè, 2007; Guglielmi et al., 1996].
Àíàëèç ñóòî÷íîé àêòèâíîñòè ýëåêòðîìàã-
íèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ ïî íàáëþäåíèÿì çà äàí-
Ðèñ. 1. Øóìû ýêçîãåííîãî è òåõíîãåííîãî ïðîèñ-
õîæäåíèÿ, èñêàæàþùèå èçìåðåíèÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèò-
íîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ: à  âëèÿíèå ñîëíå÷íîé àêòèâíîñ-
òè; á  òåõíîãåííàÿ ïîìåõà; â ðàáî÷åå âðåìÿ;
ã íàáëþäåíèå èîíîñôåðíîé ïóëüñàöèè ; ä
ñïåêòðû äàííûõ îñíîâíîé ñòàíöèè â Óêðàèíå (òîí-
êàÿ ëèíèÿ) ïðè îäíîâðåìåííûõ íàáëþäåíèÿõ ñ ëî-
êàëüíîé ñòàíöèåé íà óäàëåíèè 100 êì (òîëñòàÿ ëè-
íèÿ). N ÷èñëî èìïóëüñîâ.
Þ.À. ÁÎÃÄÀÍÎÂ
84 Ãåîôè çè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011
íûé êðàòêîñðî÷íûé èíòåðâàë âðåìåíè íà ñòà-
öèîíàðíûõ ñòàíöèÿõ íå âûÿâèë ÷åòêîé êîð-
ðåëÿöèè çíà÷åíèé àêòèâíîñòè èçëó÷åíèÿ ñî
âðåìåíåì ìàêñèìàëüíîé ãðîçîâîé àêòèâíîñ-
òè äîìèíèðóþùèõ ìèðîâûõ öåíòðîâ ãðîç: Àçè-
àòñêîãî, Àôðèêàíñêîãî è Àìåðèêàíñêîãî. Íà-
ïðèìåð, íà ðèñ. 1, ä ïîêàçàíû ñïåêòðû ñèã-
íàëà â ê à í à ëå Õå æ è ì ÏÏ ) , êîòî ð û é çàôè ê -
ñèðîâàí íà ëîêàëüíîé (ïåðåäâèæíîé ) ñòàí-
öèè (òîëñòàÿ ëèíèÿ ) è îäíîâðåìåííî íà îñ-
íîâíîé ñòàíöèè â Óêðàèíå (òîíêàÿ ëèíèÿ) .
Ñòðåëêàìè îòìå÷åíû ñïåêòðàëüíûå ëèíèè, êî-
òîðûå íà á ë þäàþò ñ ÿ îä íîâð å ì å ííî â äâó õ íà -
áîðàõ äàííûõ. Òàêèå ÷àñòîòû êîëåáàíèé ìàã-
íèòíîãî ïîëÿ ( 0,00080,006 Ãö) ñîîòâåòñòâó-
þò èîíîñôåðíûì ïóëüñàöèÿì Pc2, Pc5 è Pc6
(ñì., íàïðèìåð, [Hudson et al., 2004; Oksman
et al., 1988; Matsuoka et al., 1997]).
Îñíîâíûå ïðèíöèïû è ïðèåìû îáðàáîò-
êè è èíòåðïðåòàöèè. Íàáëþäåíèÿ ïðîâîäè-
ëèñü íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 1429 ñóò â ïåðèîä ñ 2004
ïî 2009 ã. íà ñòàöèîíàðíîé ñòàíöèè ÓÀÑ è â
Õàðüêîâå . Íà ðèñ. 2 ïîêàçàíû ñðåäíèå çíà-
÷åíèÿ ñèãíàëà àêòèâíîñòè ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíî-
ãî èçëó÷åíèÿ, ïîëó÷åííûå çà êàæäóþ ñåêóí-
äó êàæäîé ìèíóòû êàæäîãî ÷àñà â êàæäûõ ñóò-
êàõ ìåñÿöà â òå÷åíèå âñåãî ïåðèîäà íàáëþäå-
íèÿ. Ïðîöåäóðà óñðåäíåíèÿ ïîçâîëÿåò âûäå-
ëèòü ñèãíàëû, ðåãóëÿðíî ïðîèñõîäÿùèå â îäíî
è òî æå âðåìÿ ñóòîê â äàííîì ìåñòå.
 ìàòåìàòè÷åñêîé îáðàáîòêå , èíòåðïðåòà-
öèè è âèçóàëèçàöèè ðåçóëüòàòîâ ïðèìåíÿëèñü
ïðèíöèï âûäåëåíèÿ ñêðûòûõ ïåðèîäè÷íîñ-
òåé è âåéâëåò-àíàëèç. Âíà÷àëå ïðîèçâîäèëîñü
ñãëàæèâàíèå óñðåäíåííîãî âðåìåííîãî ðÿäà
àêòèâíîñòè ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ ïðè
ðàçëè÷íûõ îêíàõ ñãëàæèâàíèÿ è ðàçíîì ÷èñ-
ëå ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòåé ñãëàæèâàíèé.
Óñòàíàâëèâàåòñÿ óñòîé÷èâûé õàðàêòåð ïðî-
öåññà , ïîñëå ÷åãî îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ ïðèìåðíûå
ïåðèîäû ãàðìîíèê , ñîñòàâëÿþùèå ïðîöåññ .
Äàëåå èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ïàêåòíûå âåéâëåò -ïðå -
îáðàçîâàíèÿ èñõîäíûõ ñðåäíåñóòî÷íûõ ðÿäîâ
íàáëþäåíèé , â êîòîðûõ ïîäáèðàþòñÿ ôèëüò-
ðû äëÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ èíòåðâàëîâ íàáëþ-
äåíèÿ âðåìåííîãî ðÿäà.
Îøèáêè â îïðåäåëåíèè ïàðàìåòðîâ èçëó-
÷åíèé, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ ñîáñòâåííûìè êîëåáàíè-
ÿìè Çåìëè, êîòîðûå îáóñëîâëåíû ñåéñìè÷åñ-
êèìè ñîáûòèÿìè , íàïðèìåð , èçâåðæåíèÿìè
âóëêàíîâ èëè çåìëåòðÿñåíèÿìè, íîñÿò íåêîð-
ðåëèðîâàííûé, ñòîõàñòè÷åñêèé õàðàêòåð íà
êîðîòêèõ ïåðèîäàõ íàáëþäåíèÿ. Êàê è âñÿ-
êèé øóì, îøèáêè îòôèëüòðîâûâàþòñÿ ïðîñòû-
ìè ëèíåéíûìè ïðåîáðàçîâàíèÿìè èñïîëüçóå-
ìîãî ðÿäà. Äëÿ ýòîãî ïðèìåíÿëèñü ôèëüòðû ñ
ðàçíûìè èíòåðâàëàìè ñãëàæèâàíèÿ è ðàçëè÷-
íûì ÷èñëîì èíòåðâàëîâ â âàðèàíòå ñãëàæè-
âàíèÿ. Ïîñëå îáðàáîòêè êàæäîãî âàðèàíòà ïðî-
èçâîäèëàñü êîððåëÿöèÿ ìåæäó ðàçëè÷íûìè
ñãëàæåííûìè âðåìåííûìè ðÿäàìè ñ îïðåäå-
ëåíèåì êîýôôèöèåíòà êîððåëÿöèè  ìåæäó
ñèãíàëàìè ñî ñòàíöèé ÓÀÑ è â Óêðàèíå (Õàðü-
êîâ). Çàòåì ðàññ÷èòûâàëñÿ ñëåäóþùèé âàðè-
Ðèñ. 2. Âðåìåííûå ðÿäû ñðåäíåñóòî÷íûõ íàáëþäåíèé â Àíòàðêòèäå (à) è Óêðàèíå (á).
ÝÊÑÏÅÐÈÌÅÍÒÀËÜÍÛÅ ÈÑÑËÅÄÎÂÀÍÈß ÑÎÁÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÊÎËÅÁÀÍÈÉ ÇÅÌËÈ ...
Ãåîôèçè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011 85
àíò ñ îïðåäåëåíèåì êîýôôèöèåíòà êîððåëÿ-
öèè ìåæäó ïîëó÷åííûìè ðåçóëüòàòàìè â äàí-
íîì âàðèàíòå è ðåçóëüòàòàìè â ïðåäûäóùåì
âàðèàíòå. Âåëè÷èíà îêíà ñãëàæèâàíèÿ è ÷èñ-
ëî ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíûõ ñãëàæèâàíèé óâåëè÷è -
âàëèñü â êàæäîì ïîñëåäóþùåì âàðèàíòå.
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñðàâíåíèå ðåçóëüòàòîâ ñãëà-
æèâàíèÿ â êàæäîì ïîñëåäóþùåì è ïðåäûäó-
ùåì âàðèàíòàõ ïîçâîëÿåò îïðåäåëèòü ýôôåê-
òèâíîñòü ôèëüòðàöèè øóìîâ ïî óâåëè÷åíèþ
êîýôôèöèåíòà êîððåëÿöèè. Íà ðèñ. 3 âèäíî ,
÷òî êîýôôèöèåíò êîððåëÿöèè ïî ìåðå âîçðà-
ñòàíèÿ âåëè÷èíû îêíà è ÷èñëà ïîñëåäîâàòåëü-
íîãî ñãëàæèâàíèÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå óâåëè÷è -
âàåòñÿ.
Ìàêñèìàëüíîå çíà÷åíèå êîýôôèöèåíòà êîð-
ðåëÿöèè (0,8 ) ïðè ðàçìåðå ðàäèóñà êîððå-
ëÿöèè 10 ìèí ïîçâîëÿåò ïðåäïîëàãàòü óñòîé-
÷èâûé õàðàêòåð ñðàâíèâàåìûõ ïðîöåññîâ â
Þæíîì è Ñåâåðíîì ïîëóøàðèÿõ . Íà ðèñ. 3
ïðèâåäåíû çíà÷åíèÿ îòðèöàòåëüíîé êîððåëÿ-
öèè. Àíàëèç ãðàôèêîâ ïðèâîäèò ê âûâîäó, ÷òî
â íåêîòîðîé îêðåñòíîñòè õàðàêòåðíûõ ÷àñ-
òîò : 0,15 ; 0, 2 0 ; 0,21 ; 0, 2 8, 0,2 ìà ö èí òåðâ à ë à õ
ïåðèîäîâ îò 10 äî 90 ìèí) èìååò ìåñòî ñèëü-
íàÿ îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ êîððåëÿöèîííàÿ ñâÿçü â ðå-
ãèñòðèðóåìûõ äàííûõ.
Ïîëíûé ñïåêòð çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ â Àí-
òàðêòèäå è Óêðàèíå êîëåáàíèé ýëåêòðîìàã -
íèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ â 4-÷àñîâîì âðåìåííîì
ðÿäå ïîêàçàí íà ðèñ. 4. Ñîãëàñíî àíàëèçó äàí-
íûõ, â ýòîì ïåðèîäå (0 250 ìèí) ñâîéñòâà
ñèãíàëà, âêëþ÷àÿ åãî ÷àñòîòíûå õàðàêòåðèñ-
òèêè è äëèòåëüíîñòü, ñîîòâåòñòâóþò òàê íàçû-
âàåìûì æåì÷óæíûì íåïðåðûâíûì Pc3 ïóëü-
ñàöèÿì ãåîìàãíèòíîãî ïîëÿ [Ãóëüåëüìè, 2008 à,
á; Guglielmi et al., 1996], ñåéñìîãðàâèòàöèîí-
íûì ìóëüòèïëåòàì 0S2 [Ïåòðîâà, 1983], ñîáñò-
âåííûì êîëåáàíèÿì âíóòðåííåãî ÿäðà Çåìëè ñ
ïåðèîäîì îêîëî 200 ìèí [Êîïàåâ, Ðóäåíêî, 1994].
Çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíû ïåðèîäû , òðåáóþùèå
ñâîåãî îáúÿñíåíèÿ, íàïðèìåð, ïåðèîä Øóëå-
ðà Ò = 84,4 ìèí, êîòîðûé îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ïî ôîð-
ìóëå:
,
á
g
R
Tπ= 2
ãäå Rá  ðàññòîÿíèå äî áàðèöåíòðà ñèñòåìû
Çåìëÿ  Ëóíà; g óñêîðåíèå ñâîáîäíîãî ïà-
äåíèÿ.
Ðèñ. 3. Çàâèñèìîñòü êîýôôèöèåíòà êîððåëÿöèè îò ðàçìåðà îêíà ñãëàæèâàíèÿ: à120 ìèí; á  60 ìèí;
â  1 0 ì è í ; 1 èçìåíåíèå êîððåëÿöèè â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ðàçìåðà îêíà ñãëàæèâàíèÿ (èíòåðâàë 30 è 60 ìèí);
2  ñðåäíåå çíà÷åíèå àêòèâíîñòè ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ â òå÷åíèå ïåðâûõ 250 ìèí ÷åðåç êàæäóþ
ñåêóíäó, íàáëþäàâøåãîñÿ íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 1429 ñóò íà ñòàíöèè ÓÀÑ; 3  òî æå, íà ñòàíöèè â Óêðàèíå.
Èíòåðâàë âðåìåíè âûáðàí â äèàïàçîíå íàáëþäàâøèõñÿ ñåéñìîãðàâèòàöèîííûõ êîëåáàíèé [Ïåòðîâà, 1983].
Þ.À. ÁÎÃÄÀÍÎÂ
86 Ãåîôè çè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011
Íà ðèñ . 4 òàêæå õîðîøî âèäíî êîðîòêîå
ðåãóëÿðíîå óâåëè÷åíèå ñèãíàëà ñ ïåðèîäîì
Øóëåðà.
Êîëåáàíèÿ ïîëÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó -
÷åíèÿ ñ ïåðèîäîì Øóëåðà áîëåå âûðàæå -
íû íà ÓÀÑ, íåæåëè â ñðåäíèõ øèðîòàõ Óê-
ðàèíû.
Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî ÷òî ðèòìè÷åñêàÿ ñòðóêòó-
ðà êîëåáàíèé ïëàíåòû â ôîíîâûõ ýëåêòðî-
ìàãíèòíûõ ïîëÿõ èìååò âåñüìà ñëîæíóþ äè-
íàìèêó, âñå æå ìîæíî ðàññìîòðåòü íåêîòî-
ðûå çàêîíîìåðíîñòè è ïîïûòàòüñÿ ïîëó÷èòü
òåîðåòè÷åñêóþ îöåíêó èçìåðåííîãî ïåðèîäà.
Îäíà èç íèõ ñâÿçàíà ñ äâèæåíèåì ñèñòåìû
Çåìëÿ  Ëóíà. Ïîñêîëüêó âåëè÷èíà ëóííîé
ìàññû íå áåñêîíå÷íî ìàëà ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ
ìàññîé Çåìëè , îáà òåëà èìåþò îáùèé öåíòð
ìàññ  áàðèöåíòð. Ïî îðáèòå âîêðóã Ñîëí-
öà äâèæåòñÿ òî÷êà, â êîòîðîé íàõîäèòñÿ áà-
ðèöåíòð, à öåíòðû Çåìëè è Ëóíû óäàëåíû îò
íåå íà íåêîòîðûå ðàññòîÿíèÿ . Ñîîòíîøåíèå
ìàññ îáîèõ íåáåñíûõ òåë òàêîâî , ÷òî áàðè -
öåíòð íàõîäèòñÿ âíóòðè Çåìëè íà ðàññòîÿ -
íèè Rá = 4670 êì îò öåíòðà åå ìàññ. Óñêî-
ðåíèå ñâîáîäíîãî ïàäåíèÿ â ìåñòå, ïî Ê. Áó-
ëåíó [ Ñîðî õ ò è í , Óøàê î â , 20 0 2 ] , ðà ñ ï îë î æå -
íèÿ áàðèöåíòðà ðàâíî 7,2 ì/ñ2. Íàëè÷èå êî-
ëåáàíèé ñ ïåðèîäîì Øóëåðà ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò
î òîì , ÷òî ðåàëüíî ñóùåñòâóåò ñèñòåìà , êî -
òîðàÿ îáåñïå÷èâàåò óñòîé÷èâîñòü êîëåáàíèé
ïëàíåòû.
 ýêñïåðèìåíòàõ íàáëþäàþòñÿ è äðóãèå
ïåðèîäû, ñâÿçàííûå ñ äâèæåíèÿìè ñèñòåìû
Çåìëÿ Ëóíà è, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, èçìåíåíèÿ-
ìè íàïðÿæåííî-äåôîðìèðîâàííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ
ïëàíåòû (ðèñ. 5).
Àíàëèç äëèííîïåðèîäè÷åñêèõ êîëåáà-
íèé. Øêàëà âðåìåííûõ ðÿäîâ íà ãðàôèêàõ
ðèñ. 5 ñîñòàâëÿåò 1440 ìèí, ÷òî ñîîòâåòñòâó-
åò îäíèì ñóòêàì. Ñïðàâà ïðèâåäåíû ãðàôèêè
âåéâëåò-ðàçëîæåíèé äëÿ Àíòàðêòèäû, ñëåâà 
äëÿ ñðåäíèõ øèðîò Óêðàèíû. Âûäåëåíû ñëå-
äóþùèå ïåðèîäû êîëåáàíèé:
ñîáñòâåííûå êîëåáàíèÿ ÿäðà ñ îñíîâíûì
ïåðèîäîì 14 ÷ (âòîðàÿ ñâåðõó ïàðà ãðà -
ôèêîâ);
êîëåáàíèÿ ñ ïåðèîäîì 5 ÷ (òðåòüÿ ïà-
ðà ãðàôèêîâ) âàðèàöèÿ äëèòåëüíîñòè ñè-
íîäè÷åñêîãî ìåñÿöà;
êîëåáàíèÿ âíóòðåííåãî ÿäðà 3 ÷ 18 ìèí
(÷åòâåðòàÿ ïàðà);
÷àñòîòà Øóëåðà 84 ìèí (ïÿòàÿ ïàðà);
÷àñòîòû ñ ïåðèîäàìè 78 ( 6-ÿ ãàðìîíè -
êà ) , 67 ( 7- ÿ ãà ð ìîíèê à ) 54 ìè í ( 8- ÿ ãà ð ìî -
íèêà îñíîâíàÿ , ïî äàííûì [ Ïåòðîâà ,
1983 ] ) , êîòîðûå ðåãèñòðèðóþòñÿ â Óêðàè -
íå; íà ÓÀÑ àìïëèòóäû ýòèõ ÷àñòîò ïðåíå-
áðåæèìî ìàëû.
Ðèñ. 4. Ñïåêòðû ñîáñòâåííûõ ÷àñòîò ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ â 4-÷àñîâîì âðåìåííîì ðÿäå:
à  ÓÀÑ, á  Óêðàèíà.
ÝÊÑÏÅÐÈÌÅÍÒÀËÜÍÛÅ ÈÑÑËÅÄÎÂÀÍÈß ÑÎÁÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÊÎËÅÁÀÍÈÉ ÇÅÌËÈ ...
Ãåîôèçè÷åñêèé æóðíàë ¹ 1, Ò. 33, 2011 87
Êàê ìîæíî çàìåòèòü, âëèÿíèå ïàðàìåòðîâ
äâèæåíèÿ ñèñòåìû Çåìëÿ  Ëóíà âåñüìà ñó-
ùåñòâåííî ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ â èçìåíåíèè íàïðÿ-
æåííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ ïëàíåòû è êàê ñëåäñòâèå
 â ñèãíàëàõ èíòåíñèâíîñòè ýëåêòðîìàãíèò-
íîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ. Ýòè ïàðàìåòðû âíîñÿò îñî-
áåííîñòè êà÷åñòâåííîãî õàðàêòåðà â ðàçâè-
òèå ïðîöåññîâ ñæàòèÿðàñòÿæåíèÿ ïëàíåòû,
ðàçðóøåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðíûõ ñâÿçåé , ïîñêîëüêó
ïðè îïðåäåëåííîì ñî÷åòàíèè ïàðàìåòðîâ êî-
ëåáàòåëüíûå ïðîöåññû ñïîñîáíû , âåðîÿòíî ,
ïîðîæäàòü ÿâëåíèÿ ïîòåðè óñòîé÷èâîñòè è ðå-
çîíàíñíûå ñêà÷êè ëîêàëüíîãî íàïðÿæåííî-äå-
ôîðìèðîâàííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ. Ñ ýòîé òî÷êè çðå-
íèÿ, ìîíèòîðèíã åñòåñòâåííûõ ýëåêòðîìàãíèò-
íûõ èçëó÷åíèé (êîòîðûå îáúåêòèâíî ïðèñó-
ùè ïëàíåòå â öåëîì) è ó÷åò ñîáñòâåííûõ êî-
ëåáàíèé Çåìëè ïðè ïðîãíîçàõ ãåîäèíàìè÷åñ-
êèõ ïðîöåññîâ âî ìíîãèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ìîãóò îêà-
çàòüñÿ ïðèíöèïèàëüíî âàæíûìè.
Íà ðèñ. 6 âåðõíÿÿ ïàðà ãðàôèêîâ ñîîòâåò-
ñòâóåò ñãëàæåííîìó èñõîäíîìó ñèãíàëó. Âûäå-
ëÿþòñÿ ñëåäóþùèå âèäû êîëåáàíèé:
ñ ïåðèîäîì â îäíè ñîëíå÷íûå ñóòêè ;
ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî 14 ñóò ïåðèîäè÷-
íîñòü âîçìóùåíèÿ îðáèòàëüíîãî äâèæåíèÿ
Çåìëè âîêðóã áàðèöåíòðà â èíòåðâàëå ìå-
ñÿöà.
Îòìå÷àþòñÿ íåêîòîðûå ðàçëè÷èÿ â ýòèõ
äâóõ ïðîöåññàõ . Ñ ñåðåäèíû ìåñÿöà íàáëþ -
äàåòñÿ âîçìóùåíèå íà ïëàíåòó, íà êîòîðîå áî-
ëåå âûñîêèå øèðîòû ðåàãèðóþò áîëåå èíåðò-
íî, ñ áîëüøèì êîýôôèöèåíòîì çàòóõàíèÿ.
Çàêëþ÷åíèå. Ñîãëàñíî ïîëó÷åííûì ðåçóëü-
òàòàì , ñóùåñòâóþò êàíàëû êàê ñîáñòâåííûõ ,
òàê è êîñìè÷åñêèõ âîçäåéñòâèé íà êîëåáàòåëü-
íûå ïðîöåññû Çåìëè. Èíäèêàòîðîì ýòèõ ïðî-
öåññîâ ñëóæàò ôîíîâûå ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûå èç-
ëó÷åíèÿ Çåìëè.
 ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ïàðàäèãìîé âîçíèêíîâå-
íèÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ êîëåáàíèé â Çåìëå, ëþ-
áûå ñîáñòâåííûå êîëåáàíèÿ ïëàíåòû ïðèâî-
äÿò ê èçìåíåíèþ íàïðÿæåííî-äåôîðìèðîâàí-
íîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ è ãåíåðàöèè ýëåêòðîìàãíèò -
íîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ. Âñå ÷àñòîòû ñîáñòâåííûõ ìå-
õàíè÷åñêèõ êîëåáàíèé Çåìëè äîëæíû ïðîÿâ-
ëÿòüñÿ â ñïåêòðå ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷å-
íèÿ. Íà îñíîâàíèè íàáëþäåíèé çà âàðèàöè-
Ðèñ. 5. Èçìåíåíèÿ ñðåäíåãî çíà÷åíèÿ àêòèâíîñòè ñèãíàëà ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ â òå÷åíèå
ñóòîê íà ñòàíöèÿõ â Àíòàðêòèäå (ñïðàâà) è Óêðàèíå (ñëåâà) è åãî âåéâëåò-ðàçëîæåíèÿ: à  ñîáñò-
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Þ.À. ÁÎÃÄÀÍÎÂ
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In this paper we investigate uctuations of the repetition period of geomagnetic Pc1 pearl pulsations. Starting from calculated repetition period we present a general formula for the deviation of the repetition period as a function of wave frequency and stochastic parameters of the medium along the ray trace. We then apply this formula for a dipole magnetic field with a simple plasma distribution, and show that a linear correlation between repetition period and its deviation is predicted. This correlation and the frequency dependence of fluctuations are then compared with experimental values measured from selected Pc1 pearl events observed in Finland.
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Ëèíüêîâ Å. Ì. Äëèííîïåðèîäíûé ìàãíåòðîííûé ñåéñìîãðàô / / Èçâ. ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ. Ñåð. ãåîôèç. 1963. ¹ 9. Ñ. 13571360.
Îïûò ðåãèñòðàöèè äëèííîïåðèîäíûõ êîëåáàíèé ñ ïîìîùüþ ìàãíåòðîííîãî ñåéñìîãðàôà // Èññëåäîâàíèå äëèííîïåðèîäíûõ ñåéñìè÷åñêèõ âîëí / Ïîä ðåä
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