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THE EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL AS SKIN ANTI-AGING IN NANOEMULSION AND EMULSION PREPARATIONS

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Vol. 12 | No. 3 |1185 - 1194| July - September | 2019
ISSN: 0974-1496 | e-ISSN: 0976-
0083 | CODEN: RJCABP
http://www.rasayanjournal.com
http://www.rasayanjournal.co.in
Rasayan J. Chem., 12(3), 1185-1194(2019)
http://dx.doi.org/10.31788/RJC.2019.1235337
THE EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL AS
SKIN ANTI-AGING IN NANOEMULSION AND EMULSION
PREPARATIONS
Sumaiyah
1,
* and B.M. Leisyah
2
1
Department of Technology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nanomedicine Centre of
Innovation, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan-20155, Indonesia
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan-20155, Indonesia
*E-mail: sumaiyah@usu.ac.id
ABSTRACT
Grapeseed oil is rich in antioxidants and vitamin E which prevent the occurrence of skin aging. Nanoemulsion is an
effective technology for delivering grapeseed oil as an active ingredient due to its small droplet size, and can easily
penetrate through the skin layer. The objective of this study was to formulate grapeseed oil by variating its
concentration as an active ingredient in nanoemulsion as an anti-aging product and to find out the stability of
nanoemulsion during 8 weeks storage at different conditions. Nanoemulsion was made from three formulas using
the variation of grapeseed oil concentration (2%; 4%; 6%), and 30% of tween 80 and 15% of PEG 400 as surfactant
and co-surfactant. The stability evaluation was observed during 8 weeks of storage. The anti-aging activity was
conducted to 18 volunteers. The result showed that all nanoemulsion formulas were stable during 8 weeks storage.
Nanoemulsions were also stable during cycling test for 12 days. The particle size of nanoemulsion containing
grapeseed oil 2%, 4%, and 6%, in the beginning, were 137.49 nm, 160.01 nm, and 163.82, respectively, and had
increased after 8 weeks storage. The result of the anti-aging activity of nanoemulsion had higher effect compared to
the emulsion in all parameters of skin condition. Grapeseed oil 2%, 4% and 6% can be formulated as nanoemulsion
as an anti-aging product and nanoemulsion is the most stable preparations compared to emulsion during 8 weeks
storage and nanoemulsion has better anti-aging activity compared to the emulsion.
Keywords: Grapeseed Oil, Antioxidant, Nanoemulsion, Anti-aging.
© RASĀYAN. All rights reserved
INTRODUCTION
Skin is one of the body organ located outside the human body. This organ will be in direct contact with
the environment. It acts by protecting the body from damage or bad environmental impact. The skin has
an important role in protecting the internal part of the body from direct contact with the external
environment, physically or mechanically, chemically, sun (ultraviolet) and microbial
1
.
Signs and symptoms of premature aging can be happened on all over human body organ, mainly on the
skin
2
. This process including skin becomes dry and thin, fine wrinkles, and skin pigmentation (age spot)
showed up. Otherwise, photo aging process is related to decreasing of collagen and elastin fibers due to
excessive UV light exposure. This can cause skin damage because of the occurrence of a proteolytic
enzyme from free radical that formed. Furthermore, this enzyme breaks the collagen and also connecting
tissue under the dermis skin
3
.
Anti-aging treatment will be done better as soon as possible when all of the cell function is still healthy
and well-functioned. With the advances of technology and cosmetology sciences, reduction and
prevention of aging can be done and skin will look younger
4
.
Grapeseed oil contains beneficial antioxidant for skin care. Antioxidants contained in it are vitamin E and
oligomeric proanthocianidins (OPC). OPC has a function to prevent free radical which damages the skin.
It also repairs collagens damaged by free radical, so it prevents wrinkles
5
. Vitamin E in grapeseed oil is
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
also beneficial for skin, whereas vitamin E helps to moisturize the skin, improving skin elasticity, and
reducing wrinkles
6
.
Nanoemulsion is oil in water dispersion system which is stabilized by interfacial layer from surfactant
molecule. The dispersion between two transparent insoluble fluid is stable thermodynamically with the
usual particle size in the range of 10-500 nm, has extensive stability, easy to make, and the high solubility
of this drug molecule made this technique as a promising system in drug delivery
7
. Nanoemulsion does
not have creaming, sedimentation, and flocculation or coalescence compare to the macroemulsion
8
. This
also potentially acts as a carrier in topical medicine because it optimizes the dispersion of active substance
in skin layers
9
.
Grapeseed oil is a yellowish colored and deodorized oil which high in linoleic acid (omega 6) in the range
of 60% - 70%, 12% - 27% of oleic acid, 3% - 6% of stearic acid, 6% - 8% of palmitic acid, and also rich
in antioxidant so it is well used in cosmetic formulation
10
. Grapeseed oil has a great content of vitamin E,
ranging from 1 to 53 mg per 100 g of oil and 148 - 358 α-tocopherol equivalents which are higher than
that of soybean oil and olive oil
11
.
Based on the background stated above, the researcher was interested to
do a study in comparing effectivity of nanoemulsion and emulsion containing antioxidant of grapeseed oil
as an anti-aging product.
EXPERIMENTAL
Materials and Methods
Materials used in this study are grapeseed oil (Pietro Coricelli), tween 80, PEG 400, methyl paraben,
propyl paraben, distilled water, acid pH buffer 4.01 (Hanna Instrument), neutral pH buffer 7.01 (Hanna
Instrument), span 80, propylene glycol, CMC Na, and glycerin.
Preparation of Nanoemulsion
Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil was made using spontaneous emulsification method, and the
formula was modified by variating the concentration of active ingredient which was grapeseed oil (Table-
1). All materials were prepared and weighed. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben were then diluted into
distilled water and heated on the hotplate until all were fully diluted. After that, tween 80 and PEG 400
were added into the mixture of methyl paraben and propyl paraben after the solution was cooled down.
This was called as water phase. The water phase was stirred manually using a stirring bar and continued
by using magnetic stirrer until it was homogeneous. Grapeseed oil as the oil phase was added into water
phase by dripping it little by little using drop pipette, then the mixture was homogenized using magnetic
stirrer for 6 hours until a clear and transparent nanoemulsion was formed. After that, nanoemulsion was
sonicated for 30 minutes.
Table-1: Formula of Nanoemulsion Containing Grapeseed Oil
Materials Formula
F1A F2A F3A
Grapeseed Oil (%) 2 4 6
Tween 80 (%) 30 30 30
PEG 400 (%) 15 15 15
Methly Paraben (%) 0.3 0.3 0.3
Propyl Paraben (%) 0.6 0.6 0.6
Distilled water ad 100 100 100
Notes:
F1A: Nanoemulsion containing 2% of Grapeseed oil
F2A: Nanoemulsion containing 4% of Grapeseed oil
F3A: Nanoemulsion containing 6% of Grapeseed
oil
Preparation of Emulsion
The formula of the emulsion was modified by variating the concentration of active ingredient which was
grapeseed oil (Table-2). All materials were prepared and weighed. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben
were added into beaker glass containing distilled water. Those were then heated until all of the materials
were diluted. The mixture was cooled down, and then added into porcelain cup containing tween 80,
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
propylene glycol, and glycerin. This was called as water phase. After that, grapeseed oil and span 80 were
weighed inside another porcelain cup and then heated. This was called as oil phase.
CMC Na was poured into a hot mortar containing hot water and let it stored for approximately 20
minutes, then it was crushed until homogeneous. After that, the water phase was added into the mortar
and crushed until homogen, and followed by the addition of oil phase little by little and crushed until the
emulsion was formed.
Table-2: Formula of Emulsion Containing Grapeseed Oil
Materials Formula
F1B F2B F3B
Grapeseed Oil (%) 2 4 6
Tween 80 (%) 1.26 1.26 1.26
Span 80 (%) 3.73 3.73 3.73
Methly Paraben (%) 0.1 0.1 0.1
Propyl Paraben (%) 0.02 0.02 0.02
Propylene glycol (%) 10 10 10
Glycerin (%) 13 13 13
CMC Na (%) 1 1 1
Distilled water ad 100 100 100
F1B: emulsion containing 2% of Grapeseed oil, F2B: emulsion containing 4% of Grapeseed oil, F3B: emulsion
containing 6% of Grapeseed oil
Physical Stability Test
The physical stability test was done by storing the preparation in low temperature, room temperature, and
high temperature for 8 weeks. Then observed organoleptic (color changes, odor, phase separation,
clarity)
12
, homogeneity test
13
, pH measurement
14
, viscosity, emulsion type test
15
,
centrifuge test
16
, and
particle size measurement.
Skin Irritation Test
This experiment was conducted on 18 volunteers to find out whether the preparations that were made can
cause skin redness, itchy or swollen skin. Cosmetics were applied behind the ear, then left for 24 hours
and the changes that occur in the form of skin redness, itchy or swollen skin were observed
17
.
Anti-aging Activity Test
Evaluation of Anti-aging Activity was done to 18 female volunteers.The test was done on the face skin.
Volunteers were divided into 6 groups. Firstly, initial skin condition was examined using skin analyzer
(moisture, evenness, skin pore, spot, and wrinkle). Application of nanoemulsion and emulsion were done
by applying nanoemulsion and emulsion into face evenly. Nanoemulsion and emulsion were applied two
times (day and night) per day for 4 weeks. Skin condition was measured every week for 4 weeks using
skin analyzer.
Data Analysis
Data result of the research is analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution) 21. The
distribution of data is firstly analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Test to know the anti-aging effectivity of skin
between all of the formula. After that, for knowing the effect of formulas towards skin condition for 4
weeks treatment, Mann-Whitney Test is used.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Nanoemulsion Preparations
Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil was made in this research using modified standard formula
18
. The
modified formula is made by variating the concentration of grapeseed oil in 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6 %,
and when it came to 7% and 8%, a clear and transparent nanoemulsion was not obtained. So in this
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
research, the concentrations of 2%, 4%, and 6% were used. The preparations obtained have a soft yellow
color, clear and transparent solution, and had no odor.
Emulsion Preparations
The emulsion was made based on a formula from previous research
19
, which was then modified by
variating the concentrations of grapeseed oil into 2%, 4% and 6%. Samples obtained were having white
color and had a specific odor.
Physical Stability
All of the formulations were evaluated starts from week 0, in order to compare the physical condition of
nanoemulsion before and after through stability evaluation using physical parameters. Based on the
evaluation, all of the formulas could be seen as stable preparations at low temperature, room temperature,
and high temperature. Physical appearance did not show any changes and there were no phase separation
and changes of preparation becoming cloudy occur. This showed that surfactant and co-surfactant
concentrations were enough to make a stable nanoemulsion
20
. Meanwhile, emulsion showed some
physical changes that mean emulsion was not stable
21
.
Homogeneity Test
A certain amount of sample is applied on a piece of glass or other suitable transparent material must show
a homogeneous composition and no visible coarse grain of the sample
13
. In both nanoemulsion and
emulsion preparations showed none of the coarse grain, so it could be concluded that both preparations
obtained were homogeneous.
pH Measurement
pH value of a topical preparation must be in a range of pH that is suitable for skin, which is 4.5-7.0. the
pH of preparations can’t be too acid because it can cause skin irritation and also can’t be too base because
it can lead to flaky skin
17
. Based on the result of pH measurement for 8 weeks at room temperature
(Table-3) were changed. However, those pH changes were not changing significantly and still on the
range of skin pH. This showed that the pH of these 4 formulations was relatively stable.
Table-3: pH Result of Nanoemulsion and Emulsion Containing Grapeseed Oil at Room Temperature for 8 Weeks
F1A: Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 2%, F2A: Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 4%, F3A:
Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 6%, F1B: Emulsion containing grapeseed oil 2%, F2B: Emulsion containing
grapeseed oil 4%, F3B: Emulsion containing grapeseed oil 6%
Viscosity Test
Viscosity test for nanoemulsion in room temperature showed an increasing value on week 8 which
showed that the formula became thicker as the length of storage time (Table-4). The viscosity of
preparation was affected by several factors, there were factors of mixing process during the making of
preparations, choosing thickening agent and surfactant, the proportion of dispersed phase and particle
pH
Formula
Period (Weeks)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
F1A 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.2
F2A 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3
F3A 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4
F1B 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.4
F2B 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5
F3B 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
size. The increasing of viscosity on nanoemulsions might happen because the room temperature was quite
low. Viscosity was inversely proportional with temperature
15
.
If the temperature was decreased then the
viscosity will increase and preparations becoming thick, and vice versa. In the other hand, the viscosity of
emulsion during 8 weeks storage was decreased. This showed that emulsion was not stable kinetically
where the droplets can freely moving will collide each other and tend to fuse
16
.
Table-4: Nanoemulsion and Emulsion Viscosity Test Result
Viscosity
(cp)
Formula Period (Weeks)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
F1A 125 125 155 155 175 175 225 250 250
F2A 150 150 175 225 225 325 325 375 400
F3A 210 210 275 275 325 350 425 500 550
F1B 6650 6650 6500 6450 6350 6150 6050 5850 5750
F2B 6750 6750 6650 6600 6400 6250 5950 5800 5800
F3B 6800 6800 6700 6650 6450 6250 6000 5900 5850
F1A: Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 2%, F2A: Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 4%, F3A:
Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 6%, F1B: Emulsion containing grapeseed oil 2%, F2B: Emulsion containing
grapeseed oil 4%, F3B: Emulsion containing grapeseed oil 6%
Emulsion Type Testing
Determining emulsion type of preparation was done by adding methylene blue into the sample little by
little, if it was diluted during stirring process, means that was an oil in water (o/w) emulsion type
22
.
Nanoemulsion and emulsion showed a homogeneous blue color of methylene blue which means they
were oil in water (o/w) preparations. This can because of the most of compounds contained in the formula
were hydrophilic or polar, so when there was a hydrophobic compound, the type of both nanoemulsion
and emulsion were oil in water (o/w) type.
Centrifuge Test
Centrifuge test is intended to know the stability of nanoemulsion and emulsion preparations. Centrifuge
process on the speed of 3800 rpm for 5 hours is equivalent with gravitation effect for approximately 1
year. Nanoemulsion and emulsion were centrifuged on 3800 rpm for 5 hours. After the test had been
done, there were no changes in nanoemulsion (Fig.-1) which meant nanoemulsion was stable for 1 year.
Meanwhile, the physical properties of emulsion were changed after the centrifuge process. Phase
separation was showing on emulsion that meant it was not stable physically.
Particle Size Measurement
Based on particle size measurement using Particle Size Analyzer, the particle size of nanoemulsion
containing grapeseed oil 2%, 4%, and 6%, in the beginning, were 137.49 nm, 160.01 nm, and 163.82 and
had increased after 8 weeks storage (Table-5).
Table-5: Determination of Average Nanoemulsion Particle Size
F1A: Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 2%, F2A: Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 4%, F3A:
Nanoemulsion containing grapeseed oil 6%
PEG 400 used as co-surfactant in the concentration of 10-20% could obtain a clear and stable
nanoemulsion (Fig-1) and a droplet size < 100 nm
23
. The result showed that not all of the samples were
No Formula Particle Size Distribution (nm)
Week 0 Week 4 Week 8
1 F1A 137.49 230.37 378.42
2 F2A 160.01 251.92 410.51
3 F3A 163.82 343.60 438.50
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
having particle size < 100 nm before and after they were stored, but the particle size was still regarding
particle size standardization of nanoemulsion that was 2-500 nm
24
.
This theory was also convinced by research that nanoemulsion was oil in water emulsion which had a
range of droplet size from 100-500 nm. Commonly the average droplet size was in the range of 100-500
nm
25
.
Fig.-1: Physical Evaluation of Nanoemulsion and Emulsion Containing Grapeseed Oil 2%; 4%; 6% after Centrifuge
Test
Skin Irritation Test
Based on the result that was done to 18 volunteers by applying nanoemulsion and emulsion on the back of
the ear, this showed a negative result on parameters of skin irritation. Those parameters are red, itchy, and
swollen skin. This meant that both nanoemulsion and emulsion were safe to be used on human skin
17
.
Anti-aging Activity Result
Moisture
Nanoemulsion containing 6% grapeseed oil (F3A) had the highest improvement from week 0 to week 4
compared to all formulations (Fig.-2). But if compared nanoemulsion and emulsion grouped in the same
concentration, all of the nanoemulsion formulas always had a higher improvement compared to emulsion
(F1A compared to F1B; F2A compared to F2B; F3A compared to F3B).
27
30
33
36
39
42
45
01234
Moisture
Time (weeks)
F1A (2%)
F2A(4%)
F3A (6%)
F1B (2%)
F2B (4%)
F3B (6%)
Fig.-2: Chart of Moisture Level Improvement Towards Volunteer’s Skin
entrifuge Test
After C
entrifuge Test
Nanoemulsion
Emulsion
entrifuge Test
Af
ter
C
entrifuge Test
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
The moisture data were then analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test to know the effectivity of
each formula towards skin moisture. On the initial condition (Week 0), there was no significant
improvement in moisture level (p > 0.05) but on the application in week 1, 2, 3, and 4 showed a
significant improvement in skin moisture (p < 0.05). Next, a Mann-Whitney test was done to know the
difference between nanoemulsion and emulsion grouped by the same concentration. Based on this test,
application of sample on week 1, 2, and 3 did not have any significant difference (p > 0.05) while on the
fourth week showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between formula F1B emulsion and formula F1A
nanoemulsion, as well as formula F2B emulsion and F2A nanoemulsion. Meanwhile, the application
between formula F3B emulsion and F3A nanoemulsion showed a significant difference from the second
week until the fourth week.
Evenness and Pore
F3A had the highest improvement from week 0 to week 4 compared to all formulations (Fig.-3 and Fig.-
4). But if compared nanoemulsion and emulsion grouped in the same concentration, all of the
nanoemulsion formulas had a higher improvement compared to emulsion (F1A compared to F1B; F2A
compared to F2B; F3A compared to F3B). Dry and rough skin is a general sign of premature aging. When
there is an overexposed skin to sunlight, collagen and elastin inside the skin layer will be damaged,
causing an accumulation of dead skin, making skin looks rougher. Besides that, the skin will feel rough,
dull, and scaly because of the ability of the skin to do cell regeneration is decreasing
17
.
27
30
33
36
39
42
45
01234
Evenness
Time (weeks)
F1A (2%)
F2A(4%)
F3A (6%)
F1B (2%)
F2B (4%)
F3B (6%)
Fig.-3: Chart of Evenness Level Improvement Towards Volunteer’s Skin
24
27
30
33
36
39
42
45
48
0
1
2
3
4
Pore Size
Time (weeks)
F1A
(2%)
F2A(4%)
F3A
(6%)
F1B
(2%)
Fig.-4: Chart of Pore Size Improvement Towards Volunteer’s Skin
The enlarged pore can be caused by too much sunlight exposure, increasing temperature causing damaged
collagen at the same time which leads to decreasing of skin wall and pore enlargement
26,27
. Accumulation
of dead skin cell will trigger the appearance of acne and also affecting pore size. Vitamin E in grapeseed
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
oil can release dead skin cell, stimulates cell regeneration then also catch free radicals, and smaller the
skin pore size.
Spots
Hyperpigmentation is a condition in which melanin is synthesized excessively. This happens because of
the amount of exposure to sunlight (UV light) so that melanocyte cells initiate melanin synthesis. The
more sunlight exposure to the skin causes more active melanin formation and leads to the formation of
dark brown stain spots on the skin
28
. F3A had the highest improvement from week 0 to week 4 compared
to all formulations (Fig.-5). But if compared nanoemulsion and emulsion grouped in the same
concentration, all of the nanoemulsion formula had a higher improvement compared to emulsion (F1A
compared to F1B; F2A compared to F2B; F3A compared to F3B).
Fig.-5: Chart of Spots Improvement Towards Volunteer’s Skin
Antioxidant activity of vitamin E from grapeseed oil prevents skin irritation and aging, which vitamin E
inhibits tyrosinase in vitro and melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. The properties of vitamin E that
interfere with the peroxidation of melanocyte lipid membranes can increase intracellular glutathione.
According to in vivo studies, vitamin E inhibits melanogenesis of normal human melanocytes in culture
media, although it does not affect the synthesis of melanin in the enzyme solution as a homogeneous cell.
In addition, vitamin E stimulates the synthesis of intracellular glutathione (GSH) that can provide a
depigmentation effect
29
.
Wrinkles
The formation of wrinkles is caused by various internal and external factors. Sunlight, especially UV light
A is known to be one of the biggest causes and contributors in the process of wrinkle formation, but there
are also other causes such as environmental stresses on the skin including dryness, physical stress, and
exposure to chemicals. The occurrence of wrinkles is thought to result from decreased skin strength and
elasticity caused by reduced moisture content of the stratum corneum, thickening of the stratum corneum,
epidermal atrophy, changes in the amount and quality of dermal collagen, elastin fibers, and collagen
elasticity, as well as changes in the three dimensional structure of the dermis and other changes resulting
from external and internal factors
30
. This chart below (Fig.-6) showed that F3A (nanoemulsion containing
6% grapeseed oil) had the highest improvement from week 0 to week 4 compared to all formulations. But
if compared nanoemulsion and emulsion grouped in the same concentration, all of the nanoemulsion
formulas had a higher improvement compared to emulsion (F1A compared to F1B; F2A compared to
F2B; F3A compared to F3B).
Nanoemulsions have recently become increasingly important as potential vehicles for the controlled
delivery of cosmetics and for the optimized dispersion of active ingredients in particular skin layers. Due
to their lipophilic interior, nanoemulsions are more suitable for the transport of lipophilic compounds than
Vol. 12 | No. 3 |1185 - 1194| July - September | 2019
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EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT OF GRAPESEED OIL Sumaiyah and B.M. Leisyah
liposomes. Similar to liposomes, they support the skin penetration of active ingredients and thus increase
their concentration in the skin. Another advantage is the small-sized droplet with its high surface area
allowing effective transport of the active to the skin. Furthermore, nanoemulsions gain increasing interest
due to their own bioactive effects. This may reduce trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), indicating that
the barrier function of the skin is strengthened. Nanoemulsions are acceptable in cosmetics because there
are no inherent creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, or coalescence that are observed with
macroemulsions. The incorporation of potentially irritating surfactants can often be avoided by using high
energy equipment during manufacturing
31
.
Nanoemulsion technology is also an effective method for delivering grapeseed oil as an active ingredient
due to its small droplet size, nanoemulsion can easily penetrate through the skin layer and can increase
penetration of active ingredients, resulting in grapeseed oil activity in reducing fine lines become more
effective.
35
38
41
44
47
50
0 1 2 3 4
Wrinkle
Time (weeks)
F1A (2%)
F2A(4%)
F3A (6%)
F1B (2%)
F2B (4%)
F3B (6%)
Fig.-6: Chart of Wrinkle Improvement Towards Volunteer’s Skin
CONCLUSION
Grapeseed oil can be formulated as nanoemulsion and emulsion by variating the concentration of
grapeseed oil into F1 (2%), F2 (4%), and F3 (6%). All of the formula of nanoemulsion showed a clear,
soft yellow and stable form during 8 weeks storage process in three conditions (low, room, and high
temperatures). Nanoemulsion was also stable during the cycling test process for 12 days. In the other
hand, emulsion preparation was not stable during the physical evaluation for 8 weeks. Nanoemulsion
containing 2%, 4% and 6% of grapeseed had the highest anti-aging effectivity compared to an emulsion
containing grapeseed oil 2%, 4% and 6%, by the improvement of each skin aging parameters that was
moisture level, evenness, pore size, amount of spots and wrinkles.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research was facilitated by the Faculty of the Pharmacy University of Sumatera Utara in 2018.
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[RJC-5337/2019]
... The tests of the KA nanoemulsions included accelerated storage stability under centrifugal force, freeze-thaw cycles, as well as under conditions of high heat and cold. To enable comparison, each sample's initial conditions, such as appearance, color, fragrance, pH, and viscosity, were recorded before each test [21][22]. ...
... However, a condition for better hydration is pH < 5.0 compared to skin with pH > 5.0. Conversely, a higher pH on the skin surface tends to intensify itching and skin dryness [22][23]. Thus, a slightly acidic skin surface protects against a myriad of invading microorganisms and offers better resistance against SLS-induced irritant dermatitis [25]. ...
... Moreover, grapeseed oil contains antioxidants, which include vitamin E and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. These components help reduce wrinkles by repairing collagen damaged by free radicals, moisturizing the skin, and enhancing skin elasticity [22]. The bulk physicochemical characteristics of the oil phase, for example, viscosity, are also important factors when preparing stable nanoemulsions. ...
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... Eucalyptus oil has virusfighting properties, and essential oil-based ingredients such as balm, inhalers, and diffusers reduce virus transmission (Sienkiewicz et al. 2011). Grapeseed oil strengthens connective tissues along with its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and healing properties (Sumaiyah and Leisyah 2019). Green tea and black tea molecules were found to inhibit virus entry (Carneiro et al. 2016;Mahmood et al. 2016;Ohgitani et al. 2021). ...
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The paper provides an overview of biocosmetics, which has tremendous potential for growth and is attracting huge business opportunities. It emphasizes the immediate need to replace conventional fossil-based ingredients in cosmetics with natural, safe, and effective ingredients. It assembles recent technologies viable in the production/extraction of the bioactive ingredient, product development, and formulation processes, its rapid and smooth delivery to the target site, and fosters bio-based cosmetic packaging. It further explores industries that can be a trailblazer in supplying raw material for extraction of bio-based ingredients for cosmetics, creating biodegradable packaging, or weaving innovation in fashion clothing. Lastly, the paper discusses what it takes to become the first generation of a circular economy and supports the implementation of strict regulatory guidelines for any cosmetic sold globally.
... [14][15][16] However, the biogenesis of these compounds has not been thoroughly understood. It seems that the coupling of regioisomeric modes g skeleton that can undergo various reaction then The investigations that some resveratrol including antioxidant [18][19][20] , antimicrobial various enzyme, antihypertension scientific interest in these resveratrol derivatives. in small amounts from natural product extracts, and evaluation of its monomer (trans resveratrol derivatives have been well studied. ...
... Experimental animals have shaved the back hair in 3 cm × 3 cm, measured at the initial of the skin condition with various skin parameters (wrinkle, melanin, pore, humidity, and elasticity) using a skin analyzer. Red passion fruit peel Experimental animals were applied the gel to the skin (which has been shaved the back hair) with frequency twice daily (at 06.00 and 18.00), exposed to sunlight between 06.00 and 18.00, observed the changes in skin conditions (wrinkle, melanin, pore, humidity, and elasticity) measured every 7 days for 28 days, and analyzed the results of research data using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program using one-way analysis of variance/one-way ANOVA [8]. ...
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Nanoemulsions have attracted considerable attention in recent years for application in personal care products as potential vehicles for the controlled delivery of cosmetics and the optimized dispersion of active ingredients in particular skin layers. Of the many techniques that have been developed to measure droplet size of emulsions, 2 are of interest: laser light scattering and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy used to measure the size of droplets in a nanoemulsion formed by a novel emulsifying agent that is able to spontaneously create emulsions with droplet sizes smaller than 300 nm.
Anti-aging Secrets of Appearing Young in All Ages
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Tips For Staying Young
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Grape Seed Extract-a Therapeutic Review
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K. N. Sravanthi, R. Unnisa, Y. Prashanth, M. Sudhakar, Grape Seed Extract-a Therapeutic Review, International Journal of Pharmacy, 3(2), 323(2013).