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ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TECTONICS PROCESSES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING OF THE EARTH CRUST IN ANTARCTIC REGION

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This paper discusses the problems of the natural Earth pulse electromagnetic radiation occurrence and it's usage for the Earth interior exploration. The main attention is paid to radiation of the radiowave diapason (from ~1 kHz to ~1 MHz) which sources is located inside the Earth lithosphere. The nonlinear aspect of mechanic-electromagnetic interaction and electromagnetic wave propagation is discussed. The different models of such a radiation generation and propagation are considered. We have proposed the model of such radiation generation based on the initiation of optical vibrations of complex crystal lattice and therefore associated electromagnetic oscillations that appear due to formation and movement of point, linear (dislocation) and volume (microcracks, pores) defects of crystals. In solid state physics the electromagnetic radiation associated with inherent (optical) lattice vibrations is called polariton radiation. As long as intensity of defect creation is in direct proportion to deformation of the crystal, the intensity of the signal generated will be maximal in maximal deformation zones of the Earth crust. This fact allows the application of this radiation for the Earth crust structure study. Referring to polariton emission, the strained rock is active medium, i.e. the existence of radiation stimulates creation and vanishing of defects leading to radiation amplification. Such mechanism of non-linear amplification of electromagnetic waves together with "transparency windows" existence may explain the observed ultraweak attenuation of such electromagnetic waves in the Earth crust. In this work, we gave the examples of geopolariton radiation usage for investigations of the glaciers in Antarctic region.
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171
ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TECTONICS PROCESSES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC
PROFILING OF THE EARTH CRUST IN ANTARCTIC REGION
1, 2 3 4 2
Pavlovych V.M. , Bogdanov Yu.A. , Shuman V.M. , Vaschenko V.M.
1
Institute for Nuclear Research of NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
2
National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ministry for Science and Education of Ukraine, Kyiv,
Ukraine
3
Yugneftegazgeologia ltd., Odessa, Ukraine
4
Subbotin Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Abstract. This paper discusses the problems of the natural Earth pulse electromagnetic radiation occurrence and
it's usage for the Earth interior exploration. The main attention is paid to radiation of the radiowave diapason
(from ~1 kHz to ~1 MHz) which sources is located inside the Earth lithosphere. The nonlinear aspect of mechanic
– electromagnetic interaction and electromagnetic wave propagation is discussed. The different models of such a
radiation generation and propagation are considered. We have proposed the model of such radiation generation
based on the initiation of optical vibrations of complex crystal lattice and therefore associated electromagnetic
oscillations that appear due to formation and movement of point, linear (dislocation) and volume (microcracks,
pores) defects of crystals. In solid state physics the electromagnetic radiation associated with inherent (optical)
lattice vibrations is called polariton radiation. As long as intensity of defect creation is in direct proportion to
deformation of the crystal, the intensity of the signal generated will be maximal in maximal deformation zones of
the Earth crust. This fact allows the application of this radiation for the Earth crust structure study.
Referring to polariton emission, the strained rock is active medium, i.e. the existence of radiation stimulates
creation and vanishing of defects leading to radiation amplification. Such mechanism of non-linear amplification
of electromagnetic waves together with “transparency windows” existence may explain the observed ultraweak
attenuation of such electromagnetic waves in the Earth crust.
In this work, we gave the examples of geopolariton radiation usage for investigations of the glaciers in Antarctic
region.
Key words: spontaneous electromagnetic emission, litosphere, mantle, glasier, Antarctica
Àííîòàöèÿ. Â ñòàòüå îáñóæäàþòñÿ âîïðîñû âîçíèêíîâåíèÿ åñòåñòâåííîãî èìïóëüñíîãî ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîãî
èçëó÷åíèÿ Çåìëè è åãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ äëÿ èññëåäîâàíèÿ çåìíûõ íåäð. Îñíîâíîå âíèìàíèå óäåëÿåòñÿ
ðàäèîèçëó÷åíèþ â äèàïàçîíå 1êÃö – 1 ÌÃö, èñòî÷íèêè êîòîðîãî ðàñïîëîæåíû â ëèòîñôåðå. Îáñóæäàþòñÿ
íåëèíåéíûå àñïåêòû ìåõàíî-ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ òðàíñôîðìàöèé è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ âîëí.
Ðàññìîòðåíû ðàçëè÷íûå ìîäåëè ãåíåðàöèè è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ýòèõ âîëí. Íàìè ïðåäëîæåíà ìîäåëü ãåíåðàöèè
èçëó÷åíèÿ, îñíîâàííàÿ íà âîçáóæäåíèè îïòè÷åñêèõ êîëåáàíèé ñëîæíûõ êðèñòàëëè÷åñêèõ ðåøåòîê, à çíà÷èò è
ñâÿçàííûõ ñ íèìè ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ êîëåáàíèé, ïðè âîçíèêíîâåíèè è äâèæåíèè òî÷å÷íûõ, ëèíåéíûõ
(äèñëîêàöèè) è îáúåìíûõ (ìèêðîòðåùèíû, ïîðû) äåôåêòîâ êðèñòàëëîâ. Â ôèçèêå òâåðäîãî òåëà
ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíîå èçëó÷åíèå, ñâÿçàííîå ñ ñîáñòâåííûìè (îïòè÷åñêèìè) êîëåáàíèÿìè ðåøåòêè, íàçûâàþò
ïîëÿðèòîííûì èçëó÷åíèåì. Ïîñêîëüêó èíòåíñèâíîñòü ðîæäåíèÿ äåôåêòîâ ïðîïîðöèîíàëüíà äåôîðìàöèè
êðèñòàëëà, òî èíòåíñèâíîñòü ãåíåðèðóåìîãî ñèãíàëà áóäåò ìàêñèìàëüíîé â ìåñòàõ ìàêñèìàëüíîé äåôîðìàöèè
êîðû. Ýòîò ôàêò ïîçâîëÿåò ïðèìåíÿòü ñïîíòàííîå èçëó÷åíèå äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ ñòðóêòóðû çåìíîé êîðû.
Ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê èñïóñêàíèþ ïîëÿðèòîíîâ íàïðÿæåííûå ãîðíûå ïîðîäû ÿâëÿþòñÿ àêòèâíîé ñðåäîé, ò.å.
ñóùåñòâîâàíèå èçëó÷åíèÿ ñïîñîáñòâóåò ðîæäåíèþ è óíè÷òîæåíèþ äåôåêòîâ, ÷òî ïðèâîäèò ê óñèëåíèþ
èçëó÷åíèÿ. Ýòîò ìåõàíèçì íåëèíåéíîãî óñèëåíèÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ âîëí ñîâìåñòíî ñ ñóùåñòâîâàíèåì «îêîí
ïðîçðà÷íîñòè» ìîæåò îáúÿñíèòü ñâåðõñëàáîå çàòóõàíèå ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíûõ âîëí â çåìíîé êîðå.
 ðàáîòå ïðèâåäåíû ïðèìåðû èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ãåîïîëÿðèòîííîãî èçëó÷åíèÿ äëÿ èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñòðóêòóðû
ëåäíèêîâ â Àíòàðêòèêå.
Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ñïîíòàííàÿ ýëåêòðîìàãíèòíàÿ ýìèññèÿ, ëèòîñôåðà, ìàíòèÿ, ëåäíèê, Àíòàðêòèêà
ÓÊÐÀ¯ÍÑÜÊÈÉ ÀÍÒÀÐÊÒÈ×ÍÈÉ
ÆÓÐÍÀË
ÓÀÆ ¹ 8, 171-185 (2009)
ÓÄÊ 550.384
172
1. Introduction
As experiment shows, there are the electromagnetic perturbation of the naturalå sources in the
Earth crust, oceans, atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere in the broad range of frequencies.
[Surkov, 2000; Gulielmi, 2007]. The most known and investigated are the electromagnetic waves with
periods 0,2 600 s ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves of different sources. While it
was shown experimentally that the lithosphere is emitted sufficiently high frequency (up to 1 MHz)
electromagnetic wave, interest to which is increased visibly in last years. This is due to new
possibilities in lithosphere structure study, investigation of physical processes inside the Earth,
earthquake prediction ets, which arise on the base of intensity and frequency analysis of such
radiation. The study of such phenomenon has the wide experimental and theoretical basis, although
there is some uncertainty of physical mechanisms of its generation and propagation. In particular, the
list of references on these questions consists hundreds of papers and tens of monographies, even brief
survey of which is of great difficulty. Therefore below we will refer mainly the review articles and first
of all the reviews by [Surkov, 2000; Gershenzon and Bambakidis, 2001; Gulielmy, 2006; 2007; 2008;
Bogdanov, 2007; Nenovsky, Boichev, 2004] should be mentioned.
It is known that the generation of the lithosphere electromagnetic signals can occurs
spontaneously (without direct dependence on seismic activity) and forcedly due to movement of rocks
during earthquakes [Levshenko, 1995]. Such a terminology conflicts with usual physical terminology
because, even in the absence of seismicity, there are the stresses in the Earth crust due to reciprocal
movement of the mantle and crust and different blocks of the crust. Just those stresses leads to
spontaneous emission origin. The frequency range of perturbations generating by the geological
-4 6
medium is quite wide from 10 to 10 Hz [Gogberg et al., 1985; Levsyenko, 1995; Surkov, 2000].
But traditionally only ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic perturbations of lithosphere origin
with periods 0.2 600 s were studied extensively [Surkov, 2000; Gulielmy, 2007; 2008]. In this
frequency range the width of skin-layer can exceed tens of kilometres, therefore the perturbations of
this type leave the generation area without sufficient absorption. Concerning the electromagnetic
radiation with frequencies of tens and hundreds of kHz, its skin-layer width is only tens hundreds of
meters. Seemingly, the radio radiation of high frequency range (3 kHz300 kHz) can not leave the
deep generation area due to strong absorption, and this is a reason of some authors scepticism
concerning such radiation utilisation in the study of deep located objects.
The conception of low frequency electromagnetic wave generation mechanism plurality is
widely dispersed [Surkov, 2000; Gulielmy, 2007]. But if the questions of forced (by seismic events)
electromagnetic radiation generation are studied sufficiently, the theoretical approaches to analysis of
spontaneous radiation are schematic and not definite [Shuman, 2007; 2008]. Let us note the main
difficulties emergent solving these questions. First, this is incompatibility of the scale of
electromagnetic radiation with a wave length of the order of tens meters and local character of its
excitation. Second, this is the explanation of the physical mechanism of its super long-distance
propagation from the places of origin to the points of registration at day surface or upper.
First difficulty has probably psychological geophysicalbase. Why nobody ask the question
3 5
when the atom of size ~1 À emits the light with wavelength ~10 À at electronic transitions and ~10 À
at vibration transitions. The second difficulty needs the well-founded physical explanation.
Before the further analysis, let us clarify the definitions. We will denote the mechanical vibration
of the medium as seismic vibration if its frequency is <1Hz. The mechanical vibrations with
frequencies between 1 Hz and 20 Hz is infrasound vibrations, between 20 Hz and 20 khz is sound
vibration, > 20 kHz is ultrasound. The last three types of vibrations are called acoustic vibrations.
Often in geophysical literature the concept of seismic vibrations is extended to lowfrequency acoustic
vibrations not defining frequency range, but only taking into account the source of its generation. In
long wave acoustic and seismic vibrations the neighbour atoms of medium vibrate practically in-
Pavlovych V.M.: ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TECTONICS PROCESSES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING...
173
phase, besides phase shift is increased with frequency increasing.
There is any more type of mechanical vibrations of crystal lattice, this is the optical vibrations.
They arise in crystals unit cell of which has more then one atom (geological medium is, as a rule,
polycrystalline medium with complex crystal lattice). They show themselves most vividly in ionic
crystals or in crystals with a great part of ionic bonds. The most materials of geological medium are
just such crystals. The neighbor atoms in the longwave optical vibration move in antiphase, so these
vibrations lead to crystal dipole moment change and therefore to the electromagnetic wave generation.
The vibrations of both types (acoustical and optical) excite during the mechanical impact to the
crystals. Therefore the expediency and necessity of mutual consideration of mechanical vibration
field and electromagnetic radiation becomes evident because they are connected together in
geological medium.
The mutual optical and electromagnetic vibrations in insulating crystals are called polariton
vibrations. This term is commonly accepted, included in all physical handbooks, and its non-
acceptance by many of geophysicists is surprising. Any electromagnetic wave in insulator in the range
of crystall eigenfrequency excites the optical vibration (and vice versa), and therefore the polariton
vibration appears in the crystal. Term “polariton” is compact, and its utilization for high frequency
electromagnetic wave indication in geological medium is well-taken from our point of view.
2. The geological medium models
One can suppose that at least two main factors can be considered as the fundamental base of
analysis of spontaneous lithosphere perturbation generation processes these are the model of
geological medium and the type of possible mechanic electromagnetic transformations. It is clear
that the medium which can generate seismic and electromagnetic waves can not be considered as a
continuum the inner self-similarity prove to be peculiar to geological medium [Stakhovsky, 2007]. It
consists of plurality of blocks of different size, which move as a single whole and interact one with
another during the movement. This interaction, mainly along the block boundaries, includes the
processes of crushing, volume and shift deformation and plastic yielding of individuals, linkage of
mechanical and physical nature and so on [Sadovsky, 1982; Danilenko, 1992; Dubrovsky, Sergeev,
2006; Starostenko et al., 2001].
The physical self-similarity (fractality [Mundelbrot, 2002]) always has the limits in the ranges
both of small and big scales, in contrast to mathematical fractals. The self-similarity of geological
medium is limited from the big scale side by the sizes of the Earth crust plates. These limits from the
small scale side are probably the sizes of crystal grains, of which polycrystalline Earth rocks consist.
The crystalline grains itself are not perfect crystals, they contain point, linear (dislocations) and
volume (pores, micro cracks) defects. It was supposed in the work [Stakhovsky, 2007, see also the
references in this work] that just the micro cracks in the rocks forms the fractal multitude, along which
the main rupture (earthquake) is developed. The quantity of defects of all types is increased due to
dynamical interaction between blocks comparing to the equilibrium crystals.
Geological medium is the thermodynamically nonequilibrium system. This nonequilibrium is
caused first of all by the relative movement of the mantle and the Earth crust and also by the relative
movement of different crust blocks. These movements lead to appearance of heterogeneous
mechanical stresses located mainly in the boundary layers of the blocks. These stresses very
frequently exceed the elastic limit what leads to new defect creation. As usual, the times of relaxation
are sufficiently large, so the stresses have no time to relax what cause the general nonequilibrium of
the system. In addition, the nonequilibrium arises due to existence of other physical fields, in
particular temperature field. As it is known (see for example [Glensdorf, Prigozhin, 1980]), the
different time and space structures can appear in strongly nonequilibrium system (dissipative
structures) which can impact and define to the processes of wave generation and propagation. Just
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174
such a creation of dissipative structure is called self-organization, and it is quite possible that the
formation of the fractal structure of the Earth crust is the manifestation of such a self-organization. The
last assumption should be proved at least at model level.
The presence inside the Earth crust of the energy active regions, which can lead to nonlinear
wave propagation effects, is frequently supposed in literature (see for example [Dmitrievsky et al.,
2006 2008]). The proposed mechanisms of the energy accumulation in such zones are, generally
speaking, insufficiently developed and sometimes are unphysical. But now nobody has doubts,
probably, that geological medium is nonlinear, and nonlinear waves can propagate in it. The physical
nature of nonlinearity can be different in every particular case in dependence on wave type and
frequency range.
The sufficient feature of geological medium is the existence of fluids. The term fluid itself
assumes the presence of fluid liquids. In many cases the fluid is simple mineralized water, frequently
in mixture with hydrocarbons saturated by gases and salts, which particular content is defined by the
content of surrounding rocks, temperature and pressure. In any case, the fluid is the conductive liquid
(or gas) which ñan move along the block boundaries (faults, cracks, grain boundaries and so on, in
general along the topologically connected regions). Just one connect with moving liquids the
existence of so called electrokinetic effects, i.e. the excitation of electromagnetic vibration due to
charged liquid movement. In the absence of catastrophic changes (earthquakes) such movement is
slow, caused by the gradient of different fields and can lead to excitation of the low frequency
electromagnetic vibrations in the ULF range only.
Thus the geological medium is nonequilibrium nonlinear heterogeneous fractal medium,
which complex geometry influences to all the processes occurring in this medium. It is known, for
example [Fractals in Physics, 1988], that the processes of diffusion, electroconductivity, wave
propagation and scattering proceed in such a medium in a way which differ from those in traditional
continuous medium. The geophysical application of such questions are now in embryo.
3. The mechanisms of the wave generation and propagation
The processes of the wave generation and propagation are closely connected in the nonlinear
systems (the geological medium is probably such a system). Many of the particular questions related
to the mechanisms of mechanical electromagnetic transformation (transformation of the rock
movement energy to the energy of electromagnetic radiation) in the wide range of frequency,
connection of intensity and frequency of radiation with the peculiarities of geological structure, are
still open and need further study. We will discuss below in more detail these processes concentrating
our attention on the physical aspects of problem of generation and possibilities to use obtained
regularities in geological applications, particularly in Antarctic region.
Let us consider first the linear models of generation. Gulielmi and Levshenko proposed in the
works [Gulielmi, 1995, 2007, 2008; Levshenko, 1995] the general linear equation of the seismo-
magnetic signal generation considering the Earth crust as porous water containing medium having
magnetic structure and lying in constant magnetic field of the Earth core. This equation describes the
excitation of the low frequency magnetic field
where ? the rock conductivity; c is the light velocity in vacuum;
;
(1)
Pavlovych V.M.: ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TECTONICS PROCESSES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING...
is the field of displacements;
,
,is the pressure parallel to axial load.
,
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is the unit volume magnetic moment;
Pavlovych V.M.: ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TECTONICS PROCESSES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING...
real propagation lines in geological medium. It should be noted that the appearing of the dispersion
window is an experimental results and its physical cause not obligatory lies in the frame of classic
linear electrodynamics.
The several models of generation and propagation were suggested in order to overcome the
noted difficulties. In particular, the hypothesis was presented in the frame of classic approach which
connects the ULF noise with both the creation of tensile cracks and dilatansion effect [Surkov, 2000].
It is important that the effective magnetic moments of all opening cracks are paralleled and directed
oppositely to the vector of geomagnetic field induction , what leades to the coherent amplification
of the ULF field of crack assembly. The obtained estimation gives that the time and spectral
characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation are defined by the dynamics of crack growth and their
concentration in the zone of medium destruction. The evaluation of the ULF noise amplitude in the
frame of this model is in agreement with experimental data obtained before some earthquakes. It
should be noted that the high frequency electromagnetic signals up to Roentgen frequencies are
generated during the crack opening. The high frequency acoustic vibrations are generated also.
Basing on the above consideration it is evident that one should solve the problem of radio
radiation generation and its super long-distance propagation leaning on the nonlinear theory of
transformation of the rock movement energy to the energy of electromagnetic field taking into account
the empirical regularities about its connection with the structure and dynamics of geological systems.
The several models were proposed in the frame of nonlinear theory.
One of them is based on the appearing of the optical vibrations of the complex lattices and
connected with them electromagnetic perturbations due to creation and movement of point, linear
(dislocations) and volume (pores, microcracks) defects of the crystals [Bogdanov, Pavlovych, 2008].
Since the intensity of defect creation is proportional to crystal deformation, then the intensity of
generated waves is maximal in the regions of greatest deformation of the Earth crust. At the same time,
the main question of superlong propagation of the electromagnetic perturbations can be solved on the
base of nonlinear mechanism of amplification of electromagnetic waves during their interaction with
defects of crystal lattice of the Earth crust substance which is in a thermodynamically nonequilibrium
state. In essence this mechanism is very close to mechanism of Dicke superradiation (see for example
[Men'shikov, 1999]), moreover microscopic consideration of this question leads to the Hamiltonian
very close to Dicke Hamiltonian.
The Dicke superradiation is the collective emission of the excited medium, and was first
discovered experimentally in astrophysics as radiation of Crab-like nebula which is the remains of
Supernova Star. In 1954 Dicke [Dicke, 1954] first have proposed the theory of superradiation, after
that this phenomenon was revealed in plasma, inverted solids, caesium vapour, and other excited
objects [Men'shikov, 1999]. Since the interior of the Earth is continuously in excited state due to
tectonic motion, especially in the fault zones, then the conditions for superradiation generation as a
source of natural electromagnetic field of the Earth are appeared.
The essence of the superradiation mechanism is the correlated interaction of the oscillators
with field leading to the cophased vibration of the oscillators and radiation appearing along the
direction of medium spread.
The linear dependence of the active medium size and intensity of radiation is peculiar for
spontaneous radiation of excited medium known as luminescence:
where I is the intensity of a single oscillator, n is the linear oscillator density, L is the spread of
0
the excited medium, is the frequency of radiation, is the character time of the
spontaneous transition E E .
2 1
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the plastic and brittle deformation of the rocks which also transfer the energy from interior the day
surface. The existence of the gradients of different fields originates the conditions for substance
transfer. This is transfer of gases and liquids in normal not catastrophic conditions. Thus the energy
transfers from interior to surface in the form of heat, electromagnetic, acoustic energy and energy of
moving substances of gases and liquids (fluids).
The main cause of fluid movement is the existence of physical field gradients. But other
transfer mechanisms are possible in noneqilibrium nonlinear media, for example, the effect of
Stepanov the enhanced movement of liquids through the capillary at the presence of ultrasound.
In general, the energy pumping into the geological medium promotes the forming of active
systems, characterizing by the nonlinear dynamics of physical field in common. In usual algorithm,
the equation system of macroscopic kinetics, which describe the fluid movement through the medium
in some field (temperature, electromagnetic, acoustic), allows the autowave solution in the form of
propagating front of fluid concentration. Additional energy pumping into the medium can lead to
appearing of the static, pulsed and running areas of fluid concentration, out of which the local energy
and fluid concentration keep practically constant. The electromagnetic and seismoacoustic fields
(pulses) generated and emitted from these local areas – solitary states or autosolitons – get the day
surface and can be detected by geophysics methods. Generally speaking, these considerations should
be illustrated by specific mathematical models accounting for the geophysical peculiarities.
Taking into account the above consideration, one can clearly understand the presented earlier
nonlinear equation of electromagnetic noise generation in excitable geological medium (system of
lithosphere blocks separated by weakened transition zones), which has localized immovable or
mobile solutions [Shuman, 2007; Shuman, Bogdanov, 2008a; Shuman, Bogdanov, 2008b]. This
equation generalize the known quasi stationary Maxwell equation. The concept of “trapped waves”
(generalized Rayleigh wave), propagating along the contact zones of lithosphere blocks (localized
nonequilibrium areas or volume deformation perturbations), is accepted as a starting “mechanical”
component of the model, which has the experimental grounds [Dubrovskii, Sergeev, 2006; Li et al.,
1990].
The generalized Rayleigh waves exponentially decay in direction perpendicular to the fault
plane and canalized by this plane, therefore they are called “trapped”. These waves can accept the
energy of the volume seismic waves. According to [Dubrovskii, Sergeev, 2006], this means the
increase of trapped wave amplitude and instability of the ground state of relative block slip. The
instability of slip along the faults in turn leads to solid deformation instability with sufficient decrease
of shift characteristics [Dubrovskii, Sergeev, 2006].
The trapped wave propagating along the fault formats the changes in complex dielectric
permittivity, and this wave of complex permittivity can be the source of transient radiation or
scattering [Ginzburg, Tsitovich, 1984]. This is a base of mechanic-electromagnetic transformation
concept accepted in the work [Shuman, Bogdanov, 2008b].
In general, the solution of the delivered problem is sufficiently complex. One should solve the
Maxwell equation system together with equation of trapped wave propagation along the boundary
between two media, at that it is necessary to insert the explicit form of permittivity dependence on the
trapped wave parameters to the Maxwell equations. If one takes into account that the solution,
corresponding to the observed in experiment [Li et al., 1990] random jump-like sliding of the
interface, was not obtained in explicit form, and the continuous sliding is instable, then the problem
becomes insoluble. But one can try to solve the problem with model dependence of permittivity in the
form of some time dependent random function, i.e. the problem of vibration parametric excitation by
random force.
In general, there is any more possibility of permittivity autowave change due to movement of
fluids. In geological medium with complex structure, there is the plurality of nonlinear interaction
between different physical fields. The static, pulse or propagating regions of fluid concentration can
178
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(2)
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define by the sinking depth of emitting element, and the signal amplitude gives the information about
physical properties of rocks along the way of it propagation.
It is experimentally revealed that the intensity of spontaneous electromagnetic radiation in
radiowave diapason (the number of pulses per unit time which amplitudes exceed the given threshold)
is characterized by the sufficient space inhomogeneous. The space size and shape of its anomaly can
serve as a base for the recovery of geophysical cross section geometry [Bogdanov et al, 2007;
Shuman, Bogdanov, 2008]. Besides, the radiation characteristics from the similar structures have the
close parameters independently on their location. One can use for recovery purpose both the change of
intensity along the profile of observation and the spectral components or wavelet transformations. As
it is known, the wavelet transformation permits to pick out the boundary of anomaly radiation zones,
to define their spacial sizes and to obtain the information about sinking depth of emitting object.
Let us illustrate the above consideration by examples of glacier structure in Antarctic region.
The investigations were held by “Tezey” device in 2005, 2007 on Galindez Island glacier during
season parts of Ukrainian Antarctic expeditions. The device is an analyzer of geopolariton field
activity (number of pulses with amplitude over 5mkV/m) with broadband frame antenna (the
magnetic component of electromagnetic field is detected perpendicular to the frame).
The coordinates and the height of the points were determined by GPS technology. The data
was written in DGPS controller constantly during measurements by profiling the Galindez Island
glacier. The profiles location (2005) is shown in fig.1.
Fig.1. Geopolariton sounding profiles.
The results are given as geopolariton radiation intensity maps (fig.2) and geological section by
A'-A line (fig.3, 4). The map (fig.2) shows structure failures of submeredional extent and sublatitude
arc-like failures that may be caused by glacier movement.
180
II
II
Pavlovych V.M.: ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TECTONICS PROCESSES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING...
Fig. 2. The geopolariton radiation intensity map on Galindez Island glacier. The contours show
glacier borders. The white lines on the left arc-like failures. On the left there is a fragment of watered
part of rock surface on depth of 22m from the glacier surface (shown in white).
As known, the line of maximal velocities of glacier movement is usually located in its middle.
Across the glacier from the axis the velocity decreases due to friction on bottom and walls of the
valley. In our case the arc-like failures may origin due to such velocities variations. The maximal
convexity zone of the failures detected (or perpendicular to arcs) shows on the glacier movement
direction in south-south-west.
A profile is constructed along the A'-A line (fig. 3) – from the north-north-west through central
glacier part to the east.
Fig. 3. Geophysical section through central glacier part by A'-A profile.
Here: 1-glacier cover, 2,3,4-lithologic borders, 5-rupture faults, 6-firn, 7-water-saturated floor.
The glacier lower border and a complex fault system both in glacier (cracks) and the Earth crust
are visible in the section. There are also two borders stand out in the glacier at depths of 10 and 20 m
from the glacier surface. Both borders quiet accurately repeat the glacier surface form and partially –
the underlying surface.
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It seems that they represent phases of glacier formation as snow turned to ice i.e. firn surface.
Presence of more than one firn may be associated with nonuniform glacier formation.
The cracks in the glacier partially inherited structural faults in the floor, partially formed by
ground relief and glacier movement. Some of the faults detected may be the strain zones and
correspondingly forming cracks.
There are signs of caves or broad cracks detected in majority on the glacier border and confined
to intersection of cracks and detected layers inside ice.
The sub-vertical cracks with the slope corresponding to the floor slope dominate in case of the
ice thickness is large. The slope increases in the case of glacier thickness is small. We may guess that
both movement types are characteristic for the given glacier: the viscous-plastic flow and the lump
sliding on glacier bed. The first movement type dominates in eastern glacier part (see right part of
fig.3), where the glacier thickness is small and the cracks and strain zones are strongly inclined.
Determining from the crack slopes, the upper ice layers speed is greater than that of near-bottom. Such
velocity change is characteristic for viscous-plastic flow. Subvertical cracks in thick ice layer (south
glacier part) reveal that velocity of the ice movement is approximately constant across the all its
thickness that is more characteristic for the lump sliding.
Fig.4. Geophysical section through the glacier central part according to II profile (see the
legend on fig.3)
At lower glacier border in some places the liquid water is found. The most confident tracks of
water were noted in the south-eastern part of the glacier (fig.3-4) where the water is found both under the
glacier and in the soil along the geological layer slope that reaches the ocean at the island border.
The most probable water source is the ice melting. From the glacier bed it flows to the sea. But it is
also possible that the water weeps from the sea along crumbly border of geological layers. The water
saturated soil and correspondingly lowered stress areas are shown as dark spots on the map (fig.2. right).
Fig.5.Geology-geophysical section through central glacier part by A'-A profile (data of 2007)
with the wavelet components of the signal (above).
Here: 1-glacier cover, 2,3,4-lithologic borders, 5-tectonic faults, 6 - glacier faults, 7,8-firn, 9-water-
saturated floor.
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Practically the same profile was investigated in 2007 by “Astrogon” device which is improved
variant of “Tezey”. The result is shown at Fig.5 together with the wavelet components of the signal
(above). The comparison of the same profile can serve as glacier structure and movement monitoring
technology. It is also possible, of course, to study Earth crust structure in Antarctic region using such a
technology.
6. Conclusion
Since it does not succeed in explain the peculiarities of spontaneous Earth electromagnetic
noise in the frame of classical linear models, one should involve the nonlinear models of physical field
interactions and their perturbation propagation in active inhomogeneous geological medium. Just
such an approach gives the possibility to solve the set of problems arising during the analysis of
geomagnetic noise generation, its super far propagation and in attempts of its practical use to study
geological structure and geodynamical processes.
It is known that the evolution of the nonlinear systems can occur in different ways the
possibility of development and behavior plurality ways comes to take the place of linear unambiguity.
The development of autowave conception of energy transformation and transfer and dynamics of the
Earth is of great interest and actuality in such a context.
There are really three new model mechanisms of mechanic – electromagnetic transformation
which can help to solve above problems. The polariton radiation arising due to creation and
annihilation of different crystal lattice defects (mainly microcracks) can be the base mechanism of
radiowave noise emission. The second mechanism consists in transition radiation (scattering)
generated in the wave of complex permittivity which can forms on the front of “trapped” Rayleigh
wave propagating along the fault. The third one is the mutual electromagnetic field and fluid
concentration propagation of autosoliton type based on “reaction-diffusion equation system. Two last
mechanisms are practically at the stage of problem formulation.
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