ArticlePDF Available


The authors conducted a review of the literature to investigate how the current and future generation of college-age students learn. The authors examined how technology and learning environments effect the students’ ability to learn. The rapid development and adoption of mobile communication technology has altered the way students receive and interpret information. The change in the way students learn is leading to a need for change in the way teachers should deliver curriculum to students. Using multiple inclusions of pedagogical approaches (MIOPA) the authors have been able to increase students’ engagement and learning. Published in the Journal of Business Diversity.
66 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
New Approaches to Learning for Generation Z
Joseph B. Mosca
Monmouth University
Kevin P. Curtis
Monmouth University
Paul G. Savoth
Monmouth University
The authors conducted a review of the literature to investigate how the current and future generation of
college-age students learn. The authors examined how technology and learning environments effect the
students’ ability to learn. The rapid development and adoption of mobile communication technology has
altered the way students receive and interpret information. The change in the way students learn is
leading to a need for change in the way teachers should deliver curriculum to students. Using multiple
inclusions of pedagogical approaches (MIOPA) the authors have been able to increase students’
engagement and learning.
Keywords: MIOPA, Generation Z, Educational Technology
The Millennial generation consists of those born between 1982 and the early ’90s, while Generation Z
consists of those born 1995-2012. All educators need to become aware of the learning preferences for
students from these two generations. Both the Millennials and the Generation Z students are more
technologically sophisticated and may be more self-directed than previous generations; therefore,
educators need to reinforce critical thinking skills and modify their instructional approach to maximize
the engagement of these students. Students have become accustomed to learning online and watching
videos rather than reading textbooks. Students who have grown up with the current technology are
considered digital natives, yet they lack the skills to use the technology in a strategically significant way
to plan and develop a career. Educators should adopt and employ the technology students are accustomed
to using and instruct them on how to utilize it to advance their thinking and strategically plan for their
future career goals. The hypotheses tested in this report were a.) students preferred doing hands-on
experience instead of lecturing, b.) students preferred working in groups and problem-solving, instead of
working alone and completing work that required only memorization or the recall of factual information,
and finally, c.) students preferred learning in a multimedia rich environment that utilized a variety of
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 67
activities and hands-on activities to reinforce their learning. The authors designed and conducted a survey
to ascertain student attitudes with regards to the stated hypotheses.
Previous generations were somewhat diverse, but not as diverse as Generation Z (the Z’s). The Z’s
are accustomed to biracial, multiracial offspring, and open-minded to parents of the same sex (Pew,
2014). Shatto and Erwin (2016, p.6), point out the Z’s have easy access to streaming services so they can
watch programming at their convenience on a multitude of devices. They spend up to 9 hours a day on
personal cell phones, making them increasingly dependent on mobile technology. Shatto and Erwin noted
the inability of the Z’s to analyze the validity of information and critically use the information they
receive. This technology dependence has a direct, although sometimes flawed, influence on how they
learned. Educators need to change their instructional approach and deliver concepts in smaller segments,
considering their attention span is only 8 seconds long.
Shatto and Erwin offer some teaching tips:
x Use mobile technology when possible.
x Use assignments that can be completed on tablets or phones.
x Encourage collaboration using technology.
x Reinforce concepts with YouTube videos.
x Incorporate hands-on experiences in the classroom.
Drs. Hallowell & Ratery (2011, p.28), refer to the short attention span as “acquired attention deficit
disorder” because their brains are now wired to comprehend complex visual images. Therefore, a visual
approach to teaching that includes graphics, animations or video clips is effective. While Hicks (2011)
points out that even though they may appear to be inattentive and disengaged, they are “soaking up” just
as much information as those who appear completely engaged. Williams (2015) contends the Z’s have
their eyes open and are very much aware of societal issues, mindful of the future, taking in information
instantaneously and lose interest just as fast.
In some ways, the Z’s are like previous generations, they rely on their electronic devises and their
social skills are weaking. However, advancing technology has had a major impact on both their behavior
and their thinking, which makes them different from previous generations. As a result, they possess
higher confidence and self-esteem, are very much aware of trends, and are technologically adept due to
their early introduction to technology and adaptation. They see themselves as bright, part of the global
village, accepting of a diverse population, and concerned about environmentally safe products. They are
constantly engaged in information sharing by utilizing a multitude of open platforms. Mobile devices are
their preference along with media with which they can interact (Gupta, Gagan, 2014).
University professors need to consider how important it is to establish an educational environment
with the clear objective of facilitating the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values. An
optimal learning environment should foster pedagogical components that encompass information,
performance, situations, and hands-on experiences along with collaborative activities with other students,
which allows for the exchange of knowledge. It is the exchange of knowledge and the interactive
experience, coupled with hands-on reinforcement, that results in the greatest individual learning. When
students are given the opportunity to exchange knowledge among themselves, they are empowered. They
feel that what they are learning is relevant to their future. Being actively engaged with the information
they are acquiring will give them a comprehensive approach to learning and thinking critically––an
important component for Generation Z. Currently, universities who are entrenched in the traditional
model of teaching by providing most of its services face to face on a campus should consider a change.
Increasingly, learning takes place outside the classroom and instructors need to adapt to physical and
virtual educational environments in order to keep up with the current advances in education
(Jaleniauskiene and Juceviciene, 2015).
68 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
Preparing the current and next generation of students requires teacher preparation programs that
incorporate teaching methods that students will learn from, but also enjoy. Additionally, well thought out
professional development must be employed to prepare in-service educators so that they have the
confidence and skills necessary to properly prepare students for their futures.
The development of our current mobile communication technology has created an artificial division
between educators and students. This division has developed due to the rapid changes in technology over
the last two decades. Current teaching methods have not adapted to address the ever-changing technology
and its impact on student learning. When educators are uncomfortable with the use of technology,
students suffer. Students learn best when they are actively engaged with the content. Utilizing technology
to engage students with the content allows educators to transform their educational environment from
teacher-centered to student-centered. Utilizing professional development to train teachers on effective
technology practices can help teachers to better prepare their students for the future.
Learning is the means by which humans acquire skills and knowledge, resulting in a long-term
change in mental representations or associations that are the result of experiences. One can determine if
learning has taken place by assessing the following:
x A new behavior has been accomplished.
x Being able to recall information, facts, and knowledge, more quickly than previously.
x Being able to view and discuss a topic with more details. (Ormrod, 2016,p.10-49),
Generation Z’s are part of a knowledge society requiring radical new approaches to learning.
Education needs to shift its objectives to life-long and life-wide learning because future employees will be
knowledge workers who will be able to transfer learned knowledge to solve a complex problem.
Knowledge is the cornerstone of technology, commercialism and cultural forces on organizations and the
economy. Z’s will require skills and general knowledge that is significantly different from previous
generations. They will be sitting in front of monitors, holding iPads and will be emerged in information
and communications (Kalantzis & Cope, 2016).
Reviewing the criteria of learning, there are three components:
x Change cannot take place without learning.
x Over time, learning is maintained.
x Experiences provide learning. (Kalantzis and Cope, 2016, pp. 26-31).
Learning is a combination of experiences to alter behavior, which occurs through practice (Schunk,
2016), therefore, exploring the benefits of hands-on and experiential experiences should be considered
when preparing to teach the Z generation of students, keeping in mind that they are visual and prefer
physical learning applications and engagement (Kalantzis and Cope, 2016). With the advent of the
information age, we have begun a new economic paradigm with knowledge as its primary commodity.
The next generations will be working in what is being called the “Knowledge Economy” in which
knowledge will be used to generate tangible and intangible values.
Future educators need to play a role in developing their students’ creative, productive and social
potential. A reconceptualization of the three R’s needs to be considered if contemporary changes to
learning are to take place, whereby the new learning will be general in its focus, rather than targeting a
particular need or use. Future students will be capable of adjusting to and causing change, problem solve,
collaborate, and comprehend diversity. That said, learning will be increasingly interdisciplinary, resulting
in an intensified engagement with general knowledge, resulting in lifelong and life-wide learning. All
those currently teaching must review the components of formal learning:
Kalantzis and Cope, (2016) stated that formal learning must be:
x Deliberate and explicit
x Structured and goal oriented
x Analytical, abstracting, and generalizing (Kalantzis and Cope, (2016, p 26-30)
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 69
As Figure 1 illustrates, the learner is engaged in an organic environment where a concept or topic can
be considered from many points of view. Having multiple perspectives empowers the students’ freedom
to explore a variety of avenues, actively challenging the student to become part of the learning process.
Students do not all learn the same way; however, when teachers vary the learning environment and offer
multiple choices for students to demonstrate their understanding of a concept, a higher percentage of
students will master the information. Active learning can be defined as “a combination of teaching
approaches, environment, and technology, which supports learning that is student-centered to motivate
students to take part in the learning process” (eCampus News, 2017). For the purpose of this study, active
learning classroom will be referred to as “MIOPA,” multiple inclusions of pedagogical approaches,
which are a configuration of various pedagogical approaches to instill collaboration, problem solving,
exercises such as hands-on experiences, creativity, the value of inquiry learning and the development of
the learner’s confidence.
According to Aurel Pera (2013), multimedia classrooms can promote a meaningful learning
environment by varying both the number of representations students are exposed to and the degree of
their engagement in the learning process. Interactivity is becoming a preferred method for learner success.
Students learn better when provided with learning environments that combine verbal, visual, interactivity,
empowerment, and hands-on experiences for more intense cognitive engagement. Pera concluded that
there is a positive relationship between higher education environments when instructors employed active
and collaborative learning techniques. As stated above and illustrated in Figure 2, the MIOPA approach
makes room for considering a multiple-pronged approach to enhance student engagement for intense
cognitive learning.
70 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
The Faculty Survey of Student Engagement (FSSE), administered to 14,512 faculty members in
2016 by The Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research, asked faculty to what extent they
structured courses to achieve various objectives. Ninety-three percent responded that they “very
much” or “quite a bit” structure their courses to improve critical thinking. The other primary
objectives identified by sixty-four to sixty-seven percent of respondents included writing clearly,
acquiring a job or work-related knowledge and skills, working effectively with others and solving
complex real-world problems. These goals are consistent with the discussion of the need for a
MIOPA approach that is focused on student engagement.
Question 24 of the survey asked faculty the percentage of time in class that was spent lecturing,
discussing issues, in small group activities, presentations, videos, independent student work, and
testing. Thirty-one percent of respondents indicated they spend over fifty percent of class time
lecturing. Twenty-seven percent spent thirty to forty-nine percent of the time lecturing. Seventy-two
percent of faculty spent less than thirty percent of classroom time for discussion, and sixty-seven
percent spent less than twenty percent of classroom time in small group activities. The data raises the
question of whether there is adequate student engagement to accomplish the identified objectives.
The related National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), also administered nationally by
Indiana University to an extensive body of students, does indicate that eighty-five percent of students
believed that they “very much” or “quite a bit” learned to think critically; however, only about two-
thirds of the students agreed that they acquired work-related knowledge and skills or were better able
to solve complex or real-world problems. This result also raised the question of whether there was
sufficient student engagement in the classroom.
The survey also indicated that there was a gap between the time faculty expected students to
prepare for class and the actual time students spent studying. Fifty-two percent of faculty expected
students to spend five to 10 hours per week preparing for their class; however, only eleven percent of
the faculty actually believed that students spent that much time studying. This is consistent with
student reported data on the time spent preparing for class. There are some studies indicating that
student preparation time has decreased since 1960. A MIOPA approach may improve student
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 71
preparation because there is a direct connection between preparation and required participation and
engagement in class.
Educators spend hours planning learning experiences for their students, but students may not engage
enthusiastically. One of the biggest frustrations for educators is unmotivated students. One way to address
this problem is through student empowerment. Instructors all have a genuine interest in their students’
success. Empowering students may increase their engagement and therefore, their learning.
Empowerment is accomplished by allowing the student to put forth their own ideas in correlation with the
concepts put forth, set their own schedules for study and providing an opportunity to discuss with each
other what they are doing and sharing the learning. As a result of student empowerment, it becomes the
process of energizing others in order to help them experience the task they are engaged in as empowering.
By considering the employment of student empowerment, the result is intrinsic task motivation (Sanders,
Boss, Boss, Mc Conki, 2009).
When preparing a lesson plan to engage students in the learning process, instructors need to create
learning spaces that foster a student-centered environment. For the most part, the traditional classroom
setting with seats/desks/tablets in a fixed lined up position facing the instructor at the front of the room
does not give rise to student empowerment or an engaging environment. Learning effectiveness increases
when the learning environment is created for a variety of settings (David Kolb, 2015). As Kolb suggests,
the authors designed a lesson plan implementing a hybrid instructional approach as indicated in Figure 3.
The images in Figure 3 are display examples of how these concepts can be applied to starting a
business, a science project, designing a product, practicing a new Math concept, etc. The objective is for
students to be given an opportunity to take an active part in using the material they have been exposed to
in the online session. In addition, students will be empowered to control their group activities, decide
how they will demonstrate to the class what was learned by combining what was learned from the online
lesson, group discussion, and interaction with other groups. It is not suggested here that these examples
are the only way to engage students in the learning process. These examples are just the beginning of
suggestions to consider when planning lessons for generation Z. According to Winsett, Foster, Dearing
and Burch (2016), students should be given the opportunity to engage in a variety of approaches such as
collaborating with others in the classroom, outside the classroom, and to be affectively and physically
involved in the learning to comprehend new concepts. These methods provide more time for students to
be exposed to a concept and a chance to practice.
72 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
The authors developed an eleven-question survey to ascertain students’ preferences with regards to
lecture, hands-on-learning, problem-solving, group-work, informal learning, use of multimedia in the
classroom, and diversity of teaching methods in the classroom. The survey was distributed to a diverse
group of students including graduate and undergraduates at Monmouth University. Graduate students
were included in the study to discover if their attitudes toward learning were different then undergraduate
students, as the graduate students have already entered the workforce and had experienced a traditional
undergraduate education. The student population in the study was comprised of majors from the General
Business, Communication, Healthcare, Criminal Justice, Accounting, Finance, and Marketing programs.
One-hundred and thirty-three students were surveyed over two semesters during the fall 2018 and spring
2019 semesters at Monmouth University.
Data was collected through an anonymous student survey. The survey consisted of 11 questions
inquiring about student preferences conserving various aspects of the of course delivery and teaching
methods. The results are tabulated and graphically represented below in Table 1 and Figure 4.
MIOPA Survey Results Yes No
I feel I learn more by "doing" than be lectured to? 96.2% 3.8%
Instructor used class time effectively? 97.7% 2.3%
Case analysis is a real-world learning process? 100.0% 0.0%
Class time passes quickly when students are engaged in learning? 99.2% 0.8%
Videos help to bring in real-world situations? 97.7% 2.3%
Students working in groups completes the problem-solving process? 98.5% 1.5%
Do you learn in the environment? 99.2% 0.8%
Is this knowledge usable in the workplace? 98.5% 1.5%
Do you prefer learning experiences over lecture? 96.9% 3.1%
Would you recommend this instructor to a friend? 98.5% 1.5%
Does this learning environment help you overall? 97.7% 2.3%
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 73
Those in higher education can observe students at the junior high school levels to get a glimpse of
their behavior and what teaching approaches might be best suited to their lifestyle, their exposure to
technology, and their reliance on social learning. This study highlighted the importance of instructors
embracing an approach that teaches students that learning takes place through the instructor empowering
the student to engage in the learning. In addition, the study found that instructors benefit from using more
than one instructional approach. As this study indicates, students want to be actively engaged in the
learning and benefit when instructors provide space for students to flexibly interact with others who are
also allowed to problem-solve on their own. The authors put forth some suggested methods that combine
a variety of approaches that could keep the Z generation students engaged considering their limited
attention span. As stated, these are not the only possible approaches, but methods to consider when the
future generations become our students, for as most educators know, each student generation has their
own view of the environment and where they fit into it.
The authors of this article acknowledge that a major limitation of this article is the lack of empirical
data to back up their assertions. In the future, these authors will attempt to validate the statements put
forth in this article by developing and conducting a survey instrument to collect data from a broader
student population.
The ideas put forth in this paper are to consider providing a creative space in which students can
interact and engage with real world problems, allowing them to collaborate among themselves and then
practice the newly learned concept. This seems to coincide with the maxim “Seeing is believing, engaging
and practicing is learning.”
In 1798, the romantic poet, Friedrich Schlegel, understood that developments did not simply go from
one point to another and then stop, but that they were an ongoing process. Likewise, educational methods
and technological development are never stagnant and should not be treated as such. Educators need to be
kept abreast of the developments in current educational methodology and technology and their application
in the college classroom.
74 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
Gupta, O., & Gulati, G. (2014, August). Psycho-analysis of Mobile applications usage among Generation
Z Teens. International Journal on Global Business Management & Research, 3(1), 80-95.
Hallowell, E., & Ratery, J. (2010). Driven to Distraction. Anchor Books, New York.
Hicks, S. D. (2011, August). Technology in today's classroom: Are you a tech-savvy teacher? The
Clearing House, 84(5), 188-191. doi:10.1080/00098655.2011.557406
Jaleniauskiene, E., & Juceviciene, P. (n.d.). Reconsidering University Educational Environment for
Learners of Generation Z. KTU, Social Science, 2(88).
Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2016). Learning By Design. Common Ground Publishing, LB1027-
3K35(2014). ISBN 978-1-61229-468-1, 26, 27, 30, 31, 192, 193.
Kolb, D. (2015). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, 2nd E.
Pearson Education. ISBN 13: 078-0-13-389240-6, pp 294-296.
Kuh, G.D. (n.d.). National survey of student engagement; the college student report. Bloomington, IN;
Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning.
Ormrod, J. (2016). Human Learning, 7th E. Always Learning, Pearson, New York, pp. 10, 49. ISBN 10-
Pera, A. (2014). The Relationship Between Faculty Practices And Student Engagement and Learning.
Analysis and Metaphysics, 12(2013), 160-165. ISSN 1584-8574.
Pew Research Center (2014). Millennials in Adulthood. Detached from institutions, networked with
friends. Retrieved from
Sanders, M., Boss, A., & Mcconkie. (2009). Increasing Student Engagement and Learning: Using Big
Hairy Audacious Goals As An Empowering Semester Project. Academy of Management,
Chicago, 495,496, 498.
Schunk, D. (2016). Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective, 7th-E. Always Learning, Pearson,
New York. ISBN-10-0-13-359972-8.
Shatto, B., & Erwin, K. (2016). Moving On From Millennials: Preparing for Generation Z. Journal of
Continuing Education in Nursing, 47(6).
The K-20 Active Learning Landscape (2017). eClassroom News, pp. 1-8. Retrieved February 25, 2017,
Williams, A. (2015). Move Over Millennials: Here Comes Generation Z. New York Times, 9/20/2015,
Winsett, C., Foster, C., Dearing, J., & Burch, G. (2016). The Impact of Group Experiential Learning on
Student Engagement. Academy of Business Research Journal, Gulfport 3, 7-17.
... Penelitian-penelitian berkaitan dengan pembelajaran dengan pemanfaatan teknologi ini juga semakin banyak dipublikasikan. Contohnya bagaimana pendekatan belajar untuk Generasi Z dikaitkan dengan e-learning [6], pendidikan di era revolusi industri [7], penggunaan teknologi dan karakteristik belajar [8], ataupun bagaimana pembelajaran Digital [3], [9]. Kementerian Riset dan Perguruan Tinggi juga mulai menggalakkan penggunaan e-learning ini. ...
... Oleh sebab itu, bagi Generasi Z pembelajaran yang tepat adalah yang menggunakan gambar, animasi ataupun video. [6] ...
... Learning (belajar) adalah upaya manusia untuk memperoleh pengetahuan maupun keterampilan, dengan menghasilkan perubahan jangka panjang. [6]. Ciri-ciri telah terjadinya pembelajaran adalah (a) tercapainya perilaku baru; (b) mampu mengingat informasi, fakta, dan pengetahuan, lebih cepat dari sebelumnya; (c) Mampu melihat dan mendiskusikan suatu topik dengan lebih detail [16]. ...
Full-text available
Artikel ini membahas tentang penggunaan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK) dalam pembelajaran yang dapat meningkatkan literasi peserta didik Generasi Z pada Kurikulum Merdeka. Generasi Z merupakan generasi yang tumbuh di tengah kemajuan teknologi digital, oleh karena itu, integrasi TIK dalam pembelajaran menjadi sangat relevan dan penting. Artikel ini menguraikan beberapa manfaat yang ditawarkan oleh pembelajaran dengan menggunakan TIK, seperti akses mudah ke informasi, pembelajaran interaktif, pengembangan keterampilan digital, kolaborasi dan keterhubungan, serta pemecahan masalah dan kreativitas. Pembelajaran menggunakan TIK dapat memberikan pendekatan yang inklusif dan adaptif, meningkatkan motivasi dan keterlibatan peserta didik, serta mempersiapkan mereka untuk menghadapi tantangan di era digital. hasil dari penelitian in yaitu Pembelajaran menggunakan TIK pada Kurikulum Merdeka memiliki potensi besar dalam meningkatkan literasi peserta didik Generasi Z. Melalui akses mudah ke informasi, pembelajaran interaktif, pengembangan keterampilan digital, kolaborasi dan keterhubungan, serta pemecahan masalah dan kreativitas, literasi peserta didik dapat meningkat secara signifikan.
... Generation Z, or centennials, are often characterized as lazy and dependent on technology (Miller & Mills, 2019;Mosca et al., 2019). Experts are still debating the first point until now, but the last point is very appropriate. ...
... For generation Z, the main characteristic of learning tends to be independent learning. From internet searches and ebooks to digital apps, YouTube, wikis, and virtual assistants, college students have devised their methods for finding answers (Mosca et al., 2019). For this reason, Mosca et al., (2019) suggested that educators should strengthen critical thinking skills and modify their instructional approaches to maximize student engagement. ...
... From internet searches and ebooks to digital apps, YouTube, wikis, and virtual assistants, college students have devised their methods for finding answers (Mosca et al., 2019). For this reason, Mosca et al., (2019) suggested that educators should strengthen critical thinking skills and modify their instructional approaches to maximize student engagement. Chicca and Shellenbarger (2018) recommend that educators focus more on self-directed, individual, or project-based learning. ...
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the perceptions of Generation Z students about ideal learning after the pandemic in Indonesia. This research uses a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. There were 30 students from 6 different campuses in Serang City, Banten, Indonesia, who used a purposive sampling technique as research participants. Data collection was carried out using semi-structured interviews, which were then analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. The findings of this study state that there are four main themes regarding ideal post-pandemic learning, namely: (a) learning that is not monotonous, (b) equal portions of theory and practice, (c) ideal learning managed by an ideal lecturer, and (d) the need for the application of blended learning. This research contributes to the current literature on designing ideal learning on campus after the COVID-19 pandemic.
... They are easier to understand visual images. Therefore, Generation Z is suitable for learning using images, animations or videos [41]. ...
... In addition, it can be used as an example to be practiced directly or learning by doing. This is in line with [41] which mentions that Generation Z has a short attention span. They are easier to understand visual images. ...
... Mosca, et al. [14] explored Generation Z preferences in regards to the method of course delivery and teaching methods. Participants (>96%) learned more by doing and preferred learning experiences over lecture. ...
... Another example would be to utilized web-based games to facilitate critical thinking [3,11]. Additionally, narratives and storytelling can be utilized to examine the various viewpoints of this generation and to facilitate their visualization of real-world situations [3,8,14] [18] investigated the effectiveness of blended learning environments enriched with the use of gamification elements in a freshman technology course (n=63). Blended learning environments utilize a blended structure with face-to-face and web-based learning activities. ...
Abstract Aim: To identify effective pedagogies for the Generation Z learner and outcomes. Background: Nursing faculty are challenged to implement effective pedagogies for the new Generation Z learner that are entering the classroom. Design: Systematic review. Method: MEDLINE, EBSCO Discovery Service and CINAHL Plus with Full-Text databases were searched using the following subject headings and keywords: Generation Z, learning style, Generation Z in the classroom, Learning style and generational differences, Teaching strategies, Teaching method, and college teaching for Generation Z. The search was limited to scholarly or peer-reviewed articles published within the past five years. Results: Systematic review yielded several studies that are a Level 5 or higher which does not give a strong evidence base on how to teach this generation or how they learn. Conclusion: More empirical studies are needed on the Generation Z learner in the nursing education classroom. Specifically, studies investigating the learner outcomes after implementing different pedagogies.
... However, in recent decades, it has faced increased competition from other industries such as the film industry, television, digital media, and even the video game industry (Clark and Phillips, 2019). These industries are more adapted to the increasingly dynamic world of today, where people have shorter attention spans and prefer efficiency, image-based information, and ease of understanding (Mosca et al., 2019). In addition to this, the industry has been deeply impacted by recent economic crises, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, which has disrupted the way businesses operate across industries on a global level (Hrib, 2020). ...
Full-text available
In the contemporary dynamic and turbulent economic environment being present and up to the minute becomes a necessity for almost any business. Social media is a communication infrastructure that allows and concomitantly sets the rules for information and message dissemination. Just as most organizations nowadays, publishing houses need to establish a strong online presence through posts on social media platforms. As they are both economic and cultural agents, the messages shared by publishers on social networks imply a higher degree of social responsibility and their content is particularly important. The present paper aims to explore how Ro-manian publishing houses are communicating with their current and potential customers on social platforms. The posts on various social media such as Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Twitter, etc. from the last two months of 2022 and the first two months of 2023 are investigated through the content analysis research technique. As the book industry is strongly linked to the concept of knowledge, the analysis is performed from the perspective of the Theory of Knowledge Fields. The findings of this study could prove useful to various actors involved in the book industry and other cultural organizations, as it provides insights into cultural promotion via social platforms practices. The subject is topical since book consumption is an essential part of a healthy cultural and social life of a country.
... A traditional view would rate such an act as outright unethical. However, younger employees do not find such involvement unethical because technology has blurred the demarcation between office and home (Gaidhani et al., 2019;Mosca et al., 2019;Turner, 2015). And, modern employees often find themselves indulged in office work even on weekends or after office hours. ...
Post-millennial youths are well equipped with internet technology and computers since birth and find it easier to operate computers and technologies than their previous generations. With the advancement of technology, the ethical dilemma associated with its use has evolved. This paper aims to develop and validate a measurement scale for the ethical orientation of post-millennial technology usage by capturing the key factors that best describe the behavior adopted by students. A systematic scale development procedure was used, involving both reviews of the literature and focus group discussions to generate the items that specify the domain of this study. After generating items, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were applied to identify latent constructs of techno-ethical orientation. Lastly, the scale was subjected to reliability and validity testing. The study found that the techno-ethical orientation scale has five dimensions: privacy concerns, classroom behavior, accessibility dilemma, social media usage and assignment ethics. Overall, a scale comprising 17 statements was derived. The findings of our study attempt to augment the growing efforts to explore all facets of techno-ethics. It is probably the first attempt to develop a valid and reliable scale for the techno-ethical orientation of post-millennial. This scale could be used by academicians and practitioners to assess the techno-ethical orientation of post-millennial for positive interventions. This study derives a new reliable and valid scale for measuring the techno-ethical orientation of post-millennial toward technology usage.
... Generation Z of those born 1995-2012 refer to the short attention span as "acquired attention deficit disorder" because their brains are now wired to comprehend complex visual images. Therefore, a visual approach to teaching that includes graphics, animations or video clips is effective (Mosca et al, 2019). Visual media has the characteristic of being a media category whose form can be in the form of original objects, both living and inanimate (dead), and can be in the form of imitations of the original objects that represent them (At-Taubany & Suseno, 2017). ...
Insectarium media combined with QR code referred to this research was learning media based of technology created that can also be used on smartphone. This research aims to develop learning media and determine students’ response to insectarium combined with QR code that appropriate to be used as learning media in the kingdom Animalia. The method used is research and development with a design ADDIE model which consists of five stages in the form of analyzing, design, develop, implement, and evaluate. Research subjects is the ten-grade students who took animalia’s' kingdom courses, the academic year 2021/2022 of the SMA Negeri 02 Bombana. The research instrument used was validation questionnaire, test items, students and teacher questionnaire. The result of insectarium combined with QR code validity level got 3.76 score as a very valid categorize from the material and design experts, the effectiveness level got very effective categorized by 89% percentage, the practically level by students and the teacher response is 89.83% categorized as very practical. The result obtained it was concluded that insectarium combined with QR code was suitable for use as a medium in school and there needs to be implemented to see achievement.
... Facilitating conditions proved to have no significant influence on the usage intention. People from Generation Z are viewed as "self-learners", meaning that they are more technologically sophisticated and are likely to solve problems by browsing the Internet [85]. Additionally, owing to the omicron outbreak, we do not have a chance to visit in-person rehabilitation centers. ...
Background: With the rapid development of the metaverse and the problem of non-attendance in traditional rehabilitation, virtual reality in telerehabilitation has become increasingly vital in modern medicine. However, research on determining predictors that influence the public's behavioral intention to adopt VR-based telerehabilitation has not been extensively studied. Objective: This study aims to propose a new research model with a comparative analysis on understanding factors affecting the public's behavioral intention to adopt VR in telerehabilitation for different user groups. Methods: A total of 215 respondents from the general public completed an online questionnaire to validate the proposed research model. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. The proposed model was additionally validated using CFA and multiple linear regression. Results: This study found that effort expectancy, threat appraisals, and trust had a positive significant influence on the public's behavioral intention to adopt VR in telerehabilitation. However, performance expectancy and facilitating conditions had no significant relationship with behavioral intention. Notably, the average of the primary factors for older adults was generally higher than for younger adults. Conclusions: The present study confirms the applicability of the proposed research model. Our findings contribute up-to-date insights for related stakeholders to minimize implementation failures and develop successful adoption strategies for the future expansion of telerehabilitation.
... Studies have also begun to draw conclusions on the preferences of Generation Z learners. These include a proclivity for media-rich learning environments and their preference for educational approaches that embed a career focus, perhaps relating to their more practical and financially conscious tendencies than the generations before them (Mosca, Curtis & Savoth, 2019;Seemiller & Grace, 2017). ...
Full-text available
This study aimed to explore the experiences, perceptions, knowledge, concerns, and intentions of Gen Z students with Gen X and Gen Y teachers regarding the use of generative AI (GenAI) in higher education. A sample of students and teachers were recruited to investigate the above using a survey consisting of both open and closed questions. The findings showed that Gen Z participants were generally optimistic about the potential benefits of GenAI, including enhanced productivity, efficiency, and personalized learning, and expressed intentions to use GenAI for various educational purposes. Gen X and Gen Y teachers acknowledged the potential benefits of GenAI but expressed heightened concerns about overreliance, ethical and pedagogical implications, emphasizing the need for proper guidelines and policies to ensure responsible use of the technology. The study highlighted the importance of combining technology with traditional teaching methods to provide a more effective learning experience. Implications of the findings include the need to develop evidence-based guidelines and policies for GenAI integration, foster critical thinking and digital literacy skills among students, and promote responsible use of GenAI technologies in higher education.
Full-text available
A deeper understanding, analysis, appropriate design and management of students’ educational environment can be a powerful tool to improve the performance of both students and universities in the 21st century. The need to focus on the development of learning environments in higher education is also expressed by educational policy makers. In view of the fact that generations change and learners gain unique characteristics that differentiate them from the earlier generations, it is essential that learning environments are constantly researched and reconsidered. In the current article attention is centered on reconsideration of university educational environment for the learners of the new generation – Generation Z. Based on the literature review, the current article dwells on the discussion about educational environments for Generation Z. First, most common characteristics of the latest generation of learners have been explored and grouped into the characteristics that have a positive impact on learning and those detrimental to learning. Second, the article examines the concept of university educational environment. Third, it investigates the features of university educational environment that could be acceptable to the learners of Generation Z in higher education. The article seeks to discuss what in particular should be reconsidered by educators when developing educational environment so that it would become an influential part of learners’ personal learning environments. DOI:
Much has been written about teaching Millennials; however, little has been discussed about Generation Z—those just entering college. Nursing instructors must adapt to the upcoming generation's mobile tech-savviness and self-directed learning, which often is accompanied by a lack of critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies and incorporating technology are highlighted. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(6):253–254.
The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of cognitive load in visual displays, the value of inquiry learning as an educational method, the various ways to conceptualize thinking about cognitive, affective, and behavioral experiences, and the educational use of Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing. The literature on the role of cognitive engagement in assessment practice, inquiry learning as an educational tool, the promotion of web-based technologies for mainstream education, and educational use of emerging Web 2.0-based technologies is relevant to this discussion. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated behavior that impedes the teaching/learning process, the use of multimodal learning techniques, the relationships between institutional characteristics and faculty behaviors and attitudes, and the importance of designing complex learning materials based on a cognitive theory of multimedia learning and cognitive load theory.
Empowering students in ways that significantly increase their engagement and learning is challenging. This paper describes how Collins and Porras' (1994) concept of the Big Hairy Audacious Goal (BHAG, pronounced bee-hag) functions as an empowering semester project that significantly increases student engagement and learning. Based on Thomas and Velthouse's (1990) operationalization of empowerment as intrinsic task motivation, this essay outlines how to implement the BHAG as a semester project and offers evidence of increased student empowerment and learning. The discussion and findings in this essay will help management educators develop ways in which they can empower students in the courses they teach as well as increase their students' engagement and learning through this open-ended semester project.
Technology has changed the way the world functions on a day-to-day basis, but what about education? Education has been directly affected by the increase of technology in the United States. This change has not been well accepted by some members of the educational community, thus leaving the realm of education behind in the technology era. This article seeks to focus on the benefits of technology in the classroom as well as some of the issues that surround teachers and technology. The article also delves into the future of technology and education and provides some helpful tips for technology use in the classroom.
This book provides the student with an understanding of theories and research on learning and related processes and demonstrates their application in educational contexts. The text is intended for graduate students in schools of education or related disciplines, as well as for advanced undergraduates interested in education. It is assumed that most students using this text are pursuing educationally relevant careers and that they possess minimal familiarity with psychological concepts and research methods. Important historical theories are initially discussed, followed by accounts of current research. Differing views are presented, as well as criticism when warranted. A chapter is devoted to problem solving and learning in reading, writing, mathematics, and science. The chapters on motivation, self-regulation, and instructional processes address topics relevant to learning theories. These topics traditionally have shown little overlap with learning theories, but fortunately this situation is changing. Researchers are addressing such topics as how motivation can influence quantity and quality of learning, how instructional practices impact information processing, and how learning principles can be applied to develop self-regulated learners. The applications of learning principles focus on school-aged students, both because of personal preference and because most students are interested in working with children and teenagers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Psycho-analysis of Mobile applications usage among Generation Z Teens
  • O Gupta
  • G Gulati
Gupta, O., & Gulati, G. (2014, August). Psycho-analysis of Mobile applications usage among Generation Z Teens. International Journal on Global Business Management & Research, 3(1), 80-95.
Driven to Distraction
  • E Hallowell
  • J Ratery
Hallowell, E., & Ratery, J. (2010). Driven to Distraction. Anchor Books, New York.
National survey of student engagement; the college student report
  • G D Kuh
Kuh, G.D. (n.d.). National survey of student engagement; the college student report. Bloomington, IN; Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning.