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The authors conducted a review of the literature to investigate how the current and future generation of college-age students learn. The authors examined how technology and learning environments effect the students’ ability to learn. The rapid development and adoption of mobile communication technology has altered the way students receive and interpret information. The change in the way students learn is leading to a need for change in the way teachers should deliver curriculum to students. Using multiple inclusions of pedagogical approaches (MIOPA) the authors have been able to increase students’ engagement and learning. Published in the Journal of Business Diversity.
66 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
New Approaches to Learning for Generation Z
Joseph B. Mosca
Monmouth University
Kevin P. Curtis
Monmouth University
Paul G. Savoth
Monmouth University
The authors conducted a review of the literature to investigate how the current and future generation of
college-age students learn. The authors examined how technology and learning environments effect the
students’ ability to learn. The rapid development and adoption of mobile communication technology has
altered the way students receive and interpret information. The change in the way students learn is
leading to a need for change in the way teachers should deliver curriculum to students. Using multiple
inclusions of pedagogical approaches (MIOPA) the authors have been able to increase students’
engagement and learning.
Keywords: MIOPA, Generation Z, Educational Technology
The Millennial generation consists of those born between 1982 and the early ’90s, while Generation Z
consists of those born 1995-2012. All educators need to become aware of the learning preferences for
students from these two generations. Both the Millennials and the Generation Z students are more
technologically sophisticated and may be more self-directed than previous generations; therefore,
educators need to reinforce critical thinking skills and modify their instructional approach to maximize
the engagement of these students. Students have become accustomed to learning online and watching
videos rather than reading textbooks. Students who have grown up with the current technology are
considered digital natives, yet they lack the skills to use the technology in a strategically significant way
to plan and develop a career. Educators should adopt and employ the technology students are accustomed
to using and instruct them on how to utilize it to advance their thinking and strategically plan for their
future career goals. The hypotheses tested in this report were a.) students preferred doing hands-on
experience instead of lecturing, b.) students preferred working in groups and problem-solving, instead of
working alone and completing work that required only memorization or the recall of factual information,
and finally, c.) students preferred learning in a multimedia rich environment that utilized a variety of
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 67
activities and hands-on activities to reinforce their learning. The authors designed and conducted a survey
to ascertain student attitudes with regards to the stated hypotheses.
Previous generations were somewhat diverse, but not as diverse as Generation Z (the Z’s). The Z’s
are accustomed to biracial, multiracial offspring, and open-minded to parents of the same sex (Pew,
2014). Shatto and Erwin (2016, p.6), point out the Z’s have easy access to streaming services so they can
watch programming at their convenience on a multitude of devices. They spend up to 9 hours a day on
personal cell phones, making them increasingly dependent on mobile technology. Shatto and Erwin noted
the inability of the Z’s to analyze the validity of information and critically use the information they
receive. This technology dependence has a direct, although sometimes flawed, influence on how they
learned. Educators need to change their instructional approach and deliver concepts in smaller segments,
considering their attention span is only 8 seconds long.
Shatto and Erwin offer some teaching tips:
x Use mobile technology when possible.
x Use assignments that can be completed on tablets or phones.
x Encourage collaboration using technology.
x Reinforce concepts with YouTube videos.
x Incorporate hands-on experiences in the classroom.
Drs. Hallowell & Ratery (2011, p.28), refer to the short attention span as “acquired attention deficit
disorder” because their brains are now wired to comprehend complex visual images. Therefore, a visual
approach to teaching that includes graphics, animations or video clips is effective. While Hicks (2011)
points out that even though they may appear to be inattentive and disengaged, they are “soaking up” just
as much information as those who appear completely engaged. Williams (2015) contends the Z’s have
their eyes open and are very much aware of societal issues, mindful of the future, taking in information
instantaneously and lose interest just as fast.
In some ways, the Z’s are like previous generations, they rely on their electronic devises and their
social skills are weaking. However, advancing technology has had a major impact on both their behavior
and their thinking, which makes them different from previous generations. As a result, they possess
higher confidence and self-esteem, are very much aware of trends, and are technologically adept due to
their early introduction to technology and adaptation. They see themselves as bright, part of the global
village, accepting of a diverse population, and concerned about environmentally safe products. They are
constantly engaged in information sharing by utilizing a multitude of open platforms. Mobile devices are
their preference along with media with which they can interact (Gupta, Gagan, 2014).
University professors need to consider how important it is to establish an educational environment
with the clear objective of facilitating the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values. An
optimal learning environment should foster pedagogical components that encompass information,
performance, situations, and hands-on experiences along with collaborative activities with other students,
which allows for the exchange of knowledge. It is the exchange of knowledge and the interactive
experience, coupled with hands-on reinforcement, that results in the greatest individual learning. When
students are given the opportunity to exchange knowledge among themselves, they are empowered. They
feel that what they are learning is relevant to their future. Being actively engaged with the information
they are acquiring will give them a comprehensive approach to learning and thinking critically––an
important component for Generation Z. Currently, universities who are entrenched in the traditional
model of teaching by providing most of its services face to face on a campus should consider a change.
Increasingly, learning takes place outside the classroom and instructors need to adapt to physical and
virtual educational environments in order to keep up with the current advances in education
(Jaleniauskiene and Juceviciene, 2015).
68 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
Preparing the current and next generation of students requires teacher preparation programs that
incorporate teaching methods that students will learn from, but also enjoy. Additionally, well thought out
professional development must be employed to prepare in-service educators so that they have the
confidence and skills necessary to properly prepare students for their futures.
The development of our current mobile communication technology has created an artificial division
between educators and students. This division has developed due to the rapid changes in technology over
the last two decades. Current teaching methods have not adapted to address the ever-changing technology
and its impact on student learning. When educators are uncomfortable with the use of technology,
students suffer. Students learn best when they are actively engaged with the content. Utilizing technology
to engage students with the content allows educators to transform their educational environment from
teacher-centered to student-centered. Utilizing professional development to train teachers on effective
technology practices can help teachers to better prepare their students for the future.
Learning is the means by which humans acquire skills and knowledge, resulting in a long-term
change in mental representations or associations that are the result of experiences. One can determine if
learning has taken place by assessing the following:
x A new behavior has been accomplished.
x Being able to recall information, facts, and knowledge, more quickly than previously.
x Being able to view and discuss a topic with more details. (Ormrod, 2016,p.10-49),
Generation Z’s are part of a knowledge society requiring radical new approaches to learning.
Education needs to shift its objectives to life-long and life-wide learning because future employees will be
knowledge workers who will be able to transfer learned knowledge to solve a complex problem.
Knowledge is the cornerstone of technology, commercialism and cultural forces on organizations and the
economy. Z’s will require skills and general knowledge that is significantly different from previous
generations. They will be sitting in front of monitors, holding iPads and will be emerged in information
and communications (Kalantzis & Cope, 2016).
Reviewing the criteria of learning, there are three components:
x Change cannot take place without learning.
x Over time, learning is maintained.
x Experiences provide learning. (Kalantzis and Cope, 2016, pp. 26-31).
Learning is a combination of experiences to alter behavior, which occurs through practice (Schunk,
2016), therefore, exploring the benefits of hands-on and experiential experiences should be considered
when preparing to teach the Z generation of students, keeping in mind that they are visual and prefer
physical learning applications and engagement (Kalantzis and Cope, 2016). With the advent of the
information age, we have begun a new economic paradigm with knowledge as its primary commodity.
The next generations will be working in what is being called the “Knowledge Economy” in which
knowledge will be used to generate tangible and intangible values.
Future educators need to play a role in developing their students’ creative, productive and social
potential. A reconceptualization of the three R’s needs to be considered if contemporary changes to
learning are to take place, whereby the new learning will be general in its focus, rather than targeting a
particular need or use. Future students will be capable of adjusting to and causing change, problem solve,
collaborate, and comprehend diversity. That said, learning will be increasingly interdisciplinary, resulting
in an intensified engagement with general knowledge, resulting in lifelong and life-wide learning. All
those currently teaching must review the components of formal learning:
Kalantzis and Cope, (2016) stated that formal learning must be:
x Deliberate and explicit
x Structured and goal oriented
x Analytical, abstracting, and generalizing (Kalantzis and Cope, (2016, p 26-30)
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 69
As Figure 1 illustrates, the learner is engaged in an organic environment where a concept or topic can
be considered from many points of view. Having multiple perspectives empowers the students’ freedom
to explore a variety of avenues, actively challenging the student to become part of the learning process.
Students do not all learn the same way; however, when teachers vary the learning environment and offer
multiple choices for students to demonstrate their understanding of a concept, a higher percentage of
students will master the information. Active learning can be defined as “a combination of teaching
approaches, environment, and technology, which supports learning that is student-centered to motivate
students to take part in the learning process” (eCampus News, 2017). For the purpose of this study, active
learning classroom will be referred to as “MIOPA,” multiple inclusions of pedagogical approaches,
which are a configuration of various pedagogical approaches to instill collaboration, problem solving,
exercises such as hands-on experiences, creativity, the value of inquiry learning and the development of
the learner’s confidence.
According to Aurel Pera (2013), multimedia classrooms can promote a meaningful learning
environment by varying both the number of representations students are exposed to and the degree of
their engagement in the learning process. Interactivity is becoming a preferred method for learner success.
Students learn better when provided with learning environments that combine verbal, visual, interactivity,
empowerment, and hands-on experiences for more intense cognitive engagement. Pera concluded that
there is a positive relationship between higher education environments when instructors employed active
and collaborative learning techniques. As stated above and illustrated in Figure 2, the MIOPA approach
makes room for considering a multiple-pronged approach to enhance student engagement for intense
cognitive learning.
70 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
The Faculty Survey of Student Engagement (FSSE), administered to 14,512 faculty members in
2016 by The Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research, asked faculty to what extent they
structured courses to achieve various objectives. Ninety-three percent responded that they “very
much” or “quite a bit” structure their courses to improve critical thinking. The other primary
objectives identified by sixty-four to sixty-seven percent of respondents included writing clearly,
acquiring a job or work-related knowledge and skills, working effectively with others and solving
complex real-world problems. These goals are consistent with the discussion of the need for a
MIOPA approach that is focused on student engagement.
Question 24 of the survey asked faculty the percentage of time in class that was spent lecturing,
discussing issues, in small group activities, presentations, videos, independent student work, and
testing. Thirty-one percent of respondents indicated they spend over fifty percent of class time
lecturing. Twenty-seven percent spent thirty to forty-nine percent of the time lecturing. Seventy-two
percent of faculty spent less than thirty percent of classroom time for discussion, and sixty-seven
percent spent less than twenty percent of classroom time in small group activities. The data raises the
question of whether there is adequate student engagement to accomplish the identified objectives.
The related National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), also administered nationally by
Indiana University to an extensive body of students, does indicate that eighty-five percent of students
believed that they “very much” or “quite a bit” learned to think critically; however, only about two-
thirds of the students agreed that they acquired work-related knowledge and skills or were better able
to solve complex or real-world problems. This result also raised the question of whether there was
sufficient student engagement in the classroom.
The survey also indicated that there was a gap between the time faculty expected students to
prepare for class and the actual time students spent studying. Fifty-two percent of faculty expected
students to spend five to 10 hours per week preparing for their class; however, only eleven percent of
the faculty actually believed that students spent that much time studying. This is consistent with
student reported data on the time spent preparing for class. There are some studies indicating that
student preparation time has decreased since 1960. A MIOPA approach may improve student
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 71
preparation because there is a direct connection between preparation and required participation and
engagement in class.
Educators spend hours planning learning experiences for their students, but students may not engage
enthusiastically. One of the biggest frustrations for educators is unmotivated students. One way to address
this problem is through student empowerment. Instructors all have a genuine interest in their students’
success. Empowering students may increase their engagement and therefore, their learning.
Empowerment is accomplished by allowing the student to put forth their own ideas in correlation with the
concepts put forth, set their own schedules for study and providing an opportunity to discuss with each
other what they are doing and sharing the learning. As a result of student empowerment, it becomes the
process of energizing others in order to help them experience the task they are engaged in as empowering.
By considering the employment of student empowerment, the result is intrinsic task motivation (Sanders,
Boss, Boss, Mc Conki, 2009).
When preparing a lesson plan to engage students in the learning process, instructors need to create
learning spaces that foster a student-centered environment. For the most part, the traditional classroom
setting with seats/desks/tablets in a fixed lined up position facing the instructor at the front of the room
does not give rise to student empowerment or an engaging environment. Learning effectiveness increases
when the learning environment is created for a variety of settings (David Kolb, 2015). As Kolb suggests,
the authors designed a lesson plan implementing a hybrid instructional approach as indicated in Figure 3.
The images in Figure 3 are display examples of how these concepts can be applied to starting a
business, a science project, designing a product, practicing a new Math concept, etc. The objective is for
students to be given an opportunity to take an active part in using the material they have been exposed to
in the online session. In addition, students will be empowered to control their group activities, decide
how they will demonstrate to the class what was learned by combining what was learned from the online
lesson, group discussion, and interaction with other groups. It is not suggested here that these examples
are the only way to engage students in the learning process. These examples are just the beginning of
suggestions to consider when planning lessons for generation Z. According to Winsett, Foster, Dearing
and Burch (2016), students should be given the opportunity to engage in a variety of approaches such as
collaborating with others in the classroom, outside the classroom, and to be affectively and physically
involved in the learning to comprehend new concepts. These methods provide more time for students to
be exposed to a concept and a chance to practice.
72 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
The authors developed an eleven-question survey to ascertain students’ preferences with regards to
lecture, hands-on-learning, problem-solving, group-work, informal learning, use of multimedia in the
classroom, and diversity of teaching methods in the classroom. The survey was distributed to a diverse
group of students including graduate and undergraduates at Monmouth University. Graduate students
were included in the study to discover if their attitudes toward learning were different then undergraduate
students, as the graduate students have already entered the workforce and had experienced a traditional
undergraduate education. The student population in the study was comprised of majors from the General
Business, Communication, Healthcare, Criminal Justice, Accounting, Finance, and Marketing programs.
One-hundred and thirty-three students were surveyed over two semesters during the fall 2018 and spring
2019 semesters at Monmouth University.
Data was collected through an anonymous student survey. The survey consisted of 11 questions
inquiring about student preferences conserving various aspects of the of course delivery and teaching
methods. The results are tabulated and graphically represented below in Table 1 and Figure 4.
MIOPA Survey Results Yes No
I feel I learn more by "doing" than be lectured to? 96.2% 3.8%
Instructor used class time effectively? 97.7% 2.3%
Case analysis is a real-world learning process? 100.0% 0.0%
Class time passes quickly when students are engaged in learning? 99.2% 0.8%
Videos help to bring in real-world situations? 97.7% 2.3%
Students working in groups completes the problem-solving process? 98.5% 1.5%
Do you learn in the environment? 99.2% 0.8%
Is this knowledge usable in the workplace? 98.5% 1.5%
Do you prefer learning experiences over lecture? 96.9% 3.1%
Would you recommend this instructor to a friend? 98.5% 1.5%
Does this learning environment help you overall? 97.7% 2.3%
Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019 73
Those in higher education can observe students at the junior high school levels to get a glimpse of
their behavior and what teaching approaches might be best suited to their lifestyle, their exposure to
technology, and their reliance on social learning. This study highlighted the importance of instructors
embracing an approach that teaches students that learning takes place through the instructor empowering
the student to engage in the learning. In addition, the study found that instructors benefit from using more
than one instructional approach. As this study indicates, students want to be actively engaged in the
learning and benefit when instructors provide space for students to flexibly interact with others who are
also allowed to problem-solve on their own. The authors put forth some suggested methods that combine
a variety of approaches that could keep the Z generation students engaged considering their limited
attention span. As stated, these are not the only possible approaches, but methods to consider when the
future generations become our students, for as most educators know, each student generation has their
own view of the environment and where they fit into it.
The authors of this article acknowledge that a major limitation of this article is the lack of empirical
data to back up their assertions. In the future, these authors will attempt to validate the statements put
forth in this article by developing and conducting a survey instrument to collect data from a broader
student population.
The ideas put forth in this paper are to consider providing a creative space in which students can
interact and engage with real world problems, allowing them to collaborate among themselves and then
practice the newly learned concept. This seems to coincide with the maxim “Seeing is believing, engaging
and practicing is learning.”
In 1798, the romantic poet, Friedrich Schlegel, understood that developments did not simply go from
one point to another and then stop, but that they were an ongoing process. Likewise, educational methods
and technological development are never stagnant and should not be treated as such. Educators need to be
kept abreast of the developments in current educational methodology and technology and their application
in the college classroom.
74 Journal of Business Diversity Vol. 19(3) 2019
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... This paradoxical factor is relevant to any educational technology intervention we create for preservice teacher education. Mosca et al. (2019) argued that promoting effective understanding and application of technology in learning should be part of preservice coursework that includes "hands-on experiences, along with collaborative activities with other students, which allows for the exchange of knowledge" (p. 67). ...
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... They prefer freedom and current consumption (Matraeva et al., 2019). It is appropriate to enable them to be surrounded by a creative environment where they can interact and collaborate (Mosca, Curtis and Savoth, 2019). Representatives of Generation Z have the potential to introduce change and innovation in the business environment, thus improving economic growth and organizational efficiency (El-Gohary and Eid, 2013). ...
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Thế hệ Z, thường được định nghĩa là những người có năm sinh trong khoảng 1997-2012 (Dimock, 2019), là lực lượng quan trọng trong cơ cấu dân số quốc gia. Với độ tuổi từ 9 đến 24 (tính đến 2021), thế hệ này là thành phần chính của quy mô dân số độ tuổi đi học, đồng thời là nhóm tuổi đang chuẩn bị hoặc vừa bước vào thị trường lao động. Bài viết này tập trung vào các đặc điểm tâm lý của thế hệ Z có liên quan đến hoạt động dạy và học ở sinh viên đại học, vốn là lực lượng dự bị quan trọng cho nền kinh tế. Cụ thể, bài viết mô tả các đặc điểm về tính cách, động cơ học tập, sở thích học tập và xu hướng trong các mối quan hệ học tập của sinh viên thuộc thế hệ Z. Dựa trên những thông tin này, các tác giả thảo luận sự cần thiết của một tư duy về thế hệ (generational mindset) trong việc giảng dạy ở bậc đại học cho sinh viên nhóm này. Các gợi ý về chiến lược và phương pháp dạy học cho sinh viên thế hệ Z cũng sẽ được trình bày. Bên cạnh đó, bài viết cũng đưa ra một số lưu ý khi áp dụng tư duy về thế hệ vào hoạt động giáo dục đại học cho thế hệ Z trong bối cảnh đặc thù tại Việt Nam.
Numerous generations are found in today's classroom ranging from Baby Boomer and Generation X instructors to Millennial and Generation Z students. While Generation Z comprises almost 80% of the student population among accredited interior design programs, little is known about their knowledge acquisition. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the dominant learning styles among undergraduate interior design students of Generation Z. Following the work of Watson and Thompson, the Gregorc Style Delineator, a self‐report instrument to determine learning style, was completed by 466 undergraduate interior design students enrolled in 14 Council for Interior Design Accreditation programs located across the United States. The findings indicate that interior design students have diverse learning styles, and it is particularly notable that a majority of participants are bimodal (n = 258; 55.4%). The most common learning style found was the combination of Concrete Random and Abstract Random (i.e., learners who are emotional and imaginative and enjoy holistic experiences with trial and error approaches and exploration). The second most common learning style was the unimodal Concrete Sequential (i.e., students who enjoy experiential activities and step‐by‐step processes). Surprisingly, Generation Z's educational characteristics have not changed much compared to students of the past with the exception of an increase in trimodal styles. Overall, this study's results can help evaluate and design the best methods to facilitate instruction that supports students' learning preferences to enhance educational outcomes.
Conference Paper
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The issue of formal and non-formal education of young people (Generation Z) is currently quite challenging. Generation Z significantly differs from the previous generations, in terms of personal values and motivational composition. Gender majorly affects the personal structure of individuals and the development of managerial skills at the same time. The main goal of the paper is to analyse the composition of personality, motivational characteristics of Generation Z from the perspective of gender diversity, with a focus on the development of managerial skills. The research sample consists of n = 150 respondents (students of Generation Z). Standardized psychodiagnostics questionnaires (NEO questionnaire and DMV questionnaire) were used for data collection. Gender diversity has an impact on the development of managerial skills due to different personality assumptions. The authors of this paper consider the identified statistically significant differences between genders in personality characteristics (neuroticism and conscientiousness) and identified statistically significant differences in motivational characteristics (motivation to perform and anxiety supporting performance) between genders of Generation Z members as the most important results of the research. These findings can be used not only in the development of managerial skills, but also in the fields of formal education at universities and colleges.
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A deeper understanding, analysis, appropriate design and management of students’ educational environment can be a powerful tool to improve the performance of both students and universities in the 21st century. The need to focus on the development of learning environments in higher education is also expressed by educational policy makers. In view of the fact that generations change and learners gain unique characteristics that differentiate them from the earlier generations, it is essential that learning environments are constantly researched and reconsidered. In the current article attention is centered on reconsideration of university educational environment for the learners of the new generation – Generation Z. Based on the literature review, the current article dwells on the discussion about educational environments for Generation Z. First, most common characteristics of the latest generation of learners have been explored and grouped into the characteristics that have a positive impact on learning and those detrimental to learning. Second, the article examines the concept of university educational environment. Third, it investigates the features of university educational environment that could be acceptable to the learners of Generation Z in higher education. The article seeks to discuss what in particular should be reconsidered by educators when developing educational environment so that it would become an influential part of learners’ personal learning environments. DOI:
Much has been written about teaching Millennials; however, little has been discussed about Generation Z-those just entering college. Nursing instructors must adapt to the upcoming generation's mobile tech-savviness and self-directed learning, which often is accompanied by a lack of critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies and incorporating technology are highlighted. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(6):253-254.
The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of cognitive load in visual displays, the value of inquiry learning as an educational method, the various ways to conceptualize thinking about cognitive, affective, and behavioral experiences, and the educational use of Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing. The literature on the role of cognitive engagement in assessment practice, inquiry learning as an educational tool, the promotion of web-based technologies for mainstream education, and educational use of emerging Web 2.0-based technologies is relevant to this discussion. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated behavior that impedes the teaching/learning process, the use of multimodal learning techniques, the relationships between institutional characteristics and faculty behaviors and attitudes, and the importance of designing complex learning materials based on a cognitive theory of multimedia learning and cognitive load theory.
Empowering students in ways that significantly increase their engagement and learning is challenging. This paper describes how Collins and Porras' (1994) concept of the Big Hairy Audacious Goal (BHAG, pronounced bee-hag) functions as an empowering semester project that significantly increases student engagement and learning. Based on Thomas and Velthouse's (1990) operationalization of empowerment as intrinsic task motivation, this essay outlines how to implement the BHAG as a semester project and offers evidence of increased student empowerment and learning. The discussion and findings in this essay will help management educators develop ways in which they can empower students in the courses they teach as well as increase their students' engagement and learning through this open-ended semester project.
Technology has changed the way the world functions on a day-to-day basis, but what about education? Education has been directly affected by the increase of technology in the United States. This change has not been well accepted by some members of the educational community, thus leaving the realm of education behind in the technology era. This article seeks to focus on the benefits of technology in the classroom as well as some of the issues that surround teachers and technology. The article also delves into the future of technology and education and provides some helpful tips for technology use in the classroom.
This book provides the student with an understanding of theories and research on learning and related processes and demonstrates their application in educational contexts. The text is intended for graduate students in schools of education or related disciplines, as well as for advanced undergraduates interested in education. It is assumed that most students using this text are pursuing educationally relevant careers and that they possess minimal familiarity with psychological concepts and research methods. Important historical theories are initially discussed, followed by accounts of current research. Differing views are presented, as well as criticism when warranted. A chapter is devoted to problem solving and learning in reading, writing, mathematics, and science. The chapters on motivation, self-regulation, and instructional processes address topics relevant to learning theories. These topics traditionally have shown little overlap with learning theories, but fortunately this situation is changing. Researchers are addressing such topics as how motivation can influence quantity and quality of learning, how instructional practices impact information processing, and how learning principles can be applied to develop self-regulated learners. The applications of learning principles focus on school-aged students, both because of personal preference and because most students are interested in working with children and teenagers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Psycho-analysis of Mobile applications usage among Generation Z Teens
  • O Gupta
  • G Gulati
Gupta, O., & Gulati, G. (2014, August). Psycho-analysis of Mobile applications usage among Generation Z Teens. International Journal on Global Business Management & Research, 3(1), 80-95.
Driven to Distraction
  • E Hallowell
  • J Ratery
Hallowell, E., & Ratery, J. (2010). Driven to Distraction. Anchor Books, New York.
National survey of student engagement; the college student report
  • G D Kuh
Kuh, G.D. (n.d.). National survey of student engagement; the college student report. Bloomington, IN; Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning.