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Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks

  • Łukasiewicz - Poznań Institute of Technology

Abstract and Figures

E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the Polish economy. Its development is driven by rapidly expanding Internet access. Worldwide e-commerce is dominated by marketplaces with a great market share. There are both advantages and disadvantages related to the use of marketplaces, for sellers and buyers alike. The aims of this paper are to indicate the nature of marketplaces, develop a classification for them, and also to indicate new challenges related to them and development directions in Poland.
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Copyright: Wyższa Szkoła Logistyki, Poznań, Polska
Citation: Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
Received: 30.04.2019, Accepted: 23.08.2019, on-line: 29.09.2019.
> Scientific Journal of Logistics <
p-ISSN 1895-2038
2019, 15 (4), 521-529
ISSN 1734
Arkadiusz Kawa
, Magdalena Wałęsiak
1) Poznań University of Economics and Business, Poznań, Poland, 2) GS1 Polska, Poznań, Poland
. Background: E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the Polish economy. Its
development is driven by rapidly expanding Internet access. Worldwide e-commerce is dominated by marketplaces with
a great market share. There are both advantages and disadvantages related to the use of marketplaces, for sellers and
buyers alike.
The aims of this paper are to indicate the nature of marketplaces, develop a classification for them, and also to indicate
new challenges related to them and development directions in Poland.
Methods: For the needs of this paper, research was conducted using the methods of direct observation and analysis of
primary and secondary sources. The primary materials included data obtained from companies providing marketplaces in
Poland and abroad, and the secondary ones – reports, studies and Internet sources. In addition, in-depth interviews were
performed with experts on marketplaces.
Results: The article provides a detailed description of marketplaces. The authors describe the division and characteristics
of marketplaces and discussed the potential trends in this field. It presents marketplace-related benefits and
disadvantages, and how the authors classify them.
Conclusions: Marketplaces create new opportunities for expansion on a larger scale for online sellers. Companies do not
need to invest in a sales platform or have knowledge of legal aspects. Moreover, they have access to innovative solutions.
Obviously, there are many disadvantages, such as very strong competition from numerous sellers in one place, becoming
dependent on this sales channel, and neglecting the growth of the seller's own online shop.
Key words:
e-commerce, marketplace, value network.
The global value of retail e-commerce in
2018 reached over USD 2.84 T. In 2019 it is
expected to exceed USD 3.45 T and climb to
USD 4.88 T in 2021 [Statista 2019a]. The
share of e-commerce in retail has been
growing steadily. Last year, it was 11.9%,
reaching 13.7% in 2019 and 17.5% in 2021
[Statista 2019b]. Fashion products (clothes,
footwear, accessories), electronics and media
(personal electronics, music, games) are the
products purchased online most often.
Customers purchase products both from
online shops and marketplaces, with the latter
enjoying particular popularity. Last year, the
top 100 biggest marketplaces generated
turnover of USD 1.86 B. This accounted for
over 95% of the revenues across all platforms
and around 65% of the world's e-commerce
combined. The massive share of these
platforms and their dynamic growth (23% in
relation to 2017) shows how important they are
in shaping e-commerce domestically and
internationally. Of the largest 100 platforms,
61 are in the USA, 17 in Asia, 14 in Europe, 5
in South America and 3 in Africa.
Interestingly, 59 marketplaces have been
founded in USA and 39 are not older than 9
years [Ali 2019].
Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
In terms of turnover, in 2018, the two
largest marketplaces were the Chinese Taobao
(USD 515 B) and Tmall (USD 432 B), both
owned by the Alibaba Group. These were
followed by Amazon (USD 344 B),
(USD 259 B) and eBay (USD 96 B) [Ali
2019]. Alibaba's turnover stems both from the
purchasing power of China and other Asian
states, where the marketplace is active and
from the amazing popularity of the group's
platforms. 80% of products purchased in China
is sold on these portals. Apart from China,
marketplaces had over 50% of market share in
just two countries. In Germany, where Amazon
had a 55% market share, and in Poland, with
Allegro registering 50% market share
[Ecommerce Foundation 2016]. Currently,
Allegro's share in Polish e-commerce stands at
around 40%.
Apart from micro and small businesses,
medium-size and large firms also sell their
products on marketplaces. Recently, more and
more of the largest businesses have been
joining marketplaces. These new forms of
selling have become an important part of both
e-commerce and the entire economy. This is
because marketplaces eliminate entry barriers
to new businesses and the expansion of
existing ones. They also create new solutions
and show new directions in the digital
economy. Amazon, Alibaba and invest
billions in logistics infrastructure, thus helping
the regions where they operate to grow.
What is the nature of marketplaces and
what marketplaces other than Allegro are
available in Poland? What new challenges do
marketplaces face and what are their
development directions? These are some of the
questions we will try to address in the article.
The aims of this paper are to indicate the
nature of marketplaces, develop an original
classification of them, and to indicate new
challenges they face and development
directions in Poland.
The paper is divided into three main parts.
The first section discusses the nature of
marketplaces, the second presents and
describes the types of marketplaces, and the
third speaks of the future directions for the
development of marketplaces.
For the purpose of this article, the authors
conducted research by means of direct
observation and analysis of secondary sources
such as reports, publications, press materials
and marketplace websites. Additionally, the
article draws on the authors’ expert knowledge
acquired during over a dozen years of market
observations and the previously conducted
analyses and reports.
Speaking in the most general terms,
a marketplace is a platform that offers products
and services of numerous sellers, which can be
bought by clients [Tian et al. 2018, Li et al.
2019]. Most of the products come from
external companies, although some platforms
also offer their own products (e.g. Amazon,
Allegro). Other businesses must be able to sell
their products to make the platform
a marketplace, otherwise it is just an online
shop. Sometimes the term “marketplace” is
wrongly used for online stores with a very
wide selection of products. As previously
noted, marketplaces can also offer services for
sale. However, this article focuses on goods,
because their turnover is more complex and
requires more attention.
Sellers trade on popular platforms
frequently visited by users in exchange for
a part of their sales profits. Most often, the
marketplace business model is based on
collecting fees for sales made through them.
These fees differ depending on the platform
and the category of products. Some
marketplaces collect fees for listing the product
(e.g. Allegro). The sellers agree to such fees,
because marketplaces allow them to enter the
market with low financial outlays.
Consequently, such platforms are key selling
venues for many sellers.
Marketplaces offer undeniable advantages,
such as prompt access to a lot of clients, high
recognizability, first contact venue (many
buyers start looking for products on
marketplaces), ready technical solutions,
a payment system and logistics. They are great
venues for testing products and new sales
markets and for collecting information from
clients. A small batch of pilot goods can be
Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
launched to test demand and get feedback from
clients, all without making big investments in
sales and distribution channels. Some of the
limitations are very strong competition (for
example, 363,000 new sellers offering
identical or very similar products joined
Amazon in Europe in 2017), listing systems
(some online shop suppliers offer integration
and automated listings), communication with
clients from abroad, and fees.
Some marketplaces seek ways of generating
additional revenues other than from sales
commission. One such example may be
fulfilment services, consisting in the
marketplace taking over processes related to
warehouse logistics, i.e. receiving goods,
storage, picking, packing, shipping and
handling returns [Semeijn et al. 2005]. This is
Amazon’s speciality, as they operate numerous
warehouses across the world. The seller is not
obliged to ship their goods to Amazon
warehouses, but this may mean that their
listings are poorly positioned.
The leading marketplace sellers owe their
success to their unique approach to customers
[Church, Oakley 2018]. They draw on clients’
emotions and provide them with a product- and
delivery-related experience. The emotional
aspect applies to lifestyle, fashion, trends and
social affiliation. This reinforces the
relationship between the client and the
platform. Mainly due to customization, the
Internet has made it possible to know clients
better, in particular their shopping experience,
and consequently to adapt the offer to their
preferences and to increase their loyalty.
Learning the needs of their potential clients
allows sellers to offer their products more
consciously. Add-on sales are used for existing
clients. This may be take the form of cross-
selling, where products from other categories
(often of complementary nature) are sold, or
selling more expensive or more advanced
products from the same category (up-selling).
As shown in the analysis, there are both
advantages and disadvantages related to the
use of marketplaces, and both for sellers and
the buyers. These have been specified in
Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages for sellers
Marketplace brand recognizability
A high number of clients in one place
Low entry barrier (no need to invest in a sales platform or to know
legal aspects etc.)
Additional channel of sales and a source of revenue
Ability to reach clients abroad
Sales and logistics support
Better promotion of products (lower expenses on SEO and
Increased seller credibility
Access to innovative solutions (new tech, marketing and logistics
solutions used by marketplaces)
Access to analytical and benchmarking data
Very strong competition from numerous sellers in one place
Becoming dependent on this sales channel and neglecting
the growth of the seller's own online shop
Frequent changes to the sales and fees policy
Service costs (subscription or listing fee, promotion fees and
sales commissions)
Restrictive requirements concerning product descriptions
and images, customer service
Risk of competitors copying ideas or marketplaces / other
sellers offering the popular products
Limited possibilities of promoting the seller's own online
Source: authors' own analysis
Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages for buyers
Access to numerous products in one place
Possibility to compare prices of products offered by various suppliers
No need to learn the operation of various online shop platforms (product
data base put in order and catalogued)
Higher credibility of sellers
Higher safety of transactions (customer protection programs)
Feedback on sellers from other users
Access to attractive loyalty programs (e.g. Amazon Prime, Allegro
Availability of used products
Access to products from abroad, with payments possible in local
Becoming dependent on one marketplace
Difficult contact with the seller
No individual approach from the marketplace
Shipments from different sellers divided (fees for
additional shipments, delivery in different time)
Source: authors' own analysis
Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
As e-commerce develops, new
marketplaces emerge. The biggest players offer
practically all types of products that can be
purchased from bricks & mortar stores. Their
platforms often offer items that are only
available there, e.g. hand-crafted goods.
However, just like there are specialized online
shops, marketplaces also become segmented.
Consequently, platforms focusing on specific
products and business areas have been
launched, e.g. fashion, electronics, home or
hand-crafted items. An omnichannel strategy is
yet another emerging trend, based on the
seller’s presence in various online and off-line
sales channels. Some marketplace owners
expand and launch traditional sales channels,
and some of the biggest websites open their
own marketplaces.
Price comparison sites and best deal sites
are not marketplaces by definition. Many
buyers start searching for products on websites
such as:,,,, and Currently, 67% of
Polish web users compare prices of products
and services and 19% make their first
purchases on the basis of results from price
comparison sites (Gemius 2018). Every third
online shop in Poland uses price comparison
sites as promotion tools [Skorupska 2017].
Apart from the price, products are tiered based
on criteria such as popularity or positive
feedback about the store or the product. As e-
commerce grows, the role of price comparison
sites changes. The entire shopping process can
now be conducted on a price comparison site,
so such sites are more and more commonly
treated as marketplaces.
Another group of emerging marketplaces
are platforms available only to business clients
(B2B). The reasons driving both individual and
business clients are largely the same. Low
prices, time savings and convenience are the
most important ones. Additionally, businesses
want to buy as many goods and services as
possible from one place and want to integrate
their processes with a selected B2B operator.
Research shows that business using online
purchasing systems can save up to 15%.
Today, only 35% of Polish businesses use such
solutions [Aleo, Deloitte 2017].
The types of marketplaces, divided
according to various criteria, are presented in
Table 3.
Table 3. Classification of marketplaces according to division criteria
Division criterion
Types of marketplaces
Source of origin Primary – platforms created in digital version
Secondary platforms, whose digital versions were
created on the basis of traditional operation or online
shops complementing their offer
Sales channels Online only platforms only available in
digital form (pure players)
Online and offline platforms operating in
traditional and digital version (bricks and mortar
Type of relation Direct – platforms through which goods can be
purchased directly
Indirect – platforms aggregating information from
other sellers and directing clients to them (e.g. price
comparison sites)
Reach Domestic platforms only available in local
languages and handling clients from one
country only
International platforms available in many
languages and handling clients from multiple
Product presentation Product catalogue platforms presenting
offers as catalogued products, to which new
sellers attach their listings (the platform is the
owner of the product description website,
where offers from at least 1 seller) are
Product list platforms presenting offers as lists of
products created by individual sellers (the seller is the
owner of their listing)
Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
Division criterion
Types of marketplaces
Types of clients B2C the clients are mainly
natural persons, but most of
the products can also be
purchased by business clients
C2C the sellers and the
clients are mainly natural
B2B – the sellers and the clients are
mainly businesses
Types of listings Merchandise
platforms where only goods
are offered
platforms where only services
are offered
platforms where both goods and
services are offered,
Types of products Horizontal
platforms where various
sellers offer different
products (in numerous
categories, fields etc.)
Vertical platforms where
various sellers offer goods in
the same category (per branch,
application, specialization, etc.)
platforms where both sellers and the
platform itself offer different
Intended use External open platforms
that can be used both by
sellers and buyers who
satisfy specific criteria
Internal closed platforms
that can only be used by
selected buyers or sellers
Mixed platforms limited for
selected sellers who satisfy specific
criteria (e.g. shopping clubs)
Source: authors' own analysis
Marketplaces are increasingly becoming the
main selling channels for bricks & mortar
sellers and online sellers. Many traders find
them convenient, because they attract new
clients and provide ways of serving them.
Thanks to their brand, marketplaces make
products of less-known sellers more credible.
Additionally, marketplace owners invest
heavily in advertising, promotional activities
and PR. The seller’s role boils down to
providing information about the listing (which
is often transferred automatically to the
marketplace from the seller's system) and
preparing the product for shipment (which may
be a part of Amazon's fulfillment service).
Marketplaces are also great testing grounds for
new products, as large numbers of clients may
be reached through them without having to
incur substantial costs. In the case of
international marketplaces, sellers may reach
foreign buyers without speaking their
language, having legal knowledge, logistics
infrastructure etc.
A lot of evidence points to marketplaces
being some of the key actors in the e-
commerce value network. Experts anticipate
that by 2020 around 40% of online trade will
be done through marketplaces [MarkMonitor
2016]. Online sellers have no other
alternatives. Apart from thinking of developing
their online business, they also have to
consider joining this sales channel or
strengthening their current presence in
marketplaces. Their 40% share of the Polish
market was reached a long time ago. This is
mainly due to the history of our e-commerce,
as for many years, Allegro was the buyers’
first choice. The sales structure only started to
change with the presence of competition, such
as producers, retail networks, professional
online shops and foreign marketplaces.
Every year, several new marketplaces
emerge in Poland. This is possible, because the
entry barriers do not seem difficult to cross.
Unlike with online shops, no warehouses,
goods or logistics employees are needed. The
cost of developing the IT tools is not an
insurmountable obstacle. Upkeep of the site
and developing it are the biggest problems.
The optimal scale of operation, building brand
awareness and ongoing promotional activities
seem to be the key to success. Most new
marketplaces build their potential in the initial
stages of operations by offering free of charge
services. However, this can only be done with
significant financial back-up. Additionally, the
largest marketplaces continue to improve their
tools and go to great lengths to attract and keep
their clients. Polish e-commerce has seen
numerous promising marketplaces that failed
to withstand the pressure from competitors,
e.g. Ś or
Given the stiff competition, new
marketplaces must do everything to stand out
in the market. One of the ways to do this is to
specialize in certain fields or products.
Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
Although marketplaces are very “spacious”
and can carry all categories of products, buyers
look for specialized products in specialist
shops. It is true that millions of products can be
browsed on eBay, Amazon or Allegro, but
these sites will not replace vertical platforms
with knowledgeable sellers offering assistance
and, often, better prices. This is why some
experts claim that following the development
of marketplaces offering a wide range of
goods, more specialized platforms will emerge
and be active in respective fields. The
beginnings of this trend can be seen in Poland,
as a relatively large number of new
marketplaces have recently emerged in the
fashion sector (clothes and footwear). Apart
from electronics, this is one of the largest
segments of the market and one that keeps
growing dynamically. Many producers active
in this field sell their products themselves. For
them, marketplaces are a great way to
complement their sales channels, with clients
having access to a wide assortment of goods in
one place. Research shows that clients care
increasingly about a wide range of online
sellers and would like to shop in one place.
This follows the one-stop shopping concept,
where all purchases can be handled in one
place. Apart from that, fashion items are high-
margin goods. The situation is different with
electronics, where the margins are very low
and where large retailers known for traditional
sales predominate, such as,, or Consequently, there is
practically no space in this field for
a middleman, such as a marketplace,
specializing in electronics.
The dynamic growth of e-commerce means
that it is not only individual clients want to
shop online. More and more companies that
only deal with business clients are becoming
interested in this sales channel. This give rise
to marketplaces dedicated to B2B. One of the
newest outfits in Poland is, which
was launched in February 2019. This is a B2B
platform that not only allows the listing of
products for domestic and international
markets, but also deals with customer service
and logistics processes. With its platform,
OEX wants to cover the entire e-commerce
value chain from supplier management
through sales to handling returns.
More marketplaces should be expected to
be launched soon by sellers who are well
known in the market, and who have significant
potential in the form of networks of suppliers,
human resources, IT and clients. They will be
able to expand their product portfolio with
a new, complementary assortment. This will
drive more traffic on their websites and be
a source of additional revenues. A good
example of this might be IKEA, which is
considering starting their own marketplace.
IKEA wants to sell its own products and
products from other retailers on the
marketplace. The offer will not be limited to
furniture, but will also include home-related
items, in particular DIY and art merchandise.
IKEA has been testing sales on Alibaba and
Amazon, apparently, with good success.
However, creating such a marketplace will be
a challenge for IKEA, as other furniture
producers and distributors will have to be
invited to cooperate. IKEA has declared that
no negotiations with their competitors are
currently taking place, but apparently, they are
interested in creating a sales platform for the
entire industry [Fedorenko 2019].
We should also be mindful of competition
that marketplaces face from tech companies.
Facebook, enjoying great popularity in Poland,
runs its own marketplace. The service operates
like a noticeboard similar to and It connects sellers and buyers who
live close by to start the transaction online and
complete it in person during pick-up. It is
mostly used by individual clients [Wei et al.
2019]. Marketplaces face more danger from
Google Shopping. So far, Google in Poland
has been collecting data about products,
aggregating them, showing them as Product
Listing Ads (ads displayed at the top of the
Google search engine page) and redirecting to
online sellers. At the beginning of 2019,
Google announced they were planning to
launch their own marketplace, which, apart
from listing offers, will handle payments and
provide integration with other solutions.
Sellers will be responsible for customer service
and logistics. Google is planning to test the
new solution first in France. If these tests are
concluded successfully, we can expect to see
the platform in Poland, too.
Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
Today, the keys to success in e-commerce
are technology and logistics [Bask, Lipponen,
Tinnilä 2012]. Marketplaces will continue to
invest in these two fields in the coming years.
Experts expect marketplaces to keep growing
in the field of artificial intelligence (AI),
machine learning and real-time personalization
[Columbus 2018]. With regard to logistics, the
focus will be on making shipments quicker and
cheaper, offering warehousing services,
picking and handling returns. Some related
activities can be seen on Allegro in this regard.
In March 2019, Francois Nuyts, Allegro’s
CEO, announced several new solutions. Their
objective is to turn the marketplace into a sort
of an ecosystem comprised of sellers and
providers of complementary services. One of
the proposals for change will be a tool with
which sellers will be able to analyse their own
business against the competition. More
attention will be paid to evaluating the sellers
in terms of logistics the time of shipment
and delivery, along with return possibilities
will be scored. Allegro also wants to
implement uniform standards for providers of
logistics services with regard to delivery time.
Same-day delivery is to be available in
selected places. Delayed payment for goods
purchased is to be a breakthrough solution.
This way, the client will have 30 days from the
date of delivery to pay for their order. Credit
will not only be extended to clients, but also to
sellers, e.g. through a working capital facility
and a revolving facility.
The world's biggest shopping platforms,
Alibaba and Amazon, are going one step
further with regard to logistics. Alibaba has
already built numerous warehouses where they
perform fulfilment services for their sellers,
while continuing to invest in new technologies
and expand into new markets. The company is
currently at the acquisition stage and is
broadening its logistics services. Recently,
Alibaba bought 14% of shares in STO Express,
the fifth largest Chinese carrier. Previously, the
company had also bought shares in YTO
Express Group, Best Inc. and ZTO Express
[Kapadia 2019].
It has been known for quite some time that
Amazon is aiming at the position of the leader
in logistics services. The evidence for this is
the company's own warehouse, fleet of trucks,
own airline, drone delivery system and
numerous patents related to logistics and last-
mile management, which is the most complex
and costly element of the entire logistics
process in e-commerce. In the USA, Amazon
has its own parcel lockers and courier vehicles,
which reduces the number of parcels handled
by courier operators. Recently, the company
also launched courier services in Europe,
namely in France, Germany, GB and Austria.
This expansion caused DHL to withdraw their
operations from Austria and made the Austrian
postal service apprehensive as to their own
future in this market [CEP-Research, 2019].
Amazon may repeat these steps when they
launch sales in Poland. Consequently, the
courier, express and parcel sector should be
ready for this scenario.
When analysing the growth of marketplaces
in Poland, we should also remember about the
very dynamic development and growing
popularity of other, foreign platforms in
Poland., and are some of these.
This study extends current understanding of
the essence of marketplaces in e-commerce. It
develops an original approach to marketplace
classification to facilitate a better
understanding of their wide range. Moreover, it
indicates their advantages and disadvantages.
Thanks to marketplaces, trade in Poland has
become easier and more convenient than ever
before. Its beneficiaries are both companies
and customers. Almost each firm has the
potential to become a successful trader.
Marketplaces create new opportunities for
already existing entities to expand on a larger
scale and offers prospects for rapid
development to emerging entities. This is
possible due to low entry barriers that
encourage more and more companies to sell
their products on the Internet. They can offer
a wider range of products without great effort.
Companies are able to save on both fixed and
variable costs, such as rent, labour and other
overheads associated with the presence on their
own websites. It is particularly important in the
case of cross-border trade, because companies
Kawa A., Wałęsiak M., 2019. Marketplace as a key actor in e-commerce value networks. LogForum 15 (4), 521-
do not have to spend a lot of money on
international expansion. Moreover, they have
access to innovative solutions (new tech,
marketing and logistics solutions used by
marketplaces). Obviously, there are many dark
sides of marketplaces in e-commerce, such as
very strong competition from numerous sellers
in one place, becoming dependent on this sales
channel and neglecting the growth of the
seller's own online shop.
Even though our research offers new
insights into marketplaces understanding, it has
some limitations, e.g. its theoretical character.
However, our study can provide a basis for the
preparation of empirical studies which will
allow new hypotheses to be tested.
This paper has been written with the
financial support of the National Center of
Science [Narodowe Centrum Nauki] – grant
number DEC-2015/19/B/HS4/02287.
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perspectives. Industrial Management &
Data Systems, 119(2), 331-350.
. Wstęp: Handel elektroniczny w Polsce jest jednym z najbardziej dynamicznych i ważnych
sektorów gospodarki. Jego rozwój pobudzany jest przez szybko rozwijający się dostęp do Internetu. W światowym e-
commerce dominują marketplace’y o dużym udziale w rynku. Korzystanie z nich wiążą się jednak zarówno z licznymi
zaletami i wadami zarówno dla sprzedających, jak i kupujących.
Celem artykułu jest charakterystyka marketplace’ów oraz opracowanie ich oryginalnej klasyfikacji, wskazanie nowych
wyzwań i kierunków rozwoju w Polsce.
Metody: Na potrzeby artykułu przeprowadzono badania z wykorzystaniem metod bezpośredniej obserwacji i analizy
źródeł pierwotnych i wtórnych. Materiałami podstawowymi były dane uzyskane od firm prowadzących marketplace’y
w Polsce i za granicą, a materiałami wtórnymi - raporty, badania i źródła internetowe. Ponadto przeprowadzono wywiady
pogłębione z ekspertami ds. marketplace’ów.
Wyniki: W artykule scharakteryzowano szczegóły dotyczące marketplace’ów. Autorzy opisali ich podział
i charakterystykę oraz omówili potencjalne trendy na rynku marketplace’ów. Przedstawiono korzyści i straty z nimi
związane oraz sposób ich klasyfikacji.
Wnioski: Marketplace’y stwarzają nowe możliwości ekspansji na większą skalę dla sprzedawców internetowych. Firmy
nie muszą inwestować w platformę sprzedaży ani znać aspektów prawnych. Ponadto mają dostęp do innowacyjnych
rozwiązań. Oczywiście, istnieje wiele wad, takich jak bardzo silna konkurencja ze strony wielu sprzedawców w jednym
miejscu, uzależnienie od tego kanału sprzedaży i zaniedbanie rozwoju własnego sklepu internetowego sprzedawcy.
Słowa kluczowe:
e-handel, marketplace, wartość dla klienta
Arkadiusz Kawa ORCID ID:
Poznań University of Economics and Business
Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań, Poland
Magdalena Wałęsiak
GS1 Polska, Poznań, Poland
... The focus of this research paper is on the retailer's dual role as simultaneous marketplace owner and reseller behaving competitive to other supply-side participants as introduced by Wulfert and Schütte (Wulfert and Schütte, 2021). DMs can be established on the basis of an existing offline business in brick-and-mortar stores or electronic shops as additional sales or procurement channel (Kawa and Wałȩsiak, 2019). Thus, a retailer's IS need to facilitate the intermediation and orchestration of previously independent sides and traditional retail functions with related tasks (Levy et al., 2019;Reillier and Reillier, 2017). ...
... Although this set is neither complete nor comprehensive, it includes the main requirements resulting from a retailer's dual role on DMs. The ARs address the retailer's dual role with the marketplace owner as an ecosystem participant behaving competitively to other resellers (Kawa and Wałȩsiak, 2019) with the major requirements matching process as core value proposition (AR3) (Reillier and Reillier, 2017) and additional innovation platform services (AR5) (Tiwana et al., 2010). Thus, future research can derive additional ARs from practitioner interviews and company documentations. ...
Conference Paper
Electronic commerce and digital marketplaces (DMs) have proven to be successful business models compared with traditional brick-and-mortar retailing. Online sales and the simultaneous orchestration of participants from independent market sides on DMs (dual role) pose additional requirements for information systems. Reference architectures (RAs) can be used as blueprints for the implementation of information systems for DMs supporting a retailer’s dual role. However, RAs in retail were mostly developed for brick-and-mortar environments. The peculiarities of electronic commerce and DMs require adaptations and enhancements. Thus, we conduct a literature review following vom Brocke et al. (2009) involving 1,357 research papers to identify RAs supporting a retailer’s dual role on DMs. We identified seven DM-specific architecture requirements and analyzed RAs identified according to Angelov et al. (2012). Our analysis revealed 13 RAs with only limited support for a retailer’s dual role on DMs.
... In addition, the characteristics of online marketplace can be observed from its advantages, '. . . such as prompt access to a lot of clients, high recognizability, first contact venue for buyers, ready technical solutions, a payment system, and logistics' (Kawa and Wałęsiak, 2019). However, both types of markets share highly demanding arenas of social interaction, as described by Beckert (2009). ...
Full-text available
This study explores the phenomenon of digital-social construction in the form of anonymous transactions, asymmetric information, and unlimited access in online marketplace. The study was conducted by processing digital data of 5131 comments, descriptions, and rating records of 1988 IDs of functional food products sold at Bukalapak, one of the largest marketplaces in Indonesia. Using Python and Google Studio software, digital-social interactions are mapped and visualized based on four conceptual frameworks of economic sociology, namely social embeddedness of market, product standardization, intersubjective construction of symbolic value, and willingness to pay. This study marks a new chapter in the study of contemporary economic sociology, in which conventional conceptual frameworks are applied to uncover digital market phenomena using research methods that fully process and analyze big data in the business field.
... Irrespective of the successful platforms in e-commerce (e.g.,, Amazon Marketplace, Walmart Marketplace), many other retailers (e.g., Rakuten, have attempted to establish successful e-commerce ecosystems around their own focal platform (Kawa & Wałesiak, 2019;Wulfert et al., 2021). The owner of the focal platform needs to attract a variety of participants to be economically successful (Schirrmacher et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Although e-commerce in general and platform business models in e-commerce report steadily increasing revenues, establishing e-commerce ecosystems is not a guaranteed success per se. Potential platform owners must carefully plan the ignition of the ecosystem to reach a critical mass of customers. This critical mass is crucial for the platform to benefit from direct and indirect network effects. However, research so far has not provided clear guidance and strategies on how to successfully establish ecosystems in e-commerce. Therefore, we evaluated and demonstrated generic platform ignition strategies in e-commerce. Our evaluation is thereby based upon an established mathematical model for two-sided markets considering utility gains from indirect network effects and costs. The heterogeneity of the individual market sides is reflected in the form of sigmoidal distribution functions. Applying this model, we show that subsidies, seeding, marquee, single side, micro market, piggybacking, opening up, and big bang marketing are potential strategies for reaching a critical mass of participants in e-commerce ecosystems. We provide guidance for practitioners on how to establish successful e-commerce ecosystems. We contribute to the body of knowledge strategies in e-commerce ecosystems by bridging critical mass and network effects.
... On this occasion with various hopes in order to help in increasing sales of SMEs products more widely through online marketing (Hakim, 2019) explained that online marketing has been felt, namely the change in public consumption patterns, especially for the consumption of clothing from those who usually shop offline in stores, outlets, supermarkets or malls some consumers turn to online shopping. Using technology in product promotion will be a new way for SMEs to be able to keep moving in the economy (Kawa & Wałęsiak, 2019) ...
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The purpose of devotion is to provide knowledge and skills of online marketing to the younger generation by utilizing e-commerce technology to develop youth Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Grinting Village. The participants consisted of 25 member SMEs of fried onions specifically for the people of Grinting Village. The materials provided include the creation of an online shop account, product uploads, marketing up to the online financial system. This service was carried out in Grinting Village, Bulakamba District, Brebes Regency, Central Java with the target of the community and the younger generation, especially the entire management of Karang Taruna Garuda Jaya Grinting Village. This cooperation is based on the cooperation between Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta and grinting village government. The method used is to provide training materials through presentations accompanied by e-commerce implementation training. The achievement of this devotion is the implementation of the service activities in accordance with the expected number of participants as many as 25 administrators and members of Karangtaruna Garuda Jaya Grinting Village independently can develop SMEs for economic independence. Participants gain knowledge and skills about e-commerce implementation to capture developing and mentoring SMEs in local villages. Keywords: SMEs, Grinting, empowerment, e-commerce, training
... The current information technology-based sales system is not only sales that are individual in nature, even to sales systems such as markets in general but are electronic-based known as marketplaces. Sometimes the term Marketplace is misinterpreted which is only used for online stores with a wide selection of products, Marketplace can also offer services for sales [2]. Marketplace is defined as a platform where sellers gather who sell their goods to customers without meeting physically. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine the direct effect of e-commerce innovation, e-service quality, and product diversity on customer loyalty, as well as the indirect influence through the image of the marketplace in Madura Island. The analytical technique used in this research is the Structural Equation Model analysis with SamrtPls. The results in this study found that 1) the E-Commerce Innovation variable have a direct influence on the Marketplace Image. 2) the E-CommerceiInnovation variableihasia direct effection Customer Loyality. 3) the E-ServiceeQualityyvariable has a direct effect on the Marketplace Image. 4) the E-ServiceiQualityyvariable has a direct effect oniCustomer Loyality. 5) the Product Diversity variable has a direct effect on the Marketplace Image. 6) Product Diversity variable has a direct effect on Customer Loyalty. 7) the Marketplace Image variable has a direct effect on Customer Loyalty. 8) the E-Commerce Innovationi variable has an indirect effect on Customer Loyality through Marketplace Image. 9) the E-Service Quality variable has an indirect effect on Customer Loyalty through the Marketplace Image. 10) Product Diversity variable has an indirect effect on Marketplace Image through CustomeriLoyalty.
The development of an IT strategy contributes to the creation of competitive advantages for the company through the use of modern information systems, technologies and resources that allow solving the full range of tasks at all levels of management, taking into account the features of the management system, goals and prospects for the development of the company. The activities approved as part of the IT strategy should be supported by data on the maturity of specific business processes. The main problem is that classical models of business process maturity rely on qualitative assessments without using quantitative ones, which is not suitable for assessing the maturity of business processes of an e-commerce company. In the article, the authors identified metrics linking the IT strategy with the maturity of business processes, as well as a model for evaluating the effectiveness of the company's information infrastructure, which allows us to identify priority areas for the development of IT infrastructure that correspond to the business goals of an e-commerce company.Keywordse-commerceIT strategyMarketplaceInformation systemsBusiness processes
The development of aviation and materials for their manufacture, the transition to electric motors and chemical current sources in ground transport require the study of electrochemical processes in contact with dissimilar metals, both in the form of individual structural elements and in the form of dissimilar phases of metal alloys. The article presents the results of a study of galvanic corrosion of aluminum alloys in atmospheric conditions using the developed method for studying changes in the electrochemical parameters of the aluminum surface during galvanic contact with metals such as zinc, copper, cobalt, magnesium, manganese. It is shown that during galvanic contact of dissimilar metals, the stationary potential of aluminum and the rate of its corrosion in a corrosive medium change, and the change in potential depends on the type of metal, and does not depend on the ratio of the areas of aluminum and metal in contact with the corrosive medium.KeywordsAviation materialsElectric transportAluminum alloyAlloying elementCorrosionElectroplatingCorrosion potentialCalculation of the corrosion potential value
Multifaceted platforms that mediater online transactions between multiple users are called marketplaces. This new business model has expanded over the past 20 years and these companies have started offering some services. Research on such changes is scarce in Brazil. Thus, the present work aims to analyze the services offered by the four main companies that act as marketplaces in Brazil: Mercado Livre, B2W, Via Varejo and Magazine Luiza. It is a qualitative and descriptive research with secondary data and documentary analysis. As a result, a change in market positioning was identified with the transformation of the business into an ecosystem of services for retailers and customers. Services were identified in different areas, such as marketing, logistics, finance, information systems and also people management. The work contributed to the expansion of the literature on this business model, providing a brief contextualization about these companies and their strategies. It also provides elements that can help managers to better understand the various elements that must be considered in order to act in partnership with a marketplace.
Full-text available
The article is devoted to the development of a conceptual business model of a marketplace focused on the restaurant business. Search for suppliers and potential consumers, along with the availability of information, remains one of the main issues of the market. Thus, the development of a marketplace model for HoReCa can be a solution to the search issues of both sides of business. Marketplaces are considered as a result of digitalization of economic society. Marketplaces act as an intermediary between the consumer and the seller, performs the functions of a market operator that processes consumer transactions and transmits information about orders to sellers. For certain marketplaces, the phenomenon of free or flexible pricing can be characteristic, when the prices of goods and services are determined directly by the interaction of suppliers and consumers. The article focuses on information availability and customer orientation of marketplaces. Marketplaces combine products and services from a wide range of suppliers, which is a key difference from an online store. It is worth noting that modern services provide a range of interaction models: business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C), business-to-government (B2G), consumer-to-consumer (C2C) and others. Considering specifics of the market, the article proposes to apply a combined model of interaction: B2B with features of C2C. Using such a model will provide an opportunity to placing orders and offers both to suppliers and HoReCa representatives. The article analyzes the key legal issues of opening such an innovative platform. Due to existing financial restrictions, marketplaces do not participate in the payment processing of orders, as the activity of a payment intermediary is considered a financial service and can only be performed by a financial institution. Despite these limitations, the conceptual model of the marketplace proposed in the article offers solutions to most of the current problems and challenges. Keywords: restaurant marketplace, HoReCa, restaurant business, e-commerce, classifieds, small and medium businesses, innovative platform.
Full-text available
This research presents an analysis of online microenterprises who sell handmade crafts and individually customized products. Using extant literature in the areas of e-commerce and long-tail marketing, this study develops two theoretical models of microenterprise sales success—on the product-level and on the shop-level. The models posit that higher product sales prices or shop average sales prices are associated with hyper-differentiation marketing activities, while controlling for social media impacts. We examine the models and present an empirical analysis of a dataset consisting of the marketing and sales activities of 1490 microenterprises within Etsy, an online commerce platform. Our analysis and results show that microenterprises who leverage their core competencies around handmade and customized products command higher product sales prices, confirmed at the product and shop level. Our study offers insights for existing microenterprises and researchers interested in examining how online microenterprises in niche markets achieve sales success.
Full-text available
Purpose Most transactions initiated online are completed by some form of offline fulfilment, i.e. the delivery of the goods to the customer's doorstep. In previous studies, web site performance or e‐service quality was found to be an important antecedent of customer satisfaction and loyalty. In traditional settings, physical fulfilment is considered an important driver of customers’ behavioral intentions. This study models and tests the combined effects of online and offline service components on customer responses. Design/methodology/approach This is an empirical, cross‐sectional study across four online industries. Findings In the surveyed industries offline fulfilment appears to be at least as important as web site performance. Research limitations/implications Further research is needed on how value and joy are created as part of the total e‐experience. Furthermore, the importance of offline fulfilment in effecting customer satisfaction and loyalty levels for different online services needs further investigation. Practical implications Online retailers must ensure offline quality to at least the same level as online quality. Originality/value Important insights into the absolute and relative importance of online and offline fulfilment dimensions have been generated in a broader e‐commerce context.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative impacts of trust and risk on individual’s transaction intention in consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-marketplaces from both the buyers’ and the sellers’ perspectives. Design/methodology/approach Two surveys were used to collect data regarding buyers’ and sellers’ perceptions and transaction intentions at a typical C2C e-marketplace. Partial least squares was used to analyze the data. A complementary qualitative study was conducted to triangulate the results from the quantitative study. Findings Institution-based trust (IBT) exerts a stronger influence on transaction intentions for buyers than for sellers. Sellers perceive a stronger impact of trust in intermediary (TII) than buyers on transaction intentions. The impacts of perceived risk in transactions are not different between buyers and sellers. Furthermore, IBT mediates the impacts of TII and perceived risk on transaction intentions for buyers. Research limitations/implications The results indicate that the impacts of trust and risk on transaction intention in e-marketplaces do differ between buyers and sellers. This suggests a need to further investigate the buyer–seller difference in online transactions. Practical implications Intermediaries need to focus on different types of trust-building mechanisms when attracting buyers and sellers to make transactions in the e-marketplace. Originality/value C2C e-marketplaces cannot survive without participation from both buyers and sellers. Most prior research is conducted from the buyers’ perspective. This research sets a starting point for future research to further explore the differences between buyers’ and sellers’ behavior in C2C e-commerce environments.
In today’s emerging and competitive e-marketplaces, sellers must take competitive action to improve their sales performance. E-marketplace platform operators offer sellers a portfolio of platform-based functions that are intended to enhance competitiveness. However, little is known about how these platform-based functions can be used at the repertoire level to improve the sales performance of e-marketplace sellers. Extending the competitive repertoire theory to the e-marketplace context and integrating it with the e-commerce literature on reputation, we posit that a seller could improve sales performance by using these functions as a repertoire, featuring such structural characteristics as large volume, high complexity, and heterogeneity. We also posit that the performance impact of this repertoire approach to function use varies depending on seller reputation, manifested as customer rating. We empirically examined the hypotheses with a unique longitudinal dataset consisting of 43,992 seller-week observations from Taobao, one of the largest e-marketplaces in the world. Our analyses yield a set of interesting findings that unveil more nuanced theoretical relationships between different structural characteristics of the platform-based function repertoire and sales performance under different levels of seller reputation. We elaborate on how these findings contribute to the e-marketplace literature in the information systems field and the competitive action research in the strategy field. We also discuss implications for practice and make suggestions for future works.
Traditionally, online retailers have acted as product resellers. Recently, these retailers have also started to serve as online marketplaces by providing a platform to directly connect sellers with buyers. Over and above re‐shaping the traditional e‐commerce market, conventional wisdom suggests that this new format will mitigate the double‐marginalization effect and benefit both the intermediary and suppliers through a revenue sharing scheme. However, we find that upstream competition between suppliers critically moderates this possibility. We also find that the interaction of order‐fulfillment costs and upstream competition intensity moderates the selection of an optimal mode for the intermediary. More specifically, when order‐fulfillment costs are large and when the supplier product offerings are similar (i.e., competition intensity is high), the pure reseller mode is the preferred choice; when order‐fulfillment costs are small and the supplier product offerings are highly differentiated (i.e., low competititon intensity), the pure marketplace mode is the preferred choice. Finally, the hybrid mode is preferred when order‐fulfillment costs are moderate and suppliers’ products are somewhat similar (i.e., competition intensity is moderate). The intuition behind these results hinges on the trade‐off between transfer of pricing rights and the responsibility for order fulfillment. Our findings not only complement the emerging online marketplace literature but also provide testable empirical questions concerning the relationship and magnitude of different factors steering the mode choice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
E-commerce has attracted increasing interest at the beginning of the 21st century, in both academia and practice. Today, the Internet is commonly used by both consumers and businesses as a means of purchasing goods. The authors’ study focuses on e-commerce logistics, focusing on the physical delivery of goods sold over the Internet. Based on a systematic review of articles, the authors will summarize and analyze the main findings of academic literature and highlight certain research issues recognized on this topic. The main objective is to study the state-of-the-art of e-commerce logistics research and future research needs. The reviewed articles have been formed into seven categories, and each category is discussed in the paper. The largest categories discuss e-commerce logistics in relation to retail strategies, logistics strategies and structures, and buyer preferences. Although logistics is a critical part of e-commerce, it seems based on the review that not many e-commerce logistics solutions have been developed or studied in current research, and logistics has often been treated as only a minor issue among other issues in e-commerce.
Cyfrowe platformy zakupowe (Digitalisation of the B2B market
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Infographic: What are the top online marketplaces?
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IKEA marketplace under consideration
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Alibaba platform adds procurement, fulfillment services
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