Digital transformation (DT) has not only been a major challenge in recent years, it is also supposed to continue to enormously impact our society and economy in the forthcoming decade. On the one hand, digital technologies have emerged, diffusing and determining our private and professional lives. On the other hand, digital platforms have leveraged the potentials of digital technologies to provide new business models. These dynamics have a massive effect on individuals, companies, and entire ecosystems. Digital technologies and platforms have changed the way persons consume or interact with each other. Moreover, they offer companies new opportunities to conduct their business in terms of value creation (e.g., business processes), value proposition (e.g., business models), or customer interaction (e.g., communication channels), i.e., the three dimensions of DT. However, they also can become a threat for a company's competitiveness or even survival. Eventually, the emergence, diffusion, and employment of digital technologies and platforms bear the potential to transform entire markets and ecosystems. Against this background, IS research has explored and theorized the phenomena in the context of DT in the past decade, but not to its full extent. This is not surprising, given the complexity and pervasiveness of DT, which still requires far more research to further understand DT with its interdependencies in its entirety and in greater detail, particularly through the IS perspective at the confluence of technology, economy, and society. Consequently, the IS research discipline has determined and emphasized several relevant research gaps for exploring and understanding DT, including empirical data, theories as well as knowledge of the dynamic and transformative capabilities of digital technologies and platforms for both organizations and entire industries. Hence, this thesis aims to address these research gaps on the IS research agenda and consists of two streams. The first stream of this thesis includes four papers that investigate the impact of digital technologies on organizations. In particular, these papers study the effects of new technologies on firms (paper II.1) and their innovative capabilities (II.2), the nature and characteristics of data-driven business models (II.3), and current developments in research and practice regarding on-demand healthcare (II.4). Consequently, the papers provide novel insights on the dynamic capabilities of digital technologies along the three dimensions of DT. Furthermore, they offer companies some opportunities to systematically explore, employ, and evaluate digital technologies to modify or redesign their organizations or business models. The second stream comprises three papers that explore and theorize the impact of digital platforms on traditional companies, markets, and the economy and society at large. At this, paper III.1 examines the implications for the business of traditional insurance companies through the emergence and diffusion of multi-sided platforms, particularly in terms of value creation, value proposition, and customer interaction. Paper III.2 approaches the platform impact more holistically and investigates how the ongoing digital transformation and "platformization" in healthcare lastingly transform value creation in the healthcare market. Paper III.3 moves on from the level of single businesses or markets to the regulatory problems that result from the platform economy for economy and society, and proposes appropriate regulatory approaches for addressing these problems. Hence, these papers bring new insights on the table about the transformative capabilities of digital platforms for incumbent companies in particular and entire ecosystems in general. Altogether, this thesis contributes to the understanding of the impact of DT on organizations and markets through the conduction of multiple-case study analyses that are systematically reflected with the current state of the art in research. On this empirical basis, the thesis also provides conceptual models, taxonomies, and frameworks that help describing, explaining, or predicting the impact of digital technologies and digital platforms on companies, markets and the economy or society at large from an interdisciplinary viewpoint.