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Mathematical Calendar. December
Nataliya M. Ivanova
September 18, 2019
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
In this series we list some important dates and events in history of mathematics and
mathematical culture.
Mathematics knows no races or geographic boundaries;
for mathematics, the cultural world is one country.
David Hilbert
December, 1
1671 birthdate of John Keill, Scottish mathematician and natural philosopher (d. 1721)
1729 day of death of Giacomo F. Maraldi, French-Italian astronomer and mathematician (b.
1729 Goldbach, in his first letter to Euler, asks whether Euler knows Fermat’s claim that all
numbers 22n+ 1 are prime [26]
1750 day of death of Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, German mathematician, astronomer, and
cartographer (b. 1671)
1792 birthdate of Nikolai Lobachevsky, Russian mathematician and geometer (d. 1856)
1890 after regular competition, Peano was named extraordinary professor of infinitesimal cal-
culus at the University of Turin
1892 birthdate of Krishnaswami Ayyangar, Indian mathematician (d. 1953)
1928 birthdate of Lee Albert Rubel, American mathematician (d. 1995)
1947 day of death of G. H. Hardy, English mathematician and theorist (b. 1877)
1977 day of death of Kenneth O. May, American mathematician and historian of mathematics
(b. 1915)
1983 day of death of Leonid Mirsky, Russian-British mathematician (b. 1918)
December, 2
1594 day of death of Gerardus Mercator, Flemish mathematician, cartographer, and philosopher
(b. 1512)
1831 birthdate of Paul David Gustav du Bois-Reymond, German mathematician (d. 1889)
1865 birthdate of Niels Nielsen, Danish mathematician (d. 1931)
1873 day of death of Karl Gr¨affe Gr¨affe, German mathematician (b. 1799)
1901 birthdate of Dom George Frederick James Temple, English mathematician (d. 1992)
1914 birthdate of Robert Palmer Dilworth, American mathematician (d. 1993)
1966 day of death of L. E. J. Brouwer, Dutch mathematician and philosopher (b. 1881)
1978 Science News reports that 221,701 1 is prime
1982 day of death of Geoffrey Timms, British mathematician and cryptoanalyst (b. 1903)
1984 birthdate of Maryna Sergiivna Viazovska, Ukrainian mathematician
2006 day of death of Dikran Tahta, British-Armenian mathematician (b. 1928)
December, 3
1616 birthdate of John Wallis, English mathematician and cryptographer (d. 1703)
1938 birthdate of Sally Shlaer, American mathematician and engineer (d. 1998)
1956 day of death of Felix Bernstein, German mathematician (b. 1878)
1967 day of death of Marie Fran¸coise Ouedraogo, Burkinab´e mathematician
1983 day of death of Elliott Waters Montroll, American mathematician (b. 1916)
1984 day of death of Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin, Soviet mathematician (b. 1919)
2004 day of death of Shiing-Shen Chern, Chinese-American mathematician (b. 1911)
2010 day of death of Cora Susana Sadosky de Goldstein, Argentinian-American mathematician
(b. 1940)
2014 day of death of James Stewart, Canadian mathematician (b. 1941)
December, 4
1131 day of death of Omar Khayy´am, Persian poet, astronomer, mathematician, and philoso-
pher (b. 1048)
1409 University of Leipzig established
1574 day of death of Georg Joachim Rheticus, Austrian-Slovak mathematician and cartographer
(b. 1514)
1679 day of death of Thomas Hobbes, English scholar and amateur mathematician (b. 1588)
1680 day of death of Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (b.
1806 birthdate of John Thomas Graves, Irish jurist and mathematician (d. 1870)
1886 birthdate of Ludwig Georg Elias Moses Bieberbach, German mathematician (d. 1982)
1890 birthdate of Harry Clyde Carver, American mathematician (b. 1977)
1915 Hilbert had presented to the G¨ottingen Academy of Science a “Second Communication”
on the “Foundations of Physics” [34]
1934 day of death of Horace Lamb, English mathematician (b. 1849)
1938 birthdate of George Eyre Andrews, American mathematician
1980 Ireland issued a stamp picturing Robert Boyle (1627–1691) and his 1659 Air Pump
2015 day of death of Lajos Tak´acs, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1924)
December, 5
1708 day of death of Takakazu Seki Kawa, Japanese mathematician (b. 1642)
1735 Euler presents his paper on “The sums of Series of reciprocals” to the St Petersburg
1770 day of death of James Stirling, Scottish mathematician and surveyor (b. 1692)
1859 day of death of Louis Poinsot, French mathematician and physicist (b. 1777)
1825 Abel wrote how delighted he was that Crelle was starting a new mathematics journal, for
this meant he would now have a place to publish his research. The first volume contained
seven papers by Abel.
1863 birthdate of Paul Painlev´e, French mathematician and politician, 84th Prime Minister of
France (d. 1933)
1883 J. J. Sylvester, in Baltimore, received a cable containing the single word, “Elected,” in-
forming him of his appointment as Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. This ended
his seven year stay at Johns Hopkins University.
1895 birthdate of Elbert Frank Cox, American mathematician (d. 1969)
1901 birthdate of Werner Karl Heisenberg, German physicist and philosopher (d. 1976)
1979 Iran issued a stamp commemorating the 600th anniversary of the death of the mathemati-
cian Ghyath-al-din Jamshid Kashani
1999 day of death of Nathan Jacobson, American mathematician (b. 1910)
2005 day of death of Claude Ambrose Rogers, English mathematician (b. 1920)
December, 6
1592 Galileo delivered his inaugural lecture at the University of Padua, Republic of Venice,
where he would teach geometry and astronomy for 18 years
1616 day of death of Ahmad Ibn al-Qadi, Moroccan writer, judge and mathematician (b. 1552)
1682 birthdate of Giulio Carlo Fagnano dei Toschi, Italian mathematician (d. 1766)
1788 day of death of Nicole-Reine Lepaute, French astronomer and mathematician (b. 1723)
1856 birthdate of Walther Franz Anton von Dyck, German mathematician (d. 1934)
1880 birthdate of Pierre L´eon Boutroux, French mathematician and historian of science (d.
1908 birthdate of Herta Freitag, Austrian-American mathematician (d. 2000)
1917 Kuratowski gave a talk, “On the definitions in mathematics,” which became his first
published paper
1941 birthdate of Filep L´aszl´o, Hungarian mathematician (d. 2004)
1956 the knapsack problem was first named and discussed by George B. Dantzig, the father of
linear programming
1959 day of death of Erhard Schmidt, German mathematician (b. 1876)
1963 day of death of Archibald Henderson, American mathematician and writer (b. 1877)
1963 Time magazine published a copy of Salvador Dali’s “Fifty abstract pictures which as seen
from two yards change into three Lenines masquerading as Chinese and as seen from six
yards appear as the head of a royal tiger.” It is based on the semi-regular tessellation
43433 made up of squares and triangles.
1973 day of death of Joseph Leonard Walsh, American mathematician (b. 1895)
1990 day of death of Lev Arkad’evich Kaluznin, Soviet mathematician (b. 1914)
1996 day of death of Stefan Schwarz, Slovakian mathematician (b. 1914)
December, 7
1637 birthdate of William Neile, English mathematician and founder member of the Royal
Society (d. 1670)
1647 birthdate of Giovanni Ceva Italian mathematician (d. 1734)
1676 the first public release of Ole Rømer’s conjecture that the speed of light was finite is
published in the Journal des s¸cavans
1725 the first meeting of the Petersburg Academy of Science was held in a meeting room of the
palace of Baron Peter Pavlovich Shafirov. The meeting featured discussion of the physics
theories of Wolff and Leibniz
1823 birthdate of Leopold Kronecker, Polish-German mathematician (d. 1891)
1826 birthdate of Ludwig Christian Wiener, German mathematician, physicist and philosopher
(d. 1896)
1830 birthdate of (Antonio) Luigi (Gaudenzio Giuseppe) Cremona, Italian mathematician (d.
1853 Cantor wrote Dedekind that the real numbers are uncountable. Five days earlier he had
written that he “had never seriously concerned himself with the problem, since it seemed
to have no practical value.”
1903 birthdate of Danilo Blanuˇsa, Croatian mathematician, physicist (d. 1987)
1912 day of death of George Howard Darwin, mathematical astronomer, fifth child of the evo-
lutionist Charles Darwin (b. 1845)
1924 birthdate of Mary Ellen Rudin, American mathematician (d. 2013)
1928 day of death of James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, English mathematician (b. 1848)
1936 birthdate of Oleksandr Mikolaiovich Sharkovsky, Soviet Ukrainian mathematician
1943 birthdate of Nicholas Katz, American mathematician
1957 birthdate of Sergiy Kolyada, Ukrainian mathematician (d. 2018)
1967 odel, discussing issues related to Skolem’s work, wrote to Wang: “This blindness (or
prejudice, or whatever you might call it) of logicians is indeed surprising. But I thhink the
explanation is not hard to find. It lies in a widespread lack, at that time, of the required
epistemological attitude towards metamathematics and towards non-finitary reasoning. .. I
might add that my objectivistic conception of mathematics and metamathematics in gen-
eral, and of transfinite reasoning in particular, was fundamental also to my other work in
logic.” [27]
2011 day of death of Tonny Albert Springer, Dutch mathematician (b. 1926)
December, 8
1594 birthdate of Pierre Petit, French astronomer, physicist, mathematician and instrument
maker (d. 1677)
1632 day of death of Albert Girard, French-Dutch mathematician (b. 1595)
1632 day of death of Johan Philip Lansberge, Dutch Calvinist minister, astronomer and math-
ematician (b. 1561)
1795 birthdate of Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer and mathematician (d. 1874)
1831 Saunders MacLane, then a student at G¨ottingen wrote his mother: “Prof. Noether’s
lectures (she is a woman — a member of a noted mathematical family) are also excel-
lent.. . . Prof. Noether thinks fast and talks faster. As one listens, one must also think fast
— and that is always excellent training. Furthermore, thinking fast is one of the joys of
1864 day of death of George Boole, English mathematician and philosopher (b. 1815)
1865 birthdate of Jacques Hadamard, French mathematician (d. 1963)
1883 birthdate of Ludwig Berwald, Czech mathematician (d. 1942)
1894 birthdate of Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematician and theorist (b. 1821)
1919 birthdate of Julia Robinson, American mathematician (d. 1985)
1948 birthdate of Luis Caffarelli, Argentinian-American mathematician
1955 day of death of Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, German mathematician, theoretical physicist
and philosopher (b. 1885)
1961 day of death of Francesco Severi, Italian mathematician (b. 1879)
1966 day of death of Arthur Byron Coble, American mathematician (b. 1878)
1973 day of death of Griffith Conrad Evans, American mathematician (b. 1887)
1969 birthdate of Kristin Lauter, American mathematician and cryptographer
December, 9
1048 day of death of Al-Biruni, Persian mathematician (b. 973)
1508 birthdate of Gemma Frisius, Dutch mathematician and cartographer (d. 1555)
1571 birthdate of Metius, Dutch mathematician and astronomer (d. 1635)
1667 birthdate of William Whiston, English mathematician, historian, and theologian (d. 1752)
1675 Newton writes to Leibniz to comment on the response to his theory that light was corpus-
cular, “I was so persecuted with discussions arising from the publication of my theory of
light, that I blamed my own imprudence for parting with so substantial a blessing as my
quiet, to run after a shadow.”
1703 birthdate of Chester Moor Hall, English jurist and mathematician (d. 1771)
1839 birthdate of Gustav Roch, German mathematician (d. 1866)
1866 day of death of James P. Pierpont, American mathematician (b. 1866)
1883 birthdate of Nikolai Luzin, Soviet mathematician, theorist (d. 1950)
1907 birthdate of Max Deuring, German mathematician (d. 1984)
1911 Henri Poincar´e wrote the editor of a mathematical journal to ask if, contrary to custom,
an unfinished piece of work could be published. He explained that at his age he may
not be able to finish it, but that his work might provide ideas for another. The paper
was published and not long afterwards George David Birkhoff (1884–1944) completed the
1917 birthdate of Sergei Vasilyevich Fomin, Soviet mathematician (d. 1975)
1939 day of death of James P. Pierpont, American mathematician (b. 1866)
1941 birthdate of Kirsti Møller Andersen (Kirsti Pedersen), Danish historian of mathematics
1957 birthdate of Aleksandr Ivanovich Nekrasov, Soviet mathematician (d. 1957)
1958 day of death of John Jackson (b. 1887)
1968 the first demonstration of the use of a computer mouse was given at the American Fed-
eration of Information Processing Societies’ Fall Joint Computer Conference at Stanford
University, California
1969 birthdate of Rapha¨el Rouquier, French mathematician
December, 10
1269 The Flemish Dominican priest Willem van Moerbeke completed the first translation of
the works of Archimedes into Latin.
1452 birthdate of Johannes St¨offler, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1531)
1478 The Treviso Arithmetic, the first printed mathematics text, published in Treviso, Italy, as
Arte dell’Abbaco by an unknown author.
1626 day of death of Edmund Gunter, English mathematician (b. 1581)
1672 In a letter to Collins, Newton describes a method of drawing tangents to curves given by
f(x, y) = 0 whose equations are polynomials in xand yand says: “This is one particular,
or rather corollary, of a general method, which extends itself, without any troublesome
calculation, not only to the drawing of tangents to any curve lines, whether geometrical
or mechanical, or anyhow respecting right lines or other curves, but also to the resolving
other abstruser kinds of problems about the crookedness, areas, lengths, centres of gravity
of curves, etc.; nor is it (as Hudden’s method of Maximis and Minimis) limited to equations
which are free from surd quantities. This method I have interwoven with that other of
working in equations, by reducing them to infinite series.” [5]
1684 Halley at Royal Society meetings reported that he’d seen Newton in Cambridge, who had
“shewed him a curious treatise, De Motu, [De motu corporum in gyrum] which, upon Mr
Halley’s desire, was, he said, promised to be sent to the Society to be entered upon their
1701 Newton resigned his Lucasian professorship at Cambridge, having been at the mint since
1799 Delambre and M´echain measured the meridian from Dunkirk to Barcelona, completing
their work in 1799 and leading to the formal definition of the metre
1804 birthdate of Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, German mathematician (d. 1851)
1815 birthdate of Ada Lovelace, English mathematician and computer scientist (d. 1852)
1858 Arthur Cayley’s A Memoir on the Theory of Matrices received at the the Royal Society
1901 the first Nobel Prizes were awarded
1920 birthdate of Alfred Goldie, English mathematician(d. 2005)
1928 The Netherlands issued a stamp with a portrait of Christiaan Huygens
1934 Bourbaki began at 12 noon when H. Cartan, Chevalley, Delsarte, Dieudonn´e, Ren´e de
Possel and Weil met for lunch at the Caf´e Capoulade. This group, with some variations,
met regularly at the Caf´e. The group was not named and officially announced until the
following summer, so the earlier group has been called Proto-Bourbaki.
1961 birthdate of Oded Schramm, Israeli-American mathematician (d. 2008)
1968 day of death of Clement Vavasor Durell, English mathematician and writer of mathemat-
ical books (b. 1882)
1995 day of death of Sarvadaman D. S. Chowla, Indian mathematician (b. 1907)
2016 day of death of Felix Browder, American mathematician (b. 1927)
December, 11
1610 Galileo composed the cypher ”The mother of love emulates the figures of Cynthia” to
”copyright” his claim that Venus had phases like the moon. This idea, which may have
been cribbed from a student, provided the first hard evidence that the earth revolved
around the sun.
1781 birthdate of David Brewster, Scottish physicist, mathematician, and astronomer (d. 1868)
1740 birthdate of Anders Johan Lexell, Swedish-Russian astronomer, mathematician, and physi-
cist (d. 1784)
1840 birthdate of Carl Johannes Thomae, German mathematician (d. 1921)
1845 birthdate of Vaclav Jerabek, Czech mathematician (d. 1931)
1867 James Clerk Maxwell wrote to Peter Guthrie Tait with a thought experiment for violating
the Second Law of Thermodynamics that came to be known as Maxwell’s Demon
1873 birthdate of Josip Plemelj, Slovenian mathematician (d. 1967)
1882 birthdate of Max Born, German physicist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate (d.
1884 birthdate of Otto Sz´asz, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1952)
1884 Hilbert defended his doctoral dissertation [34]
1906 birthdate of Samarendra Nath Roy, Indian-American mathematician and an applied statis-
tician (d. 1964)
1906 day of death of Victor Mayer Am´ed´ee Mannheim, French mathematician (b. 1831)
1910 day of death of Jules Tannery, French mathematician (b. 1848)
1941 day of death of ´
Emile Picard, French mathematician (b. 1856)
1954 birthdate of Guolaugur Kristinn ´
Ottarsson, Icelandic guitarist, mathematician, and engi-
1969 Yuri Matiyasevich reads journal article by Julia Robinson that will lead him to proof of
Hilbert’s 10th problem
1998 day of death of Andr´e Lichnerowicz, French physicist and mathematician (b. 1915)
December, 12
1685 day of death of John Pell, English mathematician and linguist (b. 1610)
1729 Goldbach replies to the first letter of Euler with a letter in which he repeats Euler’s form of
the gamma function and mentions the sum of the series 1+ 1 ·2+1·2·3+1·2·3·4 +. . ., and
also admits that he doesn’t know what “hyperbolic logarithms” are. As a final note, he
writes “P.S. A note to you is that Fermat has observed that all numbers with the formula
22x+ 1, that is 3, 5, 17, etc. are primes, but he himself was not able to prove this, and, as
far as I know, nobody since him has proved it, either.” [35]
1832 birthdate of Peter Ludwig Mejdell Sylow, Norwegian mathematician (d. 1918)
1885 J. J. Sylvester, in the middle of his inaugural lecture as Savilian Professor of Geometry at
Oxford University, “refreshed” the audience with his sonnet “To a missing member of a
family group of terms in an algebraical formula.”
1889 day of death of Viktor Bunyakovsky, Ukrainian-Russian mathematician (b. 1804)
1919 day of death of Paul Gustav Samuel St¨ackel, German mathematician (b. 1862)
1962 birthdate of Ulrike Tillmann, German mathematician
1965 day of death of Tibor Rad´o, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1895)
1977 day of death of Arthur Erd´elyi, Hungarian-born Scottish mathematician (b. 1908)
1994 day of death of Nicolaas Hendrik Kuiper, Dutch mathematician (b. 1920)
1997 day of death of Evgenii Landis, Soviet mathematician (b. 1921)
2014 day of death of Ivor Grattan-Guinness, English mathematician and historian of mathe-
matics (b. 1941)
To a Missing Member of a Family Group of Terms in an Algebraical Formula, by James Joseph
Lone and discarded one! divorced by fate,
From thy wished-for fellows-whither art flown?
Where lingerest thou in thy bereaved estate,
Like some lost star, or buried meteor stone?
Thou mindst me much of that presumptuous one
Who loth, aught less than greatest, to be great,
From Heavens immensity fell headlong down
To live forlorn, self-centred, desolate:
Or who, new Heraklid, hard exile bore,
Now buoyed by hope, now stretched on rack of fear,
Till throned Astræa, wafting to his ear
Works of dim portent through the Atlantic roar,
Bade him “the sanctuary of the Muse revere
And strew with flame the dust of Isis shore.”
December, 13
1048 day of death of Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, Islamic mathematician
(b. 973)
1557 day of death of Niccol`o Fontana Tartaglia, Italian mathematician and engineer (b. 1499)
1603 day of death of Seigneur (lord) De La Bigotiere Fran¸cois Vi`ete, French mathematician (b.
1866 George Campbell De Morgan presented only one paper to the London Mathematical So-
ciety, “On the Development of a Certain Class of Functions,” read on December 13, 1866
1883 Felix Klein notes in his references, “Received call to go to Baltimore. Great desire to go
there – at the least a new start.”
1885 birthdate of Annie Dale Biddle Andrews, American mathematician (d. 1940)
1887 birthdate of George P´olya, Hungarian-American mathematician (d. 1985)
1904 birthdate of William Hunter McCrea, English astronomer and mathematician (d. 1999)
1907 Emmy Noether received her Ph.D. degree, summa cum laude, from the University of
Erlangen, for a dissertation on algebraic invariants directed by Paul Gordan
1908 birthdate of Leon Bankoff, American dentist and mathematician (d. 1997)
1910 birthdate of Charles Alfred Coulson, British applied mathematician, theoretical chemist
and religious author (d. 1974)
1911 birthdate of Trygve Haavelmo, Norwegian economist and mathematician, Nobel Prize
laureate (d. 1999)
1921 birthdate of David Gale, American mathematician and economist (d. 2008)
1921 day of death of Max Noether, German mathematician (b. 1844)
1927 day of death of Mehmet Nadir, Turkish mathematician (b. 1856)
1927 J. Von Neumann’s habilitation was completed
1928 birthdate of Solomon Feferman, American philosopher and mathematician (d. 2016)
1943 Croatia issued a pair of stamps to honor the Serbo-Croation mathematician and physicist
Fr. Rugjer Boscovich (1711–1787)
1950 day of death of Abraham Wald, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1902)
1994 day of death of Nicolaas Hendrik Kuiper, Dutch mathematician (b. 1920)
December, 14
1498 Luca Pacioli completed his Divina Proportione
1546 birthdate of Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mathematician (d. 1601)
1760 birthdate of James Wood, British mathematician (d. 1839)
1844 Gauss wrote to Grassman to thank him for sending a copy of his book Ausdehnungslegre [7]
1897 day of death of Francesco Brioschi, Italian mathematician (b. 1824)
1900 Max Planck presented his ideas on quantum physics at a meeting of the German Physics
1904 birthdate of Nikolai Grigor’evich Chudakov, Soviet mathematician (d. 1986)
1927 day of death of Julian Sochocki, Russian-Polish mathematician (b. 1842)
1936 birthdate of Charles Terence Clegg, British mathematician
1946 Denmark issued a stamp commemorating the 400th anniversary of the birth of the math-
ematician and astronomer Tycho Brahe
1955 birthdate of Jill Pipher, American mathematician
December, 15
1732 birthdate of Wenceslaus Johann Gustav Karsten, German mathematician (d. 1787)
1742 Euler gave the first clear statement of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra: every alge-
braic equation of degree nhas exactly ncomplex roots
1802 birthdate of J´anos Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1860)
1827 day of death of Samuel Roberts, British mathematician (d. 1913)
1838 day of death of ´
Emile L´eger, French mathematician (b. 1795)
1847 birthdate of Achille Marie Gaston Floquet, French mathematician (d. 1920)
1855 day of death of Jacques Charles Fran¸cois Sturm, French mathematician (b. 1803)
1887 Nature quoted J. J. Sylvester: “Perhaps I may, without immodesty, lay claim to the appel-
lation of the mathematical Adam, as I believe I have given more names (passed into general
circulation) to the creatures of the mathematical realm than all other mathematicians of
the age combined.”
1890 Karl Pearson is appointed Gresham Professor of Geometry
1897 birthdate of Myron Mathisson, Polish physicist and mathematician (d. 1940)
1912 birthdate of Emil Grosswald, Romanian-American mathematician (d. 1989)
1921 day of death of Leo K¨onigsberger German mathematician (b. 1837)
1923 birthdate of Freeman Dyson, English-American physicist and mathematician
1924 birthdate of Frank W. J. Olver, English-American mathematician (d. 2013)
1965 Richard Feynman, having just won the Nobel Prize, makes a bet with CERN Director
Viktor Weisskop that he will not hold a “responsible” position within the next ten years.
A wager he will win.
1970 day of death of Theodore Samuel Motzkin, Israeli-American mathematician (b. 1908)
1971 day of death of Paul L´evy, French mathematician (b. 1886)
December, 16
1474 day of death of Ali Qushji, Uzbek astronomer, mathematician, and physicist (b. 1403)
1625 birthdate of Erhard Weigel, German mathematician, astronomer and philosopher (d. 1699)
1627 Cavalieri announced to Galileo and Cardinal Borromeo that he had completed his Geome-
tria, which contains his method of indivisibles, now known as Cavalieri’s principle
1799 Gauss wrote Farkas Bolyai that he was sorry they had not discussed the theory of parallels
during their student days together at G¨ottingen (1796–1798).
1804 birthdate of Viktor Bunyakovsky, Russian-Ukrainian mathematician (d. 1889)
1843 The discovery of octonions by John T. Graves, who denoted them with a boldface O, was
announced to his mathematician friend William Hamilton, discoverer of quaternions, in a
letter on this date
1849 birthdate of Julius K¨onig, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1913)
1861 Weierstrass, who for twelve years had endured painful attacks of vertigo, suffered a com-
plete collapse of his health due to overwork. Henceforth, he always lectured while seated,
consigning the blackboard work to an advanced student. Nevertheless, he eventually be-
came a recognized master teacher.
1887 birthdate of Johann Radon, Austrian mathematician (d. 1956)
1905 birthdate of Piet Hein, Danish mathematician and poet (d. 1996)
1932 birthdate of Grace Alele-Williams, Nigerian mathematicia
1933 day of death of Ludwig Schlesinger, Derman mathematician (b. 1864)
1934 day of death of Gustav de Vries, Dutch mathematician (b. 1866)
1968 birthdate of Val´erie Berth´e, French mathematician
2014 day of death of Tim Cochran, American mathematician (b. 1955)
December, 17
1706 birthdate of ´
Emilie du Cˆatelet, French mathematician and physicist (d. 1749)
1750 Mr. Theophilus Grew appointed first Master in Mathematics at Academy of Philadelphia
(to become the Univ of Pennsylvania)
1835 birthdate of Felice Casorati, Italian mathematician (d. 1890)
1842 birthdate of Sophus Lie, Norwegian mathematician (d. 1899)
1851 day of death of Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues, French banker, mathematician, and social
reformer (b. 1795)
1853 day of death of Robert R Anstice, English mathematician (b. 1813)
1863 birthdate of Henri Pad´e, French mathematician (d. 1953)
1900 birthdate of Mary Cartwright, English mathematician(d. 1998)
1907 day of death of Lord Kelvin, born as William Thomson, Scotish-Irish physicist, mathe-
matician and engineer(b. 1824)
1912 day of death of Spiru C. Haret, Romanian mathematician, astronomer and politician (b.
1912 Born presented for the first time Mie’s theory at G¨ottingen at the meeting of the local
Mathematical Society [25]
1940 day of death of Alicia Boole Stott, Anglo-Irish mathematician (b. 1860)
1941 birthdate of V. Frederick Rickey born, American mathematical historian, author of [33]
1999 day of death of Juergen Kurt Moser, German-American mathematician (b. 1928)
December, 18
1559 day of death of Cuthbert Tunstall, English Scholastic, church leader, diplomat, adminis-
trator and royal adviser, author of the first arithmetic book printed in England (b. 1474)
1552 birthdate of Ahmad Ibn al-Qadi, Moroccan writer, judge and mathematician (d. 1616)
1723 Goldbach posed a Diophantine problem to Daniel Bernoulli: To find four numbers such
that the pairwise product of any two, plus 1, was a square [2]
1799 day of death of Jean-´
Etienne Montucla, French mathematician and historian (b. 1725)
1848 day of death of Bernard Bolzano, Bohemian priest and mathematician (b. 1781)
1855 day of death of Jacques Charles-Fran¸cois Sturm, French mathematician (b. 1803)
1880 day of death of Michel Chasles, French mathematician (b. 1793)
1885 The Ministery of Culture and Education in Dresden (which was the capital os Saxony)
officially offers Sophus Lie the professorship [38]
1917 birthdate of Roger Conant Lyndon, American mathematician (d. 1988)
1936 birthdate of Wilhelm Fushchych, Soviet-Ukrainian mathematical physicist (d. 1997)
1942 birthdate of Lenore Blum, American mathematician
1970 day of death of Pao-Lu Hsu, Chinese mathematician (b. 1910)
1994 day of death of Roger Ap´ery, Greek-French mathematician (b. 1916)
1998 day of death of Edwin Evariste Moise, American mathematician and mathematics educa-
tion reformer (b. 1918)
2007 day of death of Samuel Karlin, American mathematician (b. 1924)
2010 day of death of Rudolf F. Ahlswede, German mathematician (b. 1938)
December, 19
1615 birthdate of Charles Scarborough, English physician and mathematician (d. 1693)
1714 birthdate of John Winthrop, American mathematician, physicist and astronomer (d. 1779)
1765 Joseph Priestley, visiting in London, is introduced to Benjamin Franklin, and other mem-
bers of the “Honest Whigs” by John Canton
1783 birthdate of Charles-Julien Brianchon, French mathematician (d. 1864)
1875 birthdate of Grace Marie Bareis, American mathematician (d. 1962)
1895 Karl Pearson’s Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Evolution II. Skew Variation
in Homogeneous Material received by the Royal Society of London
1908 Scientific American offered a $500 prize for “a simple explanation of the fourth dimension”
1910 birthdate of Helmut Wielandt, German mathematician (d. 2001)
1918 birthdate of Leonid Mirsky, Russian-British mathematician (d. 1983)
1932 birthdate of Crispin St. John Alvah Nash-Williams, British-Canadian mathematician (d.
1937 birthdate of Barry Charles Mazur, American mathematician
1939 day of death of Dmitry Aleksandrovich Grave, Russian and Soviet mathematician (b.
1943 birthdate of Victor G. Kac, Soviet–American mathematician
1944 birthdate of Mitchell Feigenbaum, American physicist and mathematician
1952 birthdate of David Harbater, American mathematician
1952 day of death of Otto Sz´asz, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1884)
December, 20
1494 birthdate of Oronce Fin´e, French mathematician and cartographer (d. 1555)
1623 Wilhelm Schickard described his calculating machine in a letter to Johannes Kepler
1648 birthdate of Thommaso Ceva, Italian mathematician and poet (d. 1737)
1836 day of death of Johann Christian Martin Bartels, German mathematician (b. 1769)
1838 birthdate of Edwin Abbott, English schoolmaster and theologian, author of Flatland (d.
1843 birthdate of Paul Tannery, French mathematician and historian of mathematics (d. 1904)
1855 birthdate of Thomas Craig, American mathematician (d. 1900)
1875 birthdate of Francesco Cantelli, Italian mathematician (d. 1966)
1906 Nature publishes a letter from Francis Galton on “Cutting a round cake on scientific
1915 Einstein wrote to Hilbert that “there has been certain resentment between us, the cause of
which I do not want to analyse. I have fought against the associated feelings of bitterness
with complete success. I think of you again with unmixed kindness, and ask you to try
to do the same with me. It is objectively a shame when two real guys that have emerged
from this shabby world do not give each other a little pleasure.” [34]
1931 day of death of Vaclav Jerabek, Czech mathematician (b. 1845)
1944 day of death of Peter Comrie, Scottish mathematician (b. 1868)
1962 day of death of Emil Artin, Austro-German mathematician (b 1898)
1984 day of death of Max Deuring, German mathematician (b. 1907)
1988 day of death of Elizabeth Scott, American mathematician (b. 1917)
2005 day of death of Raoul Bott, Hungarian-American mathematician (b. 1923)
December, 21
1542 birthdate of Thomas Allen, English mathematician and astrologer (d. 1632)
1671 Newton proposed for membership in the Royal Society of London by Seth Ward
1807 Joseph Fourier announced to the French Academy of Science that an arbitrary function
could be expanded as an infinite series of sines and cosines
1877 birthdate of Jaan Sarv, Estonian mathematician (d. 1954)
1878 birthdate of Jan Lukasiewicz, Polish-Irish mathematician and philosopher (d. 1956)
1905 birthdate of K¨ate Fenchel, German mathematician (d. 1983)
1907 Minkowski talked to the G¨ottingen scientific society on “The Basic Equations for Electro-
magnetic Processes in Moving Bodies” [43]
1912 day of death of Paul Albert Gordan, German mathematician (b. 1837)
1917 Lebesgue wrote his last letter to Borel: “I don’t have the courage to rebuff your proposals.
I told you, I don’t have the same confidence in you as I used to. I don’t believe in words
anymore.. . . For the moment any kind of relation going further than plain comradeship [la
banalit´e de la camaraderie] would just be hypocrisy. I would not be having lunch with
you but with some old memories. I think this letter will bring some sorrow to you and I
keep too much hidden friendship for you not to be sorry myself.” [9]
1922 birthdate of C´ecile DeWitt-Morette, French mathematician and physicist (d. 2017)
1946 The Detroit News reported the Purdue University Engineer’s yell,
“E to the X, DY, DX
E to the X, DX
Cosine, Secant, Tangent, Sine
Three Point One Four One Five Nine
Square Root, Cube Root, BTU
Slipstick, Slide Rule, Yea Purdue.”
1960 day of death of Eric Temple Bell, Scottish-American mathematician and writer (b. 1883)
1976 day of death of Vijay Kumar Patodi, Indian mathematician (b. 1945)
1980 day of death of Vladimir Petrovich Potapov, Soviet mathematician (b. 1914)
1987 day of death of Eugene Lukacs, Hungarian statistician (b. 1906)
December, 22
National Mathematics Day (India)
1640 day of death of Jean Beaugrand, French mathematician (B.˜
1660 day of death of Andr´e Tacquet, Flemish priest and mathematician (b. 1612)
1666 Seven mathematicians and seven physicists met at the king’s Library to inaugurate the
French Academy of sciences. They would not receive a formal decree of protection from
Louis XIV until 1699
1669 John Wallis wrote “In a dark night, in bed, without pen, ink, or pa-
per, or anything equivalent, I did by memory extract the square root
of 3,00000,00000,00000,00000,00000,00000,00000,00000, which I found to be
1,73205,08075,68077,29353, . . . and did the next day commit it to writing.”
1765 birthdate of Johann Friedrich Pfaff, German mathematician (d. 1825)
1819 birthdate of Pierre Ossian Bonnet, French mathematician (d. 1892)
1824 birthdate of Francesco Brioschi, Italian mathematician (d. 1897)
1853 birthdate of Evgraf Fedorov, Russian mathematician, crystallographer, and mineralogist
(d. 1919)
1859 birthdate of Otto Ludwig H¨older, German mathematician (d. 1937)
1867 day of death of Jean-Victor Poncelet, French mathematician and engineer (b. 1788)
1869 birthdate of Dmitri Egorov, Russian mathematician (d. 1931)
1887 birthdate of Srinivasa Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (d. 1920)
1897 birthdate of Vojtˇech Jarn´ık, Czech mathematician (d. 1970)
1898 birthdate of Vladimir Fock, Soviet physicist and mathematician (d. 1974)
1918 birthdate of Edwin Evariste Moise, American mathematician and mathematics education
reformer (d. 1998)
1928 day of death of Henry Burchard Fine, American mathematician (b. 1858)
1937 birthdate of Arthur Jaffe, American mathematical physicist
1994 day of death of John Arthur Todd, British mathematician (b. 1908)
2006 the journal Science recognized Perelman’s proof of the Poincar´e conjecture as the scientific
“Breakthrough of the Year”, the first such recognition in the area of mathematics
2010 India issued a stamp featuring Srinivasa Ramanujan, who was born on this day, to celebrate
their National Mathematics Day
December, 23
1693 birthdate of Fran¸cois Nicole, French mathematician (d. 1758)
1722 day of death of Pierre Varignon, French mathematician (b. 1654)
1751 Jacobi called this the birthday of elliptic functions because on this day a work by the
Italian mathematician Fagnano, which had been sent to the Berlin Academy, was handed
to Euler for review. The study of this work led Euler to his important investigations of
elliptic integrals and to the discovery of the addition theorem.
1763 Price read Bayes’s “Essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances” to the
Royal Society
1827 day of death of Robert Woodhouse, English mathematician (b. 1773)
1890 day of death of Edward Sang, Scottish mathematician (b. 1805)
1908 Minkowski sent his manuscript ”Raum und Zeit” (“Space and Time”) to the editor of
the Physikalisch Zeitschrift. Four days before his death the editor of the Physikalisch
Zeitschrift spoke with Minkowski about the contents of his talk. He did not say what
Minkowski told him, but mentioned that no one imagined that he would die suddenly [43]
1909 birthdate of John Hamilton Curtiss, American mathematician (d. 1777)
1936 birthdate of Peter L. Hammer, Romanian-American mathematician (d. 2006)
1943 birthdate of Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov, Russian-French mathematician
1987 Egypt issued a stamp honoring the mathematician Ali Mustafa Mousharafa (1898-1950)
1989 day of death of Richard Rado, Jewish German mathematician (b. 1906)
2001 day of death of Donald Clayton Spencer, American mathematician (b. 1912)
December, 24
1740 birthdate of Anders Johan Lexell, Swedish-Russian astronomer, mathematician, and physi-
cist (d. 1784)
1754 Euler writes to Muller in St Petersburg and describes d’Alembert as “the most argumen-
tative man in the world,” and calls him, “hated by everyone in Paris.” [12]
1819 Bernard Bolzano dismissed from his theological chair at the University of Prague and put
under police supervision for his unorthodox religious views
1822 birthdate of Charles Hermite, French mathematician (d. 1901)
1838 birthdate of Thorvald Nicolai Thiele, Danish astronomer, actuary and mathematician (d.
1849 Guass writes to the Astronomer Johann Franz Encke in response to Encke’s remarks about
the Frequency of Primes:
“Most Honored Friend!
. . . The kind communication of your remarks on the frequency of prime numbers was
interesting to me in more than one respect. You have reminded me of my own pursuit
of the same subject, whose first beginnings occurred a very long time ago, in 1792 or
1793, when I had procured for myself Lambert’s supplement to the table of logarithms.
Before I had occupied myself with the finer investigations of higher arithmetic, one of my
first projects was to direct my attention to the decreasing frequency of prime numbers,
to which end I counted them up in several chiliads (sets of a thousand) and recorded the
results on one of the affixed white sheets. I soon recognized, that under all variations of
this frequency, on average, it is nearly inversely proportional to the logarithm. . . ” [8]
1868 birthdate of Emanuel Lasker, German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher (d.
1880 Hermite analyzed his own philosophical background in a letter to G¨osta Mittag-Leffler:
“Analysis is for me largely a science of observation. Analysts seem to me to be naturalists
who with the eyes of the mind look on a world as real as that of nature, at beings outside
of themselves, which they have by no means created, and whose existence is as much in
the necessity of things as animals and vegetables. The study of the subjective world allows
therefore an insight, a view on the real world.” [9]
1882 day of death of Johann Benedict Listing, German mathematician (b. 1808)
1882 S. Lie wrote to Mittag-Leffler to say about high level of French mathematicians at that
time: “Overall, I am extremely satisfied with my Stay in Paris, even if I (like Abel)
associate on a much more intimate Footing with the Germans. In Paris, as courteous as
they are, one always has the impression that these Gentlemen are extremely preoccupied.
There is great mathematical Life in Paris now for the Time being. I have the feeling that
the German’s’ Sovereignty in Mathematics is beginning to weaken. And despite the good
Friendship I have with many Germans, this indeed is dear to my Heart. For I certainly
by far prefer to read French, as opposed to German Mathematics” [38]
1962 day of death of Wilhelm Ackermann, German mathematician (b. 1896)
1994 day of death of Alfred Leon Foster, American mathematician (b. 1904)
2000 day of death of Laurence Chisholm Young, British mathematician (b.1905)
December, 25
1597 Ricci wrote a letter to Clavius in Rome from Nanjing with appreciation for having received
Astrolabium from Clavius [36]
1640 Fermat wrote an elaborate version of the Girard’s theorem (in which he also gave the
number of possible expressions of the powers of pof the form 4n+ 1 as a sum of two
squares) in a letter to Marin Mersenne. For this reason this version of the theorem is
sometimes called Fermat’s Christmas theorem
1642 birthdate of Isaac Newton, English physicist and mathematician (d. 1726/1727)
1900 birthdate of Antoni Zygmund, Polish-American mathematician (d. 1992)
1905 birthdate of Gottfried Maria Hugo K¨othe, Austrian mathematician (d. 1989)
1921 day of death of Piers Bohl, Latvian mathematician (b. 1865)
1929 day of death of Percy Alexander MacMahon, British mathematician (b. 1854)
1941 day of death of Theodor Molien, Baltic-German mathematician (b. 1861)
1944 day of death of Wilhelm Kutta, German mathematician (b. 1867)
1975 day of death of Gunnar Kangro, Estonian mathematician (b. 1913)
December, 26
1532 birthdate of Wilhelm Xylander, German classical scholar and humanist, translator of
Euclid and Diophantus (d. 1576)
1780 birthdate of Mary Somerville, Scottish mathematician, astronomer (d. 1872)
1791 birthdate of Charles Babbage, English mathematician and engineer (d. 1871)
1837 Charles Babbage completed his “Calculating Engine” manuscript
1843 John Graves write to William Rowan Hamilton that he has invented an eight-dimension
normed division algebra he called “Octaves” [31]
1861 birthdate of Friedrich Engel, German mathematician (d. 1941)
1903 birthdate of Lancelot Stephen Bosanquet, British mathematician (d. 1984)
1907 birthdate of Leonard Carlitz, American mathematician (d. 1999)
1927 Redfield writes to MacMahon that he is able to solve the MacMahon’s conjecture
1937 birthdate of John Horton Conway, English mathematician, known for Conway’s Game of
1951 Kurt G¨odel delivered the Gibbs Lecture, “Some Basic Theorems on the Foundations of
Mathematics and their Philosophical Implications,” to the annual AMS meeting at Brown
1960 birthdate of Keith Martin Ball, American mathematician
1973 day of death of Harold Hotelling, American mathematician (b. 1895)
1992 day of death of John George Kemeny, Jewish-Hungarian American mathematician, com-
puter scientist, and educator (b. 1926)
1997 day of death of Cahit Arf, Turkish mathematician (b. 1910)
2006 day of death of Martin David Kruskal, American mathematician and physicist (b. 1925)
2007 day of death of Wilfred Kaplan, American mathematician (b. 1915)
December, 27
1571 birthdate of Johannes Kepler, German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer (d.
1654 birthdate of Jacob Jacques Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician and astronomer (d. 1705)
1915 birthdate of Jacob Lionel Bakst Cooper, South African mathematician (d. 1979)
1930 day of death of Gyula Farkas, Hungarian mathematician and physicist (b. 1847)
1973 day of death of Raymond Woodard Brink, American mathematician (d. 1890)
1974 day of death of Vladimir Fock, Soviet physicist and mathematician (b. 1898)
1992 day of death of Alfred Hoblitzelle Clifford, American mathematician (b. 1908)
1995 day of death of Boris Vladimirovich Gnedenko, Soviet mathematician (b. 1912)
2006 day of death of Peter L. Hammer, Romanian-American mathematician (b. 1936)
December, 28
1663 day of death of Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Italian mathematician and physicist (b. 1618)
1798 birthdate of Thomas Henderson, Scottish astronomer and mathematician (d. 1844)
1808 birthdate of Victoire Louis Athanase Dupr´e, French mathematician and physicist (d. 1869)
1828 Crelle wrote to the Secretary of State for Education that he felt that it was now necessary
to act quickly before others also discovered Abel’s remarkable talent and would offer him
a position [37]
1871 day of death of John Henry Pratt, British clergyman and mathematician (b. 1809)
1882 birthdate of Arthur Eddington, English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician (d.
1893 Simon Newcomb gives a speech to the New York Mathematical Society with comments
on the fourth dimension: “It is a perfectly legitimate exercise. . . if we should not stop
at three dimensions in geometry, but construct one for space having four. . . and there is
room for an indefinite number of universes”. He also called his speculations on the fourth
dimension, “the fairlyland of geometry.” [1]
1903 birthdate of John von Neumann, Hungarian-American mathematician and physicist (d.
1923 George David Birkhoff of Harvard received the first Bocher Memorial Prize for his paper
“Dynamical systems with two degrees of freedom”
1938 Kurt Godel lectured on the consistency of the axiom of choice and the generalized contin-
uum hypothesis at the annual AMS meeting
1950 birthdate of Clifford Cocks, English mathematician and cryptographer
December, 29
1256 possible birthdate of Ibn Al-Banna, Moroccan-berber mathematician, astronomer, Islamic
scholar, Sufi, and a one-time astrologer (d. 1321)
1692 Huygens, in a letter to L’Hospital, gave the first complete sketch of the folium of Descartes
1711 as a continuation of an argument with Newtons, Leibniz wrote a letter to Hans Sloane
stating, in particular, that he discovered the calculus some years before he published it,
that is in 1675, or earlier [3]
1731 day of death of Brook Taylor, English mathematician (b. 1685)
1737 day of death of Joseph Saurin, French minister and mathematician (b. 1659)
1746 Euler writes to praise d’Alembert on his proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra,
but disagrees with his idea that log(x) = log(x)
1829 Galois took the Baccalaureate examinations in order to enter the ´
Ecole Normale. His
examiner in mathematics reported, “This pupil is sometimes obscure in expressing his
ideas, but he is intelligent and shows a remarkable spirit of research.” [4]
1856 birthdate of Thomas Joannes Stieltjes, Dutch-French mathematician (d. 1894)
1861 birthdate of Kurt Hensel, German mathematician (d. 1941)
1891 day of death of Leopold Kronecker, Polish-German mathematician (b. 1823)
1899 Hilbert wrote to Frege on axiomatic analysis “If we want to understand each other, we
must not forget that the intentions that guide the two of us differ in kind. It was of
necessity that I had to set up my axiomatic system: I wanted to make it possible to
understand those geometrical propositions that I regard as the most important results of
geometrical enquiries: that the parallel axiom is not a consequence of the other axioms,
and similarly Archimedes’ axiom, etc. . . . I wanted to make it possible to understand and
answer such questions as why the sum of the angles in a triangle is equal to two right
angles and how this fact is connected with the parallel axiom.” [6]
1923 birthdate of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat, French mathematician and physicist
1941 birthdate of Tullio Levi-Civita, Italian mathematician (b. 1873)
1941 day of death of William James Macdonald, Scottish mathematician (b. 1851)
1947 George Dantzig announced his discovery of the simplex method at the joint annual meeting
of the American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics
1954 birthdate of Albrecht B¨ottcher, German mathematician
1965 day of death of Tibor Rad´o Hungarian mathematician (b. 1895)
1979 Edward Lorenz presents a paper at the 139th Annual Meeting of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science with the title, “Predictability: Does the flap of a butterfly’s
wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?”
December, 30
1695 day of death of Samuel Morland, English mathematician and inventor of mechanical cal-
culators (b. 1625)
1881 The “Four Fours” problem was first published in Knowledge. The problem is to express
whole numbers using exactly four fours and various arithmetical signs
1897 birthdate of Stanislaw Saks, Polish mathematician (d. 1942)
1932 day of death of Eliakim Hastings Moore, American mathematician (b. 1862)
1944 birthdate of Joseph Hilbe, American mathematician and philosopher
1947 day of death of Alfred North Whitehead, English-American mathematician and philoso-
pher (b. 1861)
1982 birthdate of Phillip Hall, British mathematician (b. 1904)
2013 day of death of Paul Sally, American mathematician (b. 1933)
December, 31
1610 day of death of Ludolph van Ceulen, German-Dutch mathematician (b. 1540)
1679 day of death of Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Italian mathematician (b. 1608)
1714 birthdate of Arima Yoriyuki, Japanese mathematician and educator (d. 1783)
1831 Gauss writes to Wilhelm Olbers regarding an essay published by Laplace, “The essay. . . is
quite unworthy of this great geometer. I find two different, very gross blunders in it. I
had always imagined that among geometers of the first rank the calculation was always
only the dress in which they present that which they created not by calculation, but by
mediation about the subject itself.” [42]
1894 day of death of Thomas Joannes Stieltjes, Dutch mathematician (b. 1856)
1896 birthdate of Carl Ludwig Siegel, German mathematician (d. 1981)
1915 the Mathematical Association of America was founded in Columbus, Ohio
1916 birthdate of Douglas Geoffrey Northcott, British mathematician (d. 2005)
1930 birthdate of Jaime Alfonso Escalante Gutierrez, Bolivian educator and mathematician (d.
1944 day of death of Nikolai Evgrafovoch Kochin, Soviet mathematician (b. 1901)
1952 birthdate of Vaughan Jones, New Zealand mathematician
1982 day of death of Kurt Otto Friedrichs, German-American mathematician (b. 1901)
1999 Andrew Wiles is knighted
2004 day of death of G´erard Debreu, French economist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate
(b. 1921)
Conclusive remarks
Mathematical quotes are taken from [29]. The dates (if different is not indicated) are from [13,
28,39,41] (see also Wikipedia), see also [14–24] for dates and events for the rest of the months. At
the last stages of preparation of the work we found an excellent reference [33] (and similar [30]),
so some of the dates (that are included in these references also) were double-checked with events
from [30, 33].
[1] Bork A.M., The Fourth Dimension in Nineteenth-Century Physics, Isis,55, 1964, 326–338.
[2] Bradley R.E. and Sandifer E., Leonhard Euler: Life, Work and Legacy, Elsevier, 2007.
[3] Brewster D. Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 2010.
[4] Bruno L.C. and Baker L. Math and mathematicians : the history of math discoveries around the
world, Baker, Lawrence W. Detroit, Mich.: U X L, 2003.
[5] Cajori F., A History of Mathematics, .
[6] Corry L., David Hilbert and the Axiomatization of Physics (18981918): From Grundlagen der Ge-
ometrie to Grundlagen der Physik, Springer Science & Business Media, 2004.
[7] Crowe M.J., A History of Vector Analysis: The Evolution of the Idea of a Vectorial System, Dover
Books on Mathematics, 2011.
[8] Derbyshire J., Prime Obsession, Joseph Henry Press of Washington D.C., 2003.
[9] Graham L and Kantor J.-M., Naming Infinity. A True Story of Religious Mysticism and Mathematical
Creativity, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.
[10] Growney J.A., Mathematics in Poetry, Journal of Online Mathematics and its Applications,6, 2006,
Article ID 1262.
[11] Growney J.A., blog Intersections – Poetry with Mathematics, .
[12] Hankins T.L., Jean d’Alembert: science and the Enlightenment, Clarendon Press, 1970.
[13] Historia Mathematica, 1974–2018, .
[14] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. January, Mathematical Calendar January ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12535.57765
[15] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. February, Mathematical Calendar February ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11067.57126
[16] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. March, Mathematical Calendar March ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18355.17448
[17] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. April, Mathematical Calendar April ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26743.78243
[18] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. May, Mathematical Calendar May ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31855.59046
[19] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. June, Mathematical Calendar June ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25144.70409
[20] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. July, Mathematical Calendar July ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17385.24169
[21] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. August, Mathematical Calendar August ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15602.66244
[22] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. September, Mathematical Calendar September ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18119.24488
[23] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. October, Mathematical Calendar October ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23152.40964
[24] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. November, Mathematical Calendar November ,
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12037.50404
[25] Kouneiher J. Foundations of Mathematics and Physics One Century After Hilbert: New Perspectives,
Springer, 2018.
[26] Lemmermeyer F., Euler, Goldbach, and “Fermat’s Theorem”, Elem. Math. 65 (2010) 144–153.
[27] Mancosu P., The Adventure of Reason: Interplay Between Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathemat-
ical Logic, 1900–1940, Oxford University Press, 2010.
[28] Mathematical association of America. On this day, .
[29] Mathematics Quotes, Brainy Quotes, .
[30] Pat’s Blog, .
[31] Pitici M., The Best Writing on Mathematics 2012, Princeton University Press, 2012.
[32] Rice A.C., Wilson R.J. Gardner J.H., From Student Club to National Society: The Founding of the
London Mathematical Society in 1865, Historia Mathematica 22 (1995), 402–421.
[33] Rickey V.F., A calendar of mathematical dates, .
[34] Rosell´o J., Hilbert, G¨ottingen and the Development of Modern Mathematics, Cambridge Scholars
Publishing, 2019.
[35] Sandifer E., The Early Mathematics of Leonhard Euler, MAA, 2007.
[36] Sasaki C. Descartes’s Mathematical Thought, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
[37] Stubhaug A., Niels Henrik Abel and his Times: Called Too Soon by Flames Afar, Springer Science &
Business Media, 2013.
[38] Stubhaug A., The Mathematician Sophus Lie: It was the Audacity of My Thinking, Springer Science
& Business Media, 2013.
[39] Tanton J., Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Facts On File, Incorporated, 14 May 2014 — Electronic
[40] This day in history of mathematics,
103991334328402/ .
[41] Vinogradov I.M. (editor), Mathematical Encyclopedia, 1–5, Sovetskaya enciklopediya, 1977–1985.
[42] Waldo Dunnington G., Gray J. and Dohse F.-E., Carl Friedrich Gauss: Titan of Science, Mathemat-
ical Association of America, 2004.
[43] Weinstein G., Max Born, Albert Einstein and Hermann Minkowski’s Space-Time Formalism of Special
Relativity, ArXiv:1210.6929.
Full-text available
updated September 1, 2020
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Updated version -- 26/07/2020
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Last updated --- August 3, 2020
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Full-text available
updated September 1, 2020
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Updated version -- 26/07/2020
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In this series we list some important dates and events in history of mathematics and mathematical culture. Pure mathematics is, in its way, the poetry of logical ideas.
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Last updated --- August 3, 2020
Full-text available
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In this series we list some important dates and events in history of mathematics and mathematical culture. Pure mathematicians just love to try unsolved problems-they love a challenge.
Full-text available