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Mathematical Calendar. October

Nataliya M. Ivanova

September 18, 2019

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

E-mail: ivanova.nataliya@gmail.com

Abstract

In this series we list some important dates and events in history of mathematics and

mathematical culture.

Beauty is the ﬁrst test: there is no permanent

place in the world for ugly mathematics.

Godfrey Harold Hardy

October, 1

1386 University of Heidelberg founded

1648 In a letter to Samuel Hartlib, Sir Balthazar Gerbier sends a description of Pascal’s me-

chanical calculator.

1658 Pascal’s prize for cycloids. Today was the closing date for submitting solutions to Pascal’s

prize problems on the cycloid. A toothache earlier that year caused him to return to

mathematics and to study the cycloid.

1670 James Gregory writes to John Collins, with the ﬁrst use of what will come to be called

the Newton-Gregory interpolation formula. [3]

1671 birthdate of Luigi Guido Grandi, Italian monk, mathematician, and engineer (d. 1742)

1768 day of death of Robert Simson, Scottish mathematician (b. 1687)

1814 The terms “commutative” and “distributive” were used (in French) by Fran¸cois Joseph

Servois in a memoir published in Annales de Gergonne (volume V, no. IV). [33]

1828 Dirichlet began teaching at the Military School [9]

1873 birthdate of Alfreds Arnolds Adolfs Meders, Latvian mathematician (d. 1944)

1894 birthdate of Edgar Krahn, Estonian mathematician (d. 1961)

1

1898 birthdate of B´ela Ker´ekj´art´o, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1946)

1910 H. M¨untz was awarded a doctorate, Dr. Phil., magna cum laude. His oﬃcial reviewers were

Schwarz and Schottky. His dissertation, under the title of “On boundary value problems

of partial diﬀerential equations of minimal surfaces” was published in Crelle’s journal. [37]

1911 birthdate of Zhou Weiliang, Chinese mathematician(d. 1995)

1912 birthdate of Kathleen Ollerenshaw, English mathematician, astronomer, and politician,

Lord Mayor of Manchester (d. 2014)

1921 birthdate of Roger Godement French mathematician, (d. 2016)

1924 day of death of John Edward Campbell, British mathematician (b. 1862)

1940 day of death of Chiungtze C. Tsen, Chinese mathematician (b. 1898)

1957 birthdate of ´

Eva Tardos, Hungarian mathematician and educator

1972 day of death of Francisco Jos´e Duarte, Venezuelan mathematician (b. 1883)

1994 day of death of Paul Lorenzen, German mathematician and philosopher (b. 1915)

1996 day of death of Herbert Karl Johannes Seifert, German mathematician (b. 1907)

October, 2

1568 birthdate of Marino Ghetaldi, Croatian mathematician (d. 1626)

1667 Newton became a fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge

1759 birthdate of Jacob(II) (Jacques(II)) Bernoulli, Swiss-Russian mathematician (d. 1789)

1759 Euler to the young Lagrange: “Your solution of the isoperimetric problems leaves nothing

to be desired and I rejoice that this subject, with which I have been so completely occupied

since my ﬁrst eﬀorsts, has been carried by you to such a high degree of perfection. The

importance of the subject has stimulated me to develop, aided by your lights, an analytical

solution that I will keep secret as long as your own meditations are not published, lest I

take away from you a part of the glory you deserve.” [45]

1791 birthdate of Al´exis Th´er`ese Petit, French mathematician (d. 1820)

1825 birthdate of John James Walker, English mathematician (d. 1900)

1853 day of death of Fran¸cois Arago, French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and politi-

cian, 25th Prime Minister of France (b. 1786)

1908 birthdate of Arthur Erd´elyi, Hungarian-born Scottish mathematician (d. 1977)

1926 birthdate of Michio Suzuki, Japanese mathematician (d. 1998)

1929 day of death of Andrei Mikhailovich Razmadze, Georgian mathematician (b. 1889)

1947 day of death of P. D. Ouspensky, Russian-English mathematician and philosopher (b.

1878)

1962 day of death of Boris Yakovlevich Bukreev, Ukrainian-Soviet mathematician (b. 1859)

2

1977 day of death of Beniamino Segre, Italian mathematician (b. 1903)

1990 day of death of Ivan Petrovich Egorov, Soviet mathematician (b. 1915)

2006 day of death of Paul Halmos, Hungarian-American mathematician (b. 1916)

2013 day of death of Abraham Nemeth, American mathematician (b. 1918)

October, 3

1533 Michael Stifel predicted that on this date a chariot would touch down on a nearby hilltop

and conduct him and his followers to heaven. Followers of the mathematical mystic quit

their jobs, but as the day approached they became skeptical. Stifel convinced the local

constabulary to lock him in jail on the appointed date where he would be safe from his

ruined, irate parishioners.

1842 Arthur Cayley admitted to fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge, at age 21.

1846 birthdate of Platon Sergeevich Poretsky, Russian mathematician (d. 1907)

1863 birthdate of Stanislaw Zaremba, Polish mathematician (d. 1942)

1881 day of death of Orson Pratt, American mathematician and religious leader (b. 1811)

1891 day of death of ´

Edouard Lucas, French mathematician (b. 1842)

1896 Einstein graduates from high school in Switzerland at the age of 17

1914 day of death of Ren´e Eug`ene Gateaux, French mathematician (b. 1889)

1944 birthdate of Pierre Deligne, Belgian mathematician

2006 day of death of John Crank, English mathematician and physicist (b. 1916)

October, 4

1479 University of Copenhagen founded

1759 birthdate of Louis Fran¸cois Antoine Arbogast, French mathematician (d. 1803)

1873 birthdate of Gheorghe T¸ it¸eica, Romanian mathematician (d. 1939)

1876 birthdate of Florence Eliza Allen, American mathematician and suﬀrage activist (d. 1960)

1885 day of death of Heinrich Ferdinand Scherk, German mathematician (b. 1798)

1906 birthdate of Mary Celine Fasenmyer, American mathematician (d. 1996)

1914 The manifesto, known as “Aufruf an die Kulturwelt!”, defending German military actions

in the occupied zones was signed by 93 people (Felix Klein was the only mathematician

among them) [2]

1938 Paul Erdos, escaping from Nazi, arrives at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton

1947 day of death of Max Plank, German physicist (b. 1858)

1954 day of death of Georg Karl Wilhelm Hamel, German mathematician (b. 1877)

1974 day of death of Robert Lee Moore, American mathematician (b. 1882)

3

2000 Mathematics Magazine publishes “A proof that the Halting Problem is undecidable” in

poetic form (in the fashion of Dr Seuss) by Geoﬀrey K. Pullum who was then at Stevenson

College, University of California, Santa Cruz.†

†“Scooping the loop snooper, A proof that the Halting Problem is undecidable”, by Geoﬀrey K.

Pullum (School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh)

No general procedure for bug checks will do.

Now, I won’t just assert that, I’ll prove it to you.

I will prove that although you might work till you drop,

you cannot tell if computation will stop.

For imagine we have a procedure called P

that for speciﬁed input permits you to see

whether speciﬁed source code, with all of its faults,

deﬁnes a routine that eventually halts.

You feed in your program, with suitable data,

and Pgets to work, and a little while later

(in ﬁnite compute time) correctly infers

whether inﬁnite looping behavior occurs.

If there will be no looping, then Pprints out ‘Good.’

That means work on this input will halt, as it should.

But if it detects an unstoppable loop,

then Preports ‘Bad!’ — which means you’re in the soup.

Well, the truth is that Pcannot possibly be,

because if you wrote it and gave it to me,

I could use it to set up a logical bind

that would shatter your reason and scramble your mind.

Here’s the trick that I’ll use — and it’s simple to do.

I’ll deﬁne a procedure, which I will call Q,

that will use P’s predictions of halting success

to stir up a terrible logical mess.

For a speciﬁed program, say A, one supplies,

the ﬁrst step of this program called QI devise

is to ﬁnd out from Pwhat’s the right thing to say

of the looping behavior of Arun on A.

4

If P’s answer is ‘Bad!’, Qwill suddenly stop.

But otherwise, Qwill go back to the top,

and start oﬀ again, looping endlessly back,

till the universe dies and turns frozen and black.

And this program called Qwouldn’t stay on the shelf;

I would ask it to forecast its run on itself.

When it reads its own source code, just what will it do?

What’s the looping behavior of Qrun on Q?

If Pwarns of inﬁnite loops, Qwill quit;

yet Pis supposed to speak truly of it!

And if Q’s going to quit, then Pshould say “Good.”

Which makes Qstart to loop! (Pdenied that it would.)

No matter how Pmight perform, Qwill scoop it:

Quses P’s output to make Plook stupid.

Whatever Psays, it cannot predict Q:

Pis right when it’s wrong, and is false when it’s true!

I’ve created a paradox, neat as can be —

and simply by using your putative P.

When you posited Pyou stepped into a snare;

Your assumption has led you right into my lair.

So where can this argument possibly go?

I don’t have to tell you; I’m sure you must know.

A reductio: There cannot possibly be

a procedure that acts like the mythical P.

You can never ﬁnd general mechanical means

for predicting the acts of computing machines;

it’s something that cannot be done. So we users

must ﬁnd our own bugs. Our computers are losers!

October, 5

1565 day of death of Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician (b. 1522)

5

1750 Agnesi received a response from Pope Benedict XIV on the publication of her book, In-

stituzioni Analitiche, a two volume presentation covering algebra, calculus and diﬀerential

equations. The pope sends her a gold medal, a wreath laid with precious stones and named

her honorary professor at the University of Bologna.

1777 day of death of Johann Andreas Segner, Slovak-German mathematician, physicist, and

physician (b. 1704)

1781 birthdate of Bernard Bolzano, Czech mathematician and philosopher (d. 1848)

1854 Bernhard Reimann gives his ﬁrst lecture at Gottinger to eight students

1861 birthdate of Thomas Little Heath, British civil servant, mathematician, classical scholar,

historian of ancient Greek mathematics, translator, and mountaineer (d. 1940)

1898 birthdate of Philip Franklin, American mathematician (d. 1965)

1910 birthdate of Nathan Jacobson, American mathematician (d. 1999)

1918 day of death of Matteo Bottasso, Italian mathematician (b. 1878)

1930 birthdate of Reinhard Selten, German economist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate

(d. 2016)

1932 birthdate of Hyman Bass, American mathematician

1955 birthdate of Krishnaswami Alladi, Indian-American mathematician

1972 day of death of Solomon Lefshetz, American mathematician (b. 1884)

1973 birthdate of C´edric Villani, French mathematician

1985 day of death of Harald Cram´er, Swedish mathematician, actuary, and statistician (b. 1893)

1985 day of death of Karl Menger, Austrian-American mathematician from the Vienna Circle

(b. 1902)

1986 day of death of James H. Wilkinson, English mathematician and computer scientist (b.

1919)

October, 6

1570 Cardano imprisoned for 87 days on charges of impiety (casting a horoscope of Christ). He

spent the remaining ﬁve years of his life in Rome under the eye of a suspicious pope who

nonetheless gave him a pension.

1651 Sir Charles Cavendish writes to John Pell about Thomas Harriot’s Doctrine of Triangular

Numbers: “Sr. Th Alesburie remembers him to you & desires to know if you would be

pleased to shew the use of Mr. Harriots doctrine of triangulare numbers; which if you will

doe, he will send you the original; I confess I was so farre in loue with it that I coppied it

out; though I doute I understand it not all; much less the many vses which I assure myself

you will ﬁnde of it.” [3]

6

1729 Daniel Bernoulli wrote the ﬁrst known letter which contains an interpolating function for

the factorials

1784 birthdate of Pierre Charles Fran¸cois Dupin, French mathematician (d. 1873)

1795 birthdate of Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues, French banker, mathematician, and social re-

former (d. 1851)

1809 day of death of Benjamin Peirce, American astronomer, mathematician and educator (b.

1809)

1831 birthdate of Richard Dedekind, German mathematician and philosopher (d. 1916)

1840 day of death of Fran¸cois Budan de Boislaurent, Haitian born amateur mathematician (b.

1761)

1855 day of death of August Leopold Crelle, German mathematician and engineer (b. 1780)

1860 J. J. Sylvester, in a dinner invitation for Thomas Archer Hirst to join him with Arthur

Cayley and Sylvester’s “young French mathematical friend”, (Camille Jordan); Sylvester

entices him with a bit of mathematics, “I shall have something very striking to tell you

about algebraic quantities of any order of irrationality and their representation by multiple

deﬁnite integrals when we meet.” [39]

1880 day of death of Benjamin Peirce, American astronomer, mathematician and educator (b.

1809)

1908 birthdate of Sergei Sobolev, Soviet mathematician (d. 1989)

1918 birthdate of Abraham Robinson, Jewish mathematician (d. 1974)

1921 birthdate of Evgenii Landis, Soviet mathematician and theorist (d. 1997)

1936 birthdate of Robert Phelan Langlands, Canadian mathematician

1942 birthdate of Hellmuth Stachel, Austrian mathematician

1968 day of death of Phyllis Nicolson, English mathematician and physicist (b. 1917)

1979 day of death of Dudley Ernest Littlewood, British mathematician (b. 1903)

1986 day of death of Alexander Kronrod, Soviet mathematician and computer scientist (b.

1921)

1994 Wiles sent the new proof of Ferma’s last theorem to three colleagues including Faltings.

The new proof was published and, despite its size, widely accepted as likely correct in its

major components.

October, 7

1601 birthdate of Florimond de Beaune, French mathematician (d. 1652)

1719 day of death of Pierre R´emond de Montmort, French mathematician (b. 1678)

1796 day of death of Thomas Reid, Scottish mathematician and philosopher (b. 1710)

7

1864 the mathematical seminar at Berlin began

1875 birthdate of Raymond Clare Archibald, American mathematician (d. 1955)

1893 Khayyam’s tree transplanted. When the poet and mathematician Omar Khayyam died

in 1123 he was buried in a spot where the north wind would scatter rose petals over his

grave. On this date a rose tree started from those on Khayyam’s grave was transplanted

to the grave of Edward Fitzgerald (1809–1883), the Irish translator who made Khayyam’s

poetry so famous in modern times.

1899 birthdate of Oystein Ore, Norwegian mathematician (d. 1968)

1903 day of death of Rudolf Lipschitz, German mathematician (b. 1832)

1905 birthdate of Wilhelm Ljunggren, Norwegian mathematician (d. 1973)

1920 day of death of Achille Marie Gaston Floquet, French mathematician (b. 1847)

1965 day of death of Jesse Douglas, American mathematician (b. 1897)

1992 day of death of Martin Eichler, German mathematician (b. 1912)

1994 day of death of Brian Hartley, British mathematician (b. 1939)

1995 day of death of Olga Taussky-Todd, Austrian-Czech-American mathematician, attendant

of the Vienna Circle (b. 1906)

2014 day of death of Volodymyr Sharko, Ukrainian mathematician (b. 1949)

October, 8

1561 birthdate of Edward Wright, English mathematician and cartographer (d. 1615)

1647 day of death of Christen Sørensen Longomontanus, Danish astronomer and mathematician

(b. 1562)

1652 day of death of John Greaves, English mathematician and astronomer (b. 1602)

1850 birthdate of Peter Redford Scott Lang, Scottish mathematician (d. 1926)

1883 day of death of Enoch Beery Seitz, American mathematician (b. 1846)

1908 birthdate of Hans Arnold Heilbronn, German-Jewish mathematician (d. 1975)

1922 O. Heaviside wrote to the parents of William Gordon Brown (who was killed at age 20)

“For a youth of 20 he was surprisingly advanced. Why, at his age I didn’t know anything

at all of Analysis, nor about Electricity, though I had made several inventions (telegraphic)

at that time, and was trying to see my way.” [34]

1924 birthdate of John Nelder, English mathematician and statistician (d. 2010)

1932 birthdate of Kenneth Ira Appel, American mathematician (d. 2013)

1940 day of death of Robert Emden, Swiss astrophysicist and mathematician (b. 1862)

1942 day of death of Sergey Chaplygin, Soviet physicist, mathematician, and engineer (b. 1869)

1973 day of death of Evan Tom Davies, British mathematician (b. 1904)

8

1985 day of death of Gordon Welchman, English-American mathematician (b. 1906)

2005 day of death of Alfred Goldie, English mathematician(b. 1920)

October, 9

1253 day of death of Robert Grosseteste, English bishop who worked on geometry, optics, and

astronomy (b. 1168)

1581 birthdate of Claude Gaspard Bachet de M´eziriac, French mathematician and poet (d.

1638)

1701 Yale College founded

1704 birthdate of Johann Andreas Segner, German mathematician, physicist, and physician (d.

1777)

1730 Goldbach studies sums of three and four squares [29]

1775 A paper by Euler, Speculationes circa quasdam insignes proprietates numerorum, was

presented at the Saint-Petersburg Academy. In this paper, he revisits the idea that has

come to be called Euler’s Phi function.

1807 day of death of Gianfrancesco Malfatti, Italian mathematician (b. 1731)

1901 birthdate of Winifred Deans, British mathematician (d. 1990)

1907 Minkowski had written to Einstein asking for a reprint of his 1905 paper, in order to

discuss it in his seminar with Hilbert on the electrodynamics of moving bodies [51]

1909 day of death of Bailie Hugh Blackburn, Scottish mathematician (b. 1823)

1911 birthdate of Lu´ıs Antoni Santal´o Sors, Spanish mathematician (d. 2001)

1941 birthdate of Richard Alan Day, Canadian mathematician (d. 1990)

1948 day of death of Joseph Henry Maclagen Wedderburn, Scottish-American mathematician

(b. 1882)

1949 birthdate of Fan-Rong King Chung Graham (known professionally as Fan Chung),

Taiwanese-born American mathematician

1990 day of death of Georges de Rham, Swiss mathematician (b. 1903)

October, 10

1629 day of death of Richard Towneley, English mathematician and astronomer (d. 1707)

1641 Torricelli arrives in Arcetri to study with Galileo

1708 day of death of David Gregory, Scottish mathematician and astronomer (b. 1659)

1844 Grassman asked M¨obius to write a review of his book Ausdehnungslegre [7]

1861 birthdate of Heinrich Friedrich Karl Ludwig Burkhardt, German mathematician (d. 1914)

1919 birthdate of William Kruskal, American mathematician and statistician (d. 2005)

9

1944 birthdate of Melvyn Bernard Nathanson, American mathematician

1946 day of death of Georgii Pfeiﬀer, Ukrainian-Soviet mathematician (b. 1872)

1975 day of death of Norman Levinson, American mathematician (b. 1912)

2007 day of death of Karl Walter Gruenberg, British mathematician (b. 1928)

October, 11

1595 birthdate of Albert Girard, French-Dutch mathematician (d. 1632)

1638 Descartes wrote to Mersenne: “Reverend Father, I shall begin this letter with my obser-

vations on the book of Galileo. In general I ﬁnd him to philosophize much better than

the common man in as far as he avoids as much as possible the errors of the School and

tries to examine physical matters by means of mathematical reasoning. In this, I am in

complete agreement with him and I maintain that there is no other method for ﬁnding

the truth. . . He also assumes that the velocity of the same body on diﬀerent planes is

equal when the elevations of these planes are equal. But he does not prove this and it

is not absolutely true. And as far as everything else which follows depends on these two

suppositions, one can say that he built entirely on a foundation of sand. . . ” [8]

1697 day of death of Stephano Angeli, Italian mathematician (b. 1623)

1708 day of death of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, German mathematician, physicist,

physician, and philosopher (b. 1651)

1731 day of death of John Craig, Scottish mathematician (b. 1663)

1791 day of death of Johann Castillon, Italian mathematician (b. 1704)

1822 birthdate of John Daniel Runkle, American educator and mathematician (d. 1902)

1852 day of death of Gotthold Eisenstein, German mathematician (b. 1823)

1881 birthdate of Lewis Fry Richardson, English mathematician, physicist, meteorologist, psy-

chologist and paciﬁst (d. 1953)

1885 birthdate of Alfr´ed Haar, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1933)

1910 birthdate of Cahit Arf, Turkish mathematician (d. 1997)

1923 birthdate of Harish-Chandra, Indian mathematician (d. 1983)

1940 day of death of Vito Volterra, Italian mathematician and physicist (b. 1860)

1943 day of death of Geoﬀrey Thomas Bennett, English mathematician (b. 1868)

1979 day of death of Franciszek Leja Polish mathematician (b. 1885)

1988 a 109 digit number, 11104 + 1, was factored by Mark Manasse and Arjen Lenstra using a

quadratic sieve and a network of hundreds of computers in the US, Europe, and Australia.

1994 John Forbes Nash, Jr. won the Nobel Prize for pioneering work in game theory

1996 day of death of Lars Valerian Ahlfors, Finnish mathematician (b. 1907)

10

1996 day of death of Edwin Henry Spanier, American mathematician (b. 1921)

October, 12

1492 day of death of Piero della Francesca, Italian mathematician and painter (b. 1415)

1919 day of death of Georgii Dmitrievic Suvorov, Soviet mathematician (b. 1919)

1926 day of death of Edwin Abbott Abbott, English schoolmaster and theologian, author of

Flatland (b. 1838)

1931 G¨odel appeals to the undeﬁnability of truth within a formal system of arithmetics in his

letter to Zermelo [30]

1934 birthdate of Albert Shiryaev, Russian mathematician

1944 Kond¯o’s History of Geometry completed

1952 birthdate of Roger Heath-Brown, English mathematician

1970 day of death of Andreas Speiser, Swiss Mathematician (b. 1885)

October, 13

1597 Kepler replied to Galileo’s letter of 4 August 1597 urging him to be bold and proceed

openly in his advocacy of Copernicanism.

1729 Euler mentioned the gamma function in a letter to Goldbach. Legendre gave the function

its symbol and name in 1826.

1734 birthdate of William Small, British mathematician (d. 1775)

1776 birthdate of Peter Barlow, English mathematician and engineer (d. 1862)

1793 day of death of William Hopkins, English mathematician and geologist (b. 1793)

1852 Thomas Hirst wrote in his diary: “[Dirichlet] is a rather tall, lanky-looking man, with

moustache and beard about to turn grey with somewhat harsh voice and rather deaf:

it was early, he was unwashed, and unshaven (what of him required shaving), with his

“Schlafrock”, slippers, cup of coﬀe and cigar. . . I thought as we sat each at the end of the

sofa, and the smoke of our cigars carried question and answer to and fro, and intermingled

it in graceful curves before it rose to the ceiling and mixed with the common atmospheric

air.. . . If all be well, we will smoke our friendly cigar together many a time yet, good-

natured Lejeune-Dirichlet.” [32]

1866 day of death of William Hopkins, English mathematician and geologist (b. 1793)

1885 birthdate of Viggo Brun, Norwegian mathematician (d. 1978)

1890 birthdate of Georg Feigl, German mathematician (d. 1945)

1893 birthdate of Kurt Reidemeister, German mathematician connected to the Vienna Circle

(d. 1971)

11

1893 The term “Diophantine equation” appears in English in 1893 in Eliakim Hastings Moore’s,

“A Doubly-Inﬁnite System of Simple Groups,” Bulletin of the New York Mathematical

Society [33]

1913 day of death of Gyula V´alyi, Hungarian mathematician and theoretical physicist (b. 1855)

1915 Alexandrov gave a talk at a student seminar at Moscow University on his theorem on

B-sets [13]

1932 birthdate of John Griggs Thompson, American mathematician

1990 day of death of Hans Freudenthal, Dutch mathematician (b. 1905)

2001 day of death of Olga Arsenevna Oleinik, Soviet-Russian mathematician (b. 1925)

October, 14

1687 birthdate of Robert Simson, Scottish mathematician (d. 1768)

1868 birthdate of Alessandro Padoa, Italian mathematician (d. 1937)

1956 day of death of Jules Antoine Richard, French mathematician (b. 1862)

1982 day of death of Edward Hubert Linfoot, English mathematician (b. 1905)

1982 day of death of Cliﬀord Hugh Dowker, Canadian-British mathematician (b. 1912)

2010 day of death of Benoit Mandelbrot, Polish-American mathematician and economist (b.

1924)

2010 day of death of Wilhelm Paul Albert Klingenberg, German mathematician (b. 1924)

October, 15

1608 birthdate of Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician (d. 1647)

1715 day of death of Humphry Ditton, English mathematician and philosopher (b. 1675)

1743 Euler claims that if a number is a sum of two (three, four) rational squares, then it is a

sum of two (three, four) integral squares [29]

1745 birthdate of George Atwood, English mathematician (d. 1807)

1759 Euler’s paper “An arithmetic theorem proved by a new method” was presented at the

Saint-Petersburg Academy. In this paper he introduces the idea that has come to be

called Euler’s Phi function.

1776 birthdate of Peter Barlow, English mathematician (d. 1862)

1810 University of Berlin opened by Wilhelm von Humboldt

1837 birthdate of Leo K¨onigsberger German mathematician (d. 1921)

1875 birthdate of Andr´e-Louis Cholesky, French military oﬃcer and mathematician (d. 1918)

1909 birthdate of Bernhard Hermann Neumann, German mathematician (d. 2002)

1921 birthdate of Lillian Katie Bradley, American mathematician

12

1959 day of death of Lip´ot Fej´er, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1880)

1965 day of death of Abraham Fraenkel, German-Israeli mathematician (b. 1891)

1980 day of death of Mikhail Lavrentyev, Soviet physicist and mathematician (b. 1900)

1990 day of death of Wilhelm Magnus, German-American mathematician (b. 1907)

2016 day of death of Marcel Berger, French mathematician (b. 1927)

October, 16

1655 day of death of Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Italian physician, mathematician (b. 1591)

1689 birthdate of Robert Smith, English mathematician (d. 1768)

1736 Mathematician William Whiston wrongly predicted that a comet would strike the

Earth. [48]

1797 Gauss recorded in his diary that he had discovered a new proof of the Pythagorean The-

orem

1843 Sir William Rowan Hamilton discovered quaternions (while walking with his wife one

evening, along the Royal Canal in Dublin) [6] and, on the very same day, presented his

breakthrough to the Royal Irish Academy [7]

1865 Cayley’s ﬁrst paper for the London Mathematical Society on “Transformation of Plane

Curves” was read [41]

1882 birthdate of Ernst Erich Jacobsthal, German mathematician (d. 1965)

1918 birthdate of Abraham Nemeth, American mathematician (d. 2013)

1937 day of death of William Sealy Gosset, English mathematician (b. 1876)

1959 birthdate of Philip Maini, Northern Irish mathematician

1983 day of death of Harish-Chandra, Indian mathematician (b. 1923)

October, 17

1730 Euler mentions another theorem by Fermat: “Any number is the sum of three triangular

numbers.” [29]

1759 birthdate of Jakob II Bernoulli, Swiss-Russian mathematician (d. 1789)

1776 Euler read a paper to the St. Petersburg Academy of Science entitled “De quadratis

magicis,” in which he gave a method of constructing magic squares by means of two

orthogonal Latin squares. [49]

1788 birthdate of Paul Isaak Bernays, Swiss mathematician (d. 1977)

1817 day of death of John West, Scottish mathematician (b. 1756)

1927 birthdate of Friedrich Ernst Peter Hirzebruch, German mathematician (d. 2012)

1933 Albert Einstein seeks asylum in the US

13

1937 day of death of Frank Morley, British mathematician (b. 1860)

1952 day of death of Ernest Vessiot, French mathematician (b. 1865)

1952 D. H. Lehmer announced that 22203 −1 and 22281 −1 are Mersenne primes

1963 day of death of Jacques Hadamard, French mathematician (b. 1865)

1976 day of death of Edward Marczewski, Polish mathematician (b. 1907)

1978 day of death of Gertrude Cox, American statistician (b. 1900)

1989 day of death of Mark Grigorievich Krein, Soviet mathematician (b. 1907)

1999 day of death of Nicholas Metropolis, Greek-American mathematician and physicist (b.

1915)

2008 day of death of Andrew Mattei Gleason, American mathematician (b. 1921)

October, 18

1564 day of death of Johannes Acronius Frisius, Dutch physician and mathematician (b. 1520)

1640 Fermat, in a letter to to Frenicle de Bessy, gave a generalization of results in the earlier

letter stating the result now known as Fermat’s Little Theorem which shows that for any

prime pand an integer anot divisible by p,ap−1−1 is divisible by p[36]

1740 In a letter to Johann Bernoulli, Euler uses imaginary in the exponent exi +e−xi = 2 cos x

(note that Euler used square root of −1 rather than i. Euler would be the ﬁrst to use ifor

the imaginary constant, but not until a paper he presents in St. Petersburg in 1777). [6]

1786 day of death of Alexander Wilson, Scottish surgeon, type-founder, astronomer, mathe-

matician and meteorologist (b. 1714)

1793 day of death of John Wilson, English laywer and mathematician (b. 1741)

1845 day of death of Dominique Cassini, French mathematician and surveyor (b. 1748)

1871 day of death of Charles Babbage, English mathematician and engineer, invented the me-

chanical computer (b. 1791)

1921 day of death of Paul Rudolf Eugen Jahnke, German mathematician (b. 1861)

1938 birthdate of Phillip Griﬃths, American mathematician

1974 day of death of Charles Weatherburn, Australian mathematician (b. 1884)

October, 19

14

1759 Gauss writes,in a letter to his former teacher, E. A. W. von Zimmermann, when he showed

up at the G¨ottingen University library, “I cannot deny, that I found it very unpleasant that

most of my beautiful discoveries in indeﬁnite analysis were not original. What consoles

me is this. All of Euler’s discoveries that I have so far found, I have made also, and still

more so. I have found a more general, and, I think, more natural viewpoint; yet I still see

an immeasurable ﬁeld before me. . . ”

1871 birthdate of John Miller, Scottish mathematician (d. 1956)

1890 day of death of ´

Emile L´eonard Mathieu, French mathematician (b. 1835)

1903 birthdate of Jean Fr´ed´eric Auguste Delsarte, French mathematician (d. 1968)

1910 birthdate of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian-American astrophysicist, astronomer,

and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995)

1917 birthdate of Sharadchandra Shankar Shrikhande, Indian mathematician

1944 day of death of D´enes K˝onig, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1884)

1951 birthdate of Demetrios Christodoulou, Greek mathematician and physicist

1965 the London Times reported that an archaeologist had located what he believed to be the

tomb of Archimedes

1979 day of death of Marjorie Lee Browne, American mathematician (b. 1914)

2007 day of death of Winifred Asprey, American mathematician and computer scientist (b.

1917)

October, 20

1616 birthdate of Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (d.

1680)

1631 day of death of Michael Maestlin, German astronomer and mathematician (b. 1550)

1632 birthdate of Christopher Wren, English physicist, mathematician, and architect, designed

St Paul’s Cathedral (d. 1723)

1735 Benjamin Franklin’s paper “On the Usefulness of Mathematics,” appeared in the Penn-

sylvania Gazette

1744 Euler announced that he had just discovered a simple curve that exhibited something

called a cusp of the second kind or a ramphoid from the Greek for a bird’s beak. [43]

1863 birthdate of William Henry Young, English mathematician (d. 1942)

1865 birthdate of Aleksandr Petrovich Kotelnikov, Soviet mathematician (d. 1944)

1904 birthdate of Hans Lewy, American mathematician (d. 1988)

1914 birthdate of R.H. Bing, American mathematician (d. 1986)

15

1958 Italy issued a stamp to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the birth of Evangelista Torricelli,

mathematician and physicist.

1974 day of death of Harold Stanley Ruse, British mathematician (b. 1905)

1984 day of death of Paul Dirac, English-American physicist and mathematician, Nobel Prize

laureate (b. 1902)

1987 day of death of Andrey Kolmogorov, Soviet mathematician (b. 1903)

October, 21

1505 day of death of Paul Scriptoris, German mathematician and educator (b. 1460)

1687 birthdate of Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1759)

1796 Gauss wrote still uninterpreted cryptic entry “Vicimus GEGAN”” in hiss scientiﬁc diary.

1823 birthdate of Enrico Betti, Italian mathematician (d. 1892)

1872 day of death of Jacques Babinet, French physicist, mathematician, and astronomer (b.

1794)

1881 day of death of Heinrich Eduard Heine, German mathematician (b. 1821)

1882 birthdate of Harry Schultz Vandiver, American mathematician (d. 1973)

1855 birthdate of Giovanni Battista Guccia, Italian mathematician (d. 1914)

1914 birthdate of Martin Gardner, American mathematician and writer (d. 2010)

1965 Greece issued a postage stamp picturing Hipparchus and an astrolabe to commemorate

the opening of the Evghenides Planetarium in Athens.

1969 day of death of Wac law Sierpi´nski, Polish mathematician (b. 1882)

1988 Science (pp. 374–375) reported that the 100-digit number 11104 + 1 was factored by using

computers working in parallel using a quadratic sieve method.

2000 day of death of Dirk Jan Struik, Dutch mathematician (b. 1894)

2002 day of death of Bernhard Hermann Neumann, German mathematician (b. 1909)

October, 22

1511 birthdate of Erasmus Reinhold, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1553)

1587 birthdate of Joachim Jungius, German mathematician and philosopher (d. 1657)

1668 Leibniz writes to the German emperor to request permission to publish a “Nucleus

Libareaus”. This was the beginnings of the foundation of Acta Eruditorium, the ﬁrst

German scientiﬁc journal.

1745 day of death of Isaac Greenwood, American mathematician (b. 1702)

1746 Princeton University chartered as the “College of New Jersey.” It moved to Princeton in

1756 and changed its name to Princeton University in 1896.

16

1843 birthdate of John S Mackay, Scottish mathematician (d. 1914)

1850 Weber-Fechner law introduced. Describing the relationship between physical stimuli and

human perception as logarithmic, it was one of the ﬁrst mathematical models in the ﬁeld

of human cognition.

1895 birthdate of Rolf Herman Nevanlinna, Finnish mathematicians (d. 1980)

1906 birthdate of Aurelio Baldor, Cuban mathematician and lawyer (d. 1978)

1907 birthdate of Sarvadaman D. S. Chowla, Indian mathematician (d. 1995)

1916 birthdate of Nathan Jacob Fine, American mathematician (22 October in Philadelphia,

USA - 18 Nov 1994)

1921 birthdate of Alexander Kronrod, Soviet mathematician and computer scientist (d. 1986)

1927 birthdate of Alexander Ivanovich Skopin, Soviet mathematician (d. 2003)

1950 day of death of Ada Isabel Maddison, British mathematician (b. 1869)

1977 day of death of Beniamino Segre, Italian mathematician (b. 1903)

1979 day of death of Reinhold Baer, German mathematician (b. 1902)

October, 23

1581 day of death of Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1529)

1613 Kepler, in a letter to an unknown recipient goes into great detail concerning his attempts

over the preceding two years to ﬁnd a wife. [4]

1813 Gauss found a complete proof for the reciprocity law to powers greater than two, and

in particular to the law of biquadratic reciprocity (published in his book Disquisitiones

Arithmeticae (1801) [12]

1821 birthdate of Philipp Ludwig von Seidel (d. 1896)

1832 Galois was sentenced to six months in prison for illegally wearing a uniform

1852 De Morgan conveyed Four Color Problem to Hamilton, writing, “A student of mine asked

me today to give him a reason for a fact which I did not know was a fact — and do not

yet. He says that if a ﬁgure be anyhow divided and the compartments diﬀerently coloured

so that the ﬁgures with any portion of common boundary line are diﬀerently coloured —

four colours may be wanted, but not more.. . Query cannot a necessity for ﬁve or more be

invented.” [52]

1865 birthdate of Piers Bohl, Latvian mathematician (d. 1921)

1913 the “Declaration of the Professors of the German Reich”, stating that the German Army

nurtured scholarship and sheared its values was signed by over 3100 professors, including

Klein, Hilbert, Moritz Cantor and Max Noether [2]

1930 G¨odel sent the incompleteness article for publication [30]

17

1948 birthdate of Akihiro Kanamori, Japanese-born American mathematician

1973 day of death of Maurice Princet, French mathematician and actuary (b. 1875)

1985 day of death of John Semple, Irish-English mathematician (b. 1904)

2011 day of death of Herbert A. Hauptman, American chemist and mathematician, Nobel Prize

laureate (b. 1917)

October, 24

1601 day of death of Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mathematician (b. 1546)

1729 Euler had mentioned the gamma function in a letter to Goldbach writing Γx=

limr→∞ r!xx

(1+x)(2+x)...(r+x)

1655 day of death of Pierre Gassendi, French priest, astronomer, and mathematician (b. 1592)

1676 Newton, at the request of Oldenburg and Collins, wrote to the formera letter where he

just mentioned explains the way in which he found the Binomial Theorem, and also com-

municates his method of ﬂuxions and ﬂuents in form of an anagram in which all the letters

in the sentence communicated were placed in alphabetical order. Thus Newton says that

his method of drawing tangents was 6a cc d æ 13 e ff 7i3l9n4o4q rr 4s9t

12 v x. The sentence was, “Data æquatione quotcunque ﬂuentes quantitates involvente

ﬂuxiones invenire, et vice versa.” (“Having any given equation involving never so many

ﬂowing quantities, to ﬁnd the ﬂuxions, and vice versa.”) [6]

1729 The young L. Euler sent his ﬁrst letter to Ch. Goldbach. (Their correspondence would

continue until Goldbach’s death in 1764. Almost 200 of their letters survive. Goldbach

served as a kind of mentor for Euler, and it was he who introduced Euler to number theory

through the works of Fermat.) The letter goes on to discuss Euler’s ﬁrst deﬁnition of

what we now call the gamma function. In passing, Eulers mentions a fact that depends on

knowing that eπi =−1. He then uses a process similar to the interpolation of the factorial

progression that led to the gamma function to give the partial sums of the harmonic

series. [44]

18

1826 Abel wrote Holmboe his impressions of continental mathematics and mathematicians.

Upon reaching Paris from Berlin, he worked on what would be called the Paris Treatise

that he submitted to the Academy in October 1826. In this memoir, Abel obtained

among other things, an important addition theorem for algebraic integrals. It is also in

this treatise that we see the ﬁrst occurrence of the concept of the genus of an algebraic

function. Cauchy and Legendre were appointed referees of this memoir. In Paris, Abel

was disappointed to ﬁnd little interest in his work, which he had saved for the Academy.

He wrote to Holmboe, “I showed the treatise to Mr. Cauchy, but he scarcely deigned to

glance at it.” [1] He also noticed that he had met “Herrn Lejeune Dirichlet, a Prussian, who

visited me the other day, since he considered me as a compatriot. He is a very sagacious

mathematician. Simultaneously with Legendre he proved the insolubility of the equation

x5+y5=z5in integers and other nice things” [9]

1853 birthdate of Heinrich Maschke, German mathematician (d. 1908)

1872 birthdate of Georgii Pfeiﬀer, Ukrainian-Soviet mathematician (d. 1946)

1873 birthdate of Edmund Taylor Whittaker, English mathematician (d. 1956)

1902 In Science, George Bruce Halsted wrote that his student R. L. Moore, who had proved

that one of Hilbert’s betweenness axioms was redundant, “was displaced in favor of a local

schoolmarm,” Miss Mary E. Decherd.

1904 Emmy Noether matriculated at the University of Erlangen as number 468. At that time

she only listed mathematics as her course of study. [5]

1906 birthdate of Alexander Gelfond, Soviet mathematician and cryptographer (d. 1968)

1920 birthdate of Marcel-Paul Sch¨utzenberger, French mathematician (d. 1996)

1930 birthdate of Johan Galtung, Norwegian sociologist and mathematician

1930 day of death of Paul Emile Appell, French mathematician (b. 1855)

1933 in a letter to Springer, the German Mathematical Society (DMV) demanded the closing

of Zentralblatt in favour of the Jahrbuch [28]

1953 birthdate of Charles Colbourn, Canadian computer scientist and mathematician

1966 day of death of Sofya Yanovskaya, Russian mathematician and historian (b. 1896)

October, 25

1647 day of death of Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician (b. 1608)

1713 Gottfried Leibniz, in a letter to Johann Bernoulli, observed that an alternating series

whose terms monotonically decrease to zero in absolute value is convergent

1733 day of death of Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri, Italian priest, mathematician, and philosopher

(b. 1667)

19

1811 birthdate of ´

Evariste Galois, French mathematician (d. 1832)

1884 day of death of Carlo Alberto Castigliano, Italian mathematician and physicist (b. 1847)

1886 birthdate of Lester Randolph Ford, American mathematician (d. 1967)

1905 day of death of Otto Stolz, Austrian mathematician (b. 1842)

1915 birthdate of Ivan M. Niven, Canadian-American mathematician (d. 1999)

1926 birthdate of James Eells, American-British mathematician (d. 2007)

1933 day of death of Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin, German mathematician (b. 1844)

1944 Max Planck writes to Hitler to plead for the life of his son, Erwin. In the note, the

discoverer of the energy quantum pleads for the life of his son, who was involved in the

attempted to kill Hitler three months before. Max Planck had already lost his eldest son,

who was killed in the Battle of Verdun, during World War I. Planck writes in his letter

that he is ‘conﬁdent’ that the F´ohrer will lend his ear to ‘an imploring 87-year-old’. This

plea, apparently written from the Planck family’s bombed-out home in a suburb of Berlin,

was ignored by the authorities. Erwin was executed on 23 January 1945, and his death

certiﬁcate recorded: ‘parents unknown’ [10].

1952 birthdate of Wendy Hall, English computer scientist, mathematician

1996 day of death of Ennio de Giorgi, Italian mathematician (b. 1928)

1997 day of death of Mina Spiegel Rees, American mathematician (b. 1902)

2002 day of death of Jean Estelle Hirsh Rubin, American mathematician (b. 1926)

2002 day of death of Ren´e Thom, French mathematician and biologist (b. 1923)

October, 26

1676 Newton, through the intermediary of Oldenburg, wrote Leibniz concerning his work on

the calculus

1773 day of death of Am´ed´ee-Fran¸cois Fr´ezier, French mathematician, engineer, and explorer

(b. 1682)

1802 Gauss, in a letter to Heinrich Olbers, wrote: “I have a true aversion to teaching. The peren-

nial business of a professor of mathematics is only to teach the ABC of his science. . . And

with this thankless work the professor loses his noble time.” [11]

1817 day of death of Aida Yasuaki, also known as Aida Ammei, Japanese mathematician (b.

1747)

20

1818 Thomas Jeﬀerson writes Nathaniel Bowditch to oﬀer him the Math Professorship at the

newly forming University of Virginia: “I have stated that where men of the 1st order of

science in their line can be found in our country, we shall give them a willing preference.

we are satisﬁed that we can get from no country a professor of higher qualiﬁcations than

yourself for our Mathematical department, and we entertain the hope and with great

anxiety that you will accept of it. the house for that Professorship will be ready at

midsummer next or soon after, when we should wish that school to be opened. I know

the prejudices of every state against the climates of all those South of itself: but i know

also that the candid traveller advancing Southwardly, to a certain degree at least, sees

that they are more prejudices, and that the real advantages of climate are in the middle

& temperate states, and especially when above their tide waters.” [27]

1843 John T Graves replies to Hamilton about the invention of Quaternions: “There is some-

thing in the system which gravels me. I have not yet any clear views as to the extent

to which we are at liberty arbitrarily to create imaginaries, and to endow them with su-

pernatural properties.. . . If with your alchemy you can create three pounds of gold, why

should you stop there?” [40]

1849 birthdate of Ferdinand Georg Frobenius, German mathematician (d. 1917)

1885 birthdate of Niels Erik Norlund, Danish mathematician (d. 1981)

1893 Karl Pearson’s ﬁrst statistical publication was the ﬁrst in a series of 18 papers titled

“Mathematical Contributions to the Theory of Evolution.”

1911 birthdate of Shiing-shen Chern, Chinese-American mathematician and educator (d. 2004)

1930 birthdate of Walter Feit, Austrian mathematician (d. 2004)

1935 birthdate of Gloria Conyers Hewitt, American mathematician

1945 day of death of Aleksey Krylov, Soviet mathematician and engineer (b. 1863)

1968 day of death of Sergei Natanovich Bernstein, Soviet mathematician (b. 1880)

1983 day of death of Alfred Tarski, Polish-American mathematician and logician (b. 1901)

1984 day of death of Mark Kac, Polish mathematician (b. 1914)

1998 day of death of Kenkichi Iwasawa, Japanese mathematician (b. 1917)

October, 27

1449 day of death of Ulugh Beg, Persian astronomer, mathematician and sultan (b. 1394)

1616 day of death of Johann Richter or Johannes Praetorius, Bohemian German mathematician

and astronomer (b. 1537)

1654 Blaise Pascal wrote to Pierre de Fermat, praising him for his solution to the Problem of

the Points, about which they had exchanged seven previous letters.

21

1675 day of death of Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (b. 1602)

1678 birthdate of Pierre R´emond de Montmort, French mathematician (d. 1719)

1798 birthdate of Heinrich Ferdinand Scherk, German mathematician (d. 1885)

1856 birthdate of Ernest William Hobson, English mathematician (d. 1933)

1890 birthdate of Olive Clio Hazlett, American mathematician (d. 1974)

1915 birthdate of Robert Alexander Rankin, Scottish mathematician (d. 2001)

1930 day of death of Ellen Hayes, American mathematician and astronomer (b. 1851)

1974 day of death of C. P. Ramanujam, Indian mathematician (b. 1938)

1980 day of death of John Hasbrouck Van Vleck, American physicist and mathematician, Nobel

Prize laureate (b. 1899)

October, 28

1386 University of Heidelberg opened

1636 Harvard College founded

1703 birthdate of Antoine Deparcieux, French mathematician and engineer (d. 1768)

1703 day of death of John Wallis, English mathematician and cryptographer (b. 1616)

1718 birthdate of Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian priest, mathematician, astronomer, and ex-

plorer (d. 1793)

1804 birthdate of Pierre Fran¸cois Verhulst, Belgian mathematician (d. 1849)

1880 birthdate of Michele Cipolla, Italian mathematician (d. 1947)

1905 birthdate of Tatyana Pavlovna Ehrenfest, Dutch mathematician (d. 1984)

1918 day of death of Ulisse Dini, Italian mathematician and politician (b. 1845)

1960 birthdate of Landon Curt Noll, American computer scientist and mathematician

1965 day of death of Luther Pfahler Eisenhart, American mathematician (b. 1876)

1986 day of death of Irving Reiner, American mathematician (b. 1924)

October, 29

1669 Newton appointed as Lucasian professor

1675 Leibniz ﬁrst introduces a new notation for ∫as well as the “d” for diﬀerential. He also

constructed what he called the “triangulum characteristicum,” which had been used before

him by Pascal and Barrow. [6]

1690 birthdate of Martin Folkes, English mathematician and astronomer (d. 1754)

1783 day of death of Jean le Rond d’Alembert, French mathematician, physicist, and philoso-

pher (b. 1717)

1784 birthdate of Pierre Charles Fran¸cois Dupin, French mathematician (d. 1873)

22

1856 William Rowan Hamilton submits a paper on “New Roots of Unity” which will be the

foundation of his Icosian Calculus

1897 birthdate of Edwin James George Pitman, Australian mathematician (d. 1993)

1912 Einstein wrote to Sommerfeld: “I am now occupied exclusively with the gravitational

problem, and believe that I can overcome all diﬃculties with the help of a local math-

ematician friend [Marcel Grossmann]. But one thing is certain, never before in my life

have I troubled myself over anything so much, and that I have gained great respect for

mathematics, whose more subtle parts I considered until now, in my ignorance, as pure

luxury! Compared with this problem, the original theory of relativity is childish” [51]

1917 day of death of Giovanni Battista Guccia, Italian mathematician (b. 1855)

1921 day of death of Konstantin Alekseevich Andreev, Russian mathematician (b. 1848)

1925 birthdate of Klaus Roth, British mathematician (d. 2015)

1926 birthdate of Jean Estelle Hirsh Rubin, American mathematician (d. 2002)

1931 day of death of Gabriel Xavier Paul Koenigs, French mathematician (b. 1858)

1933 day of death of Paul Painlev´e, French mathematician and politician, 84th Prime Minister

of France (b. 1853)

1971 birthdate of Daniel J. Bernstein, American mathematician, cryptologist

1993 day of death of Lipman Bers, Latvian-American mathematician (b. 1914)

1993 day of death of Robert Palmer Dilworth, American mathematician (b. 1914)

2004 day of death of Peter Twinn, English mathematician and entomologist (b. 1916)

2009 day of death of Shaun Wylie, British mathematician (b. 1913)

October, 30

1626 day of death of Willebrord Snell, Dutch astronomer and mathematician (b. 1580)

1632 birthdate of Christopher Wren, English physicist, mathematician, and architect, designed

St Paul’s Cathedral (d. 1723)

1710 William Whiston, whom Newton had arranged to succeeded him as Lucasian Professor

at Cambridge in 1701, was deprived of the chair and driven from Cambridge for his

unorthodox religious views.

1735 Benjamin Franklin published “On the Usefulness of Mathematics,” his only published

article on mathematics, in the Pennsylvania Gazette.

1739 day of death of Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky, Russian mathematician and educator (b.

1669)

1810 day of death of Fran¸cois Joseph Fran¸cais, French mathematician (b. 1768)

23

1826 Niels Abel presented a paper to the French Academy of Sciences that was ignored by

Cauchy, who was to serve as referee. The paper was published some twenty years later,

well after Abel’s death.

1840 birthdate of Joseph Jean Baptiste Neuberg, Belgian mathematician (d. 1926)

1844 birthdate of George Henri Halphen, French mathematician (d. 1889)

1863 birthdate of Stanislaw Zaremba, Polish mathematician (d. 1942)

1906 birthdate of Andrei Nikolaevich Tikhonov, Soviet mathematician (d. 1993)

1907 birthdate of Harold Davenport, English mathematician (d. 1969)

1946 birthdate of William Paul Thurston, American mathematician (d. 2012)

1978 Laura Nickel and Curt Noll, eighteen year old students at California State at Hayward,

show that 221,701 −1 is prime. This was the largest prime known at that time.

1991 day of death of Ellis Robert Kolchin, American mathematician (b. 1916)

2007 day of death of Juha Heinonen, Finnish-American mathematician (b. 1960)

October, 31

1815 birthdate of Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician (d. 1897)

1840 day of death of Charles Bonnycastle, American mathematician (b. 1796)

1852 An entry in Hirst’s diary: “Dirichlet cannot be surpassed for richness of material and clear

insight into it: as a speaker he has no advantages — there is nothing like ﬂuency about

him, and yet a clear eye and understanding make it dispensable: without an eﬀort you

would not notice his hesitating speech. What is peculiar in him, he never sees his audience

— when he does not use the blackboard at which time his back is turned to us, he sits

at the high desk facing us, puts his spectacles up on his forehead, leans his head on both

hands, and keeps his eyes, when not covered with his hands, mostly shut. He uses no

notes, inside his hands he sees an imaginary calculation, and reads it out to us — that we

understand it as well as if we too saw it. I like that kind of lecturing.” [9]

1890 birthdate of Joseph Jean Camille P´er`es, French mathematician (d. 1962)

1902 birthdate of Abraham Wald, Romanian mathematician and economist (d. 1950)

1903 Frank N. Cole, at a New York meeting of the American Mathematical Society, presented

a paper “On the factoring of large numbers.” He spoke not a word, but carefully raised

2 to the 67th power, then subtracted one. Moving over, he computed 193,707,721 times

761,838,257,287. The calculations agreed, showing that this number is not a Mersenne

prime. In 1911, E. T. Bell asked Cole how long it had taken him to ﬁnd this factorization.

He replied, “Three years of Sundays.”

24

1915 Closing date for a prize consisting of a gold medal bearing a portrait of Weierstrass and

3000 Swedish crowns, for the best essay on the theory of analytic functions. King Gustav

V of Sweden founded the prize to commemorate the centenary of the birth of Weierstrass.

1919 birthdate of Magnus Wenninger, American mathematician (d. 2017)

1925 birthdate of John A. Pople, British mathematician and chemist (d. 2004)

1935 birthdate of Ronald Graham, American mathematician

1983 day of death of Lu Jiaxi, Chinese self-taught mathematician (b. 1935)

1992 the Vatican admitted erring for over 359 years in formally condemning Galileo Galilei for

entertaining scientiﬁc truths such as the Earth revolves around the sun it, which the Roman

Catholic Church long denounced as anti-scriptural heresy. After 13 years of inquiry, the

Pope’s commission of historic, scientiﬁc and theological scholars brought the pope a ”not

guilty” ﬁnding for Galileo.

2006 day of death of George Brinton Thomas Jr., American mathematician (b. 1914)

Conclusive remarks

Mathematical epigraph are taken from [35]. The dates (if diﬀerent is not indicated) are from [15,

31, 46, 50] (see also Wikipedia). Dates and events for the rest of the months are collected

in [16–26]. A day-by-day version of this calendar can be found in [47]. At the last stages of

preparation of this work we found an excellent reference [42] (and closely related to this [38]), so

some of the dates (that are included in these references also) were double-checked with [38,42].

References

[1] Alladi K., Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematical genius, http://krishnaswami-alladi.com/wp-

content/uploads/pdfdocs/abel.pdf .

[2] Aubin D. and Goldstein C., The War of Guns and Mathematics: Mathematical Practices and Com-

munities in France and Its Western Allies around World War I, American Mathematical Society,

2014.

[3] Beery J. and Stedall J. (Authors), Beery J.L. and Stedall J.A. (Editors), Thomas Harriot’s Doctrine

of Triangular Numbers: the ‘Magisteria Magna’, European Mathematical Society, 2008.

[4] Christmas Trilogy Part 3: Choosing a wife, https://thonyc.wordpress.com/2014/12/27/christmas-

trilogy-part-3-choosing-a-wife/ .

[5] Dick A., Emmy Noether 1882–1935, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

[6] Cajori F., A History of Mathematics, https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/31061 .

[7] Crowe M.J., A History of Vector Analysis: The Evolution of the Idea of a Vectorial System, Dover

Books on Mathematics, 2011.

25

[8] Duhem P., The Origins of Statics: The Sources of Physical Theory, Springer Science & Business

Media, 2012.

[9] Elstrodt J., The Life and Work of Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859), Clay Mathematics Proceed-

ings,7, 2007.

[10] Farmelo G., Max Planck letter to Hitler discovered, https://grahamfarmelo.com/max-planck-letter-

hitler-discovered/ .

[11] “Carl Friedrich Gauss.” Famous Scientists, www.famousscientists.org/carl-friedrich-gauss/ .

[12] Gindikin S., Tales of Physicists and Mathematicians, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

[13] Graham L and Kantor J.-M., Naming Inﬁnity. A True Story of Religious Mysticism and Mathematical

Creativity, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.

[14] Gronau D., Why is the gamma function so as it is, Teaching Mathematics and Computer Sciencce,1

(2003), 43–53.

[15] Historia Mathematica, 1974–2018, http://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toc/histmath.html .

[16] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. January,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335858138 Mathematical Calendar January ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12535.57765

[17] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. February,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335859025 Mathematical Calendar February ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11067.57126

[18] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. March,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335881519 Mathematical Calendar March ,

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