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Mathematical Calendar. July

Nataliya M. Ivanova

July 27, 2020

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

E-mail: ivanova.nataliya@gmail.com

Abstract

In this series we list some important dates and events in history of mathematics and

mathematical culture.

Mathematics is the art of giving the same name to diﬀerent things.

Henri Poincar´e

July, 1

1646 birthdate of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German mathematician and philosopher (d. 1716)

1694 Opening of the University of Halle in Germany

1788 birthdate of Jean-Victor Poncelet, French mathematician and engineer (d. 1867)

1818 William George Horner’s (1786–1837) method of solving equations (algorithm for the

eﬃcient evaluation of polynomials in monomial form) was presented to the Royal Society

in London

1848 birthdate of Emil Weyr, Czech-Austrian mathematician (d. 1894)

1852 Dirichlet delivered a memorial lecture at the Berlin Academy in honor of his close friend

Jacobi in which he called Jacobi the greatest member of the Academy since Lagrange [6]

1856 Weierstrass appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Polytechnic School in Berlin

1873 Peirce writes, “Newcomb, in a paper . . . says he ﬁnds that pendulums hung by springs

twist and untwist as they oscillate and says this will aﬀect the time of oscillation.”

1894 the New York Mathematical Society changed its name to the American Mathematical

Society [1]

1906 birthdate of Jean Dieudonn´e, French mathematician (d. 1992)

1

1918 Florian Cajori (1859–1930) appointed professor of the history of mathematics at the Uni-

versity of California, Berkeley, one of the few such chairs in the the world. During the

next twelve years he published 159 papers on the history of mathematics.

1948 The Bell System Technical Journal publishes the ﬁrst part of Claude Shannon’s A Mathe-

matical Theory of Communication, regarded as a foundation of information theory, intro-

ducing the concept of Shannon entropy and adopting the term Bit.

1957 day of death of Donald McIntosh, Scottish mathematician (b. 1868)

1963 day of death of Bevan Braithwaite Baker, Scottish mathematician (b. 1890)

1980 a method of trisecting any given acute angle Origami is demonstrated by Hisashi Abe who

published it in the Japanese journal Suugaku Seminar (Mathematics Seminar)

2010 Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman refused the Clay Millineum prize of one million dollars,

saying that he considers his contribution to proving the Poincar´e conjecture to be no

greater than that of Richard Hamilton, who introduced the theory of Ricci ﬂow.

2015 day of death of Czes law Olech, Polish mathematician (b. 1931)

July, 2

1613 day of death of Bartholomaeus Pitiscus, German trigonometrist, astronomer and theolo-

gian (b. 1561)

1621 day of death of Thomas Harriot, English astronomer, mathematician, and ethnographer

(b. 1560)

1622 birthdate of Ren´e-Fran¸coise Walter de Sluse, Walloon mathematician and churchman (d.

1685)

2

1644 day of death of William Gascoigne, English astronomer, mathematician and maker of

scientiﬁc instruments (b. 1612)

1823 birthdate of Bailie Hugh Blackburn, Scottish mathematician (d. 1909)

1832 Legendre writes to Nathanial Bowditch regarding his translation of LaPlace’s Mecanique

Celeste: “Your work is not merely a translation with a commentary; I regard it as a new

edition, augmented and improved, and such a one as might have come from the hands of

the author himself, . . . if he had been solicitously studious of being clear.” [3]

1850 Stokes’s theorem ﬁrst appeared for the ﬁrst time as a postscript to a letter from Sir William

Thompson (Lord Kelvin) to Stokes [35]

1852 birthdate of William Burnside, English mathematician (d. 1927)

1862 birthdate of William Henry Bragg, English physicist, chemist, and mathematician, Nobel

Prize laureate (d. 1942)

1881 Klein informs Poincar´e that some of his work on theta functions is not new, and that

a large number of young mathematician are working to ﬁnd conditions that distinguish

Riemann’s theta functions from the more general ones [22]

1919 day of death of Theodor Reye, German mathematician (b. 1838)

1925 birthdate of Olga Arsenevna Oleinik, Soviet-Russian mathematician (d. 2001)

1947 day of death of Nikolai Grigorievich Chebotaryov, Soviet mathematician (b. 1894)

1982 Science reported that Steven Smale had proved that the average-case behavior of the

simplex algorithm for linear programming is far better than the worse-case behavior,

which is exponential.

2014 day of death of Harold W. Kuhn, American mathematician (b. 1925)

July, 3

1749 day of death of William Jones, Welsh-English mathematician (b. 1675)

1789 day of death of Jakob II Bernoulli, Swiss-Russian mathematician (b. 1759)

1820 birthdate of Ernest de Jonqui`eres, French naval oﬃcer and mathematician (d. 1901)

1822 Charles Babbage described his ideas for a “diﬀerence engine” to the Royal Society in

London

1866 birthdate of Henry Frederick Baker, English mathematician (d. 1956)

1879 birthdate of Alfred Korzybski, Polish-American mathematician, linguist, and philosopher

(d. 1950)

1881 day of death of Hasan Tahsini, Albanian astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher (b.

1811)

1897 birthdate of Jesse Douglas, American mathematician (d. 1965)

3

1933 birthdate of Edward Brandt, Jr., American physician and mathematician (d. 2007)

1933 birthdate of Frederick Justin Almgren, American mathematician (d. 1997)

1933 birthdate of William Parry, English mathematician (d. 2006)

1945 birthdate of Saharon Shelah, Israeli mathematician

1977 day of death of Alexander Volkov, Soviet mathematician and writer (b. 1891)

1991 day of death of Ernst Witt, German mathematician (b. 1911)

July, 4

1662 Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary “By and by comes Mr. Cooper . . . of whom I entend to

learn Mathematiques; and so begin with him today.. . After an hour’s being with him at

Arithmetique, my ﬁrst attempt being to learn the Multiplication table, then we parted till

tomorrow.”

1742 day of death of Luigi Guido Grandi, Italian monk, mathematician, and engineer (b. 1671)

1744 Euler wrote Christian Goldbach that he has ﬁnished his book Introductio in Analysin

Inﬁnitorum

1831 Poisson declared Galois’ work on solutions of equations “incomprehensible”, declaring that

“[Galois’] argument is neither suﬃciently clear nor suﬃciently developed to allow us to

judge its rigor”; however, the rejection report ends on an encouraging note: “We would

then suggest that the author should publish the whole of his work in order to form a

deﬁnitive opinion.” [38]

1843 Liouville began an address to the Academy of Sciences with the words: ”I hope to interest

the Academy in announcing [that in] the papers of Evariste Galois I have found a solution,

as precise as it is profound, of this beautiful problem: whether or not [the general equation

of ﬁfth degree] is solvable by radicals.” This work of Galois was published in 1846.

1862 Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, mathematics teacher at Oxford, went boating on the Isis,

a tributary of the Thames, with the three daughters of Henry George Liddell, dean of

Christ Church, Oxford. He was especially fond of Alice Liddell, then ten, and it was

mainly for her that he began the story of another Alices tumble down a rabbit hole. The

work was published exactly three years later as Alices Adventures under Ground under

the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, with the famous illustrations by John Tenniel

1901 day of death of Peter Guthrie Tait, Scottish physicist and mathematician (b. 1831)

1906 birthdate of Dan Rutherford, Scottish mathematician (d. 1966)

1921 birthdate of G´erard Debreu, French economist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate

(d. 2004)

1928 birthdate of Juergen Kurt Moser, German-American mathematician (d. 1999)

4

1941 day of death of Antoni Lomnicki, Polish mathematician (b. 1881)

1963 The San Francisco Chronicle carried a report entitled, “A Milestone in MathProfessor’s

New Concept,” by David Perlman. This popular account of Paul J. Cohen’s proof of the

independence of the axiom of choice was probably the ﬁrst published.

1981 day of death of Niels Erik Norlund, Danish mathematician (b. 1885)

1986 day of death of Oscar Zariski, Belarusian-American mathematician (b. 1899)

2002 day of death of Laurent-Mo¨ıse Schwartz, French mathematician (b. 1915)

2006 day of death of Nathan Saul Mendelsohn, American-born Canadian mathematician (b.

1917)

July, 5

1687 Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

1698 Johann Bernoulli deﬁned the term function in a letter to Leibniz. Leibniz had coined the

term.

1820 birthdate of William John Macquorn Rankine, Scottish physicist, mathematician, and

engineer (d. 1872)

1926 day of death of Peter Redford Scott Lang, Scottish mathematician (b. 1850)

1932 day of death of Ren´e-Louis Baire, French mathematician(b. 1874)

1942 day of death of Oskar Bolza, German mathematician (b. 1857)

1953 birthdate of Caryn Navy, American mathematician and computer scientist

2015 day of death of Uﬀe Haagerup, Danish mathematician (b. 1949)

2018 day of death of Evgeny S. Golod, Soviet-Russian mathematician (b. 1935)

July, 6

1423 birthdate of Antonio Manetti, Italian mathematician and architect (d. 1497)

1476 day of death of Regiomontanus, German mathematician and astrologer (b. 1436)

1656 Huygen, in a letter to Carcavi, gives the solution, without proof, to a dice throwing

probability problem posed by Fermat(If A wins for Throwing a six, and B wins by throwing

a seven, and after A throws once, B and A each roll twice in turns. What are the odds of

A winning?)

1708 de Moivre wrote to Johann Bernoulli about Machin’s series, giving two diﬀerent proofs

that it converged to π

1849 birthdate of Alfred Bray Kempe, British mathematician (d. 1922)

1854 day of death of Georg Ohm, German physicist and mathematician (b. 1789)

5

1863 Marx wrote to Engels: “In my free time I do diﬀerential and integral calculus. Apropos!

I have a surplus of books and will send one to you if you want to study this topic. I deem

it almost indispensable for your military studies. By the way, it is a much easier part

of mathematics (involving mere technique) than the higher parts of algebra, for instance.

Outside of knowledge of the usual algebra and trigonometry there is nothing else necessary

to study, except for general familiarity with the conic sections.” [26]

1909 Einstein resigns his position at the Bern Patent Oﬃce to move to Zurich to take up his

ﬁrst full-time academic position in the chair of theoretical physics at the University of

Zurich

1910 birthdate of Lothar Collatz, German mathematician (d. 1990)

1928 birthdate of Bernard Malgrange, French mathematician

1976 birthdate of Ioana Dumitriu, Romanian-American mathematician

2020 day of death of Ronald Lewis Graham, American mathematician (b. 1935)

July, 7

1668 Isaac Newton received his M.A. from Trinity College in Cambridge

1742 Goldbach’s conjecture was sent in a letter to Leonhard Euler

1746 birthdate of Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian mathematician and astronomer (d. 1826)

1752 birthdate of Joseph-Marie Jacquard, French mathematician (d. 1834)

1823 William Rowan Hamilton passed into Trinity College, Dublin

1887 Michelson and Morley experiment supported special relativity

1900 day of death of Eduard Wiltheiss, German mathematician (b. 1855)

1905 birthdate of Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin, French mathematician (d. 1972)

1906 birthdate of William Feller, Croatian-American mathematician (d. 1970)

1927 day of death of G¨osta Mittag-Leﬄer, Swedish mathematician (b. 1846)

1942 day of death of William Henry Young, English mathematician (b. 1863)

1947 day of death of Alfred Rosenblatt, Polish mathematician (b. 1880)

1936 birthdate of Egbert Brieskorn, German mathematician (d. 2013)

1975 day of death of William Vallance Douglas Hodge, English mathematician (b. 1903)

1982 day of death of Raymond Louis Wilder, American mathematician (b. 1896)

2018 day of death of Alexander Bogomolny, Soviet-born Israeli American mathematician (b.

1948)

July, 8

6

Math 2.0 Day. It is a day to remind ourselves that math is not just the boring subject

you hated during school and college. The world runs on numbers and mathematics.

1390 day of death of Albert of Saxony, German philosopher, physicist and mathematician (b.

appr. 1316)

1672 Newton’s ﬁrst publication is in a letter to the Philosophical Transactions: “A Serie’s of

Quere’s Propounded by Mr. Isaac Newton, to be Determin’d by Experiments, Positively

and Directly Concluding His New Theory of Light and Colours; and Here Recommended to

the Industry of the Lovers of Experimental Philosophy, as they Were Generously Imparted

to the Publisher in a Letter of the Said Mr. Newtons of July 8.1672”

1695 day of death of Christian Huygens, Dutch mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (b.

1629)

1706 de Moivre wrote to Johann Bernoulli about Machin’s unproved result on Machin’s series

for π

1760 birthdate of Christian Kramp, French mathematician (d. 1826)

1777 birthdate of Daniel Friedrich Hecht, German mathematician (d. 1833)

1892 birthdate of Torsten Carleman, Swedish mathematician (d. 1949)

1902 day of death of John Daniel Runkle, American educator and mathematician (b. 1822)

1904 birthdate of Henri Cartan, French mathematician (d. 2008)

1915 birthdate of Kenneth O. May, American mathematician and historian of mathematics (d.

1977)

1971 day of death of Kurt Reidemeister, German mathematician connected to the Vienna Circle

(b. 1893)

2002 Donald Coxeter gives the keynote address at the Janos Bolyai Conference on Hyper-

bolic Geometry with a new paper on the Descartes circle theorem as extended by Phillip

Beecroft. His Opening remarks: “The Absolute property of four mutally tangent circles

that I am describing seems to have been discovered by Mr. Phillip Beecroft, of Hyde

Academy, Cheshire, England, and published in The Lady and Gentleman’s Dairy... In

Beecroft’s own words, “If any four circles be described to touch each other mutually, an-

other set of four circles of mutual contact may be described whose points of contach shall

coincide with those of the ﬁrst four.” He then proceeded to give a new and elegant proof of

the 1842 theorem, which extended the four circle theorem of Descartes to be, in essence,

an eight circle theorem.”

2008 day of death of Sixto R´ıos Garc´ıa, Spanish mathematician (b. 1913)

2010 day of death of David Harold Blackwell, American statistician and mathematician (b.

1919)

7

July, 9

1716 day of death of Joseph Sauveur, French mathematician and physicist (b. 1653)

1743 Euler, in a letter to Goldbach, described to Goldbach a manor by which numbers of the

form n2+ 1 might be divisible.

1814 Gauss made 146th and last entry in his scientiﬁc diary. He observed a connection between

biquadratic residues and the lemniscate functions, later proved by Gauss and by Chowla

(1940). More precisely, Gauss observed that if a+bi is a (Gaussian) prime and a1 + bi is

divisible by 2 + 2i, then the number of solutions to the congruence 1 = xx +yy +xxyy

(mod a+bi), including x=∞, y=±iand x=±i,y=∞, is (a1)2+b2. This entry in the

diary led to the Weil conjectures.

1845 birthdate of George Howard Darwin, mathematical astronomer, ﬁfth child of the evolu-

tionist Charles Darwin (d. 1912)

1857 Weierstrass, in his inaugural speech to the Berlin Academy, stated that mathematics

occupies an especially high place because only through its aid can a truly satisfying un-

derstanding of natural phenomena be obtained

1917 birthday of Boris Shabat, Soviet mathematician (d. 1987)

1918 birthdate of Nicolaas Govert de Bruijn, Dutch mathematician (d. 2012)

1931 birthdate of Valentina Mikhailovna Borok, Soviet-Ukrainian mathematician (d. 2004)

1941 British cryptologists break the secret code used by the German army to direct ground-to-

air operations on the Eastern front

1943 birthdate of Masahiko Fujiwara, Japanese mathematician, who is best known as an essayist

1946 D. Lehmer delivered the talk ”Computing Machines for Pure Mathematics” as part of the

Moore School Lectures, in which he introduced computing as an experimental science

1953 day of death of Henri Pad´e, French mathematician (b. 1863)

1953 France issued a stamp picturing Gaspard Monge

1980 day of death of Arend Heyting, Dutch mathematician (b. 1898)

8

1984 day of death of Edna Ernestine Kramer Lassar, American mathematician (b. 1902)

1986 in a letter to Jun-Ichi Yamashita , Grothendieck reported on his work: “I have been in-

tensely busy for about a month now, with writing down some altogether diﬀerent founda-

tions of “topology”, starting with the “geometrical objects” or “ﬁgures”, rather than with

a set of “points” and some kind of notion of “limit” or (equivalently) “neighborhoods”.

Like the language of topoi (and unlike the so-called “moderate space” theory foreshadowed

in the Esquisse, still waiting for someone to take hold of the work in store.. .), it is a kind of

topology “without points” — a direct approach to “shape”. I do hope the language I have

started developing will be appropriate for dealing with ﬁnite spaces, which come oﬀ very

poorly in “general topology” (even when working with non-Hausdorﬀ spaces). After all,

presumably the space-time space we are living in is ﬁnite — at any rate there is no philo-

sophical evidence whatever that it isn’t, and still less, that it is adequately represented

as a mathematical “continuum” (more speciﬁcally, as a topological or diﬀerentiable or

Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian “manifold”) — and as for physical evidence; it is clear

there cannot be any by the very nature of things, as measurements never yield anything

else but approximate locations of the would-be (ideal) “points”. These “points” however

do not have any empirical existence whatever. As Riemann pointed out, I believe, the

mathematical continuum is a convenient ﬁction for dealing with physical phenomena, and

the mathematics of inﬁnity are just a way of approximating (by simpliﬁcation through

“idealization”) an understanding of ﬁnite aggregates, whose structures seem too elusive

or too hopelessly intricate for a more direct understanding (at least it has been so up to

now).” [34]

1996 day of death of Douglas George Chapman, Canadian-born American mathematical statis-

tician (b. 1920)

2006 Tesla Memorial at Canadian side of Niagara Falls unveiled.

9

July, 10

1610 Galileo receives a letter from Cosimo II agreeing to his salary requests, and conﬁrming

him as “First Mathematician of our Stadium in Pisa” but with no requirements that he

live or lecture in Pisa, ”except when it may please you as an honor

1682 birthdate of Roger Cotes, English mathematician and astronomer (d. 1716)

1796 Gauss wrote “EY P H KA!num = ∆+∆+∆” in his scientiﬁc diary, recording his discovery

that every positive integer is the sum of three triangular numbers

10

1826 Cauchy presented to the Acad´emie a proof of existence theorems for ﬁrst-order diﬀerential

equations [7]

1843 Jacques Philippe Marie Binet, age 57, elected to the Academie des Sciences to succeed

Lacroix

1878 birthdate of Oliver Dimon Kellogg, American mathematician (d. 1932)

1916 day of death of John Emory McClintock, American mathematician (b. 1840)

1927 birthdate of Grigory Barenblatt, Russian mathematician (d. 2018)

1936 day of death of Salvatore Pincherle, Italian mathematician (b. 1853)

1950 France honors Lazar Carnot (1753–1823) with a postage stamp

1950 The German Democratic Republic, to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the founding of

the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, issued postage stamps picturing some scientists, including

Leonhard Euler and Gottfried von Leibniz

11

2007 day of death of Paulette Libermann, French mathematician (b. 1919)

July, 11

1382 day of death of Nicole Oresme, French mathematician (d. 1382)

1663 John Wallis, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford, gave a specious proof of Euclids

parallel postulate [33]

1672 Leibniz gave correct rules for the diﬀerentiation of sums, products, quotients, powers, and

roots [4]

1686 Leibniz published his ﬁrst paper on the integral calculus in Acta eruditorum

1700 Prince Elector Frederick I established Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences at Berlin and

named Gottfried Leibniz its President for life.

1731 Alexis-Claude Clairaut elected to the French academy at age eighteen

1733 day of death of Jakob Hermann, Swiss mathematician (b. 1678)

1738 Isaac Greenwood, the ﬁrst Hollis Professor at Harvard College, was “ejected” for drunk-

enness

1747 Benjamin Franklin writes to Peter Collinson, member of the Royal Society, to describe the

“wonderful eﬀects of pointed bodies, both in drawing oﬀ and throwing oﬀ the electrical

ﬁre.”

1778 day of death of Joseph Stepling, Czech astronomer, physicist and mathematician (b. 1716)

1807 day of death of George Atwood, English mathematician (b. 1745)

1814 Amp´ere submitted a paper on general solutions of diﬀerential equations

1890 birthdate of Giacomo Albanese, Italian mathematician (d. 1947)

1908 birthdate of Alfred Hoblitzelle Cliﬀord, American mathematician (d. 1992)

12

1909 day of death of Simon Newcomb, Canadian-American astronomer and mathematician (b.

1835)

1920 birthdate of Roman Sikorski, Polish mathematician (d. 1983)

1922 birthdate of John William Scott Cassels, British mathematician (d. 2015)

1934 birthday of Leonid Volevich, Soviet-Russian mathematician (d. 2007)

1995 day of death of Andrzej Alexiewicz, Polish mathematician (b. 1917)

2013 day of death of Egbert Brieskorn, German mathematician (b. 1936)

July, 12

1831 Gauss to Schumacher: “I protest against the use of an inﬁnite quantity as an actual entity;

this is never allowed in mathematics. The inﬁnite is only a manner of speaking, in which

one properly speaks of limits to which certain ratios can come as near as desired, while

others are permitted to increase without bound.”

1875 birthdate of Ernst Fischer, Austrian mathematician (d. 1954)

1879 birthdate of Margherita Piazzola Beloch, Italian mathematician (d. 1976)

1880 birthdate of Zygmunt Janiszewski, Polish mathematician (d. 1920)

1925 Heisenberg announced the basic principles of quantum mechanics

1945 day of death of Boris Galerkin, Soviet mathematician and engineer (b. 1871)

1983 day of death of Ernst Gabor Straus, German-American mathematician (b. 1922)

July, 13

1527 birthdate of John Dee, English-Welsh mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer (d.

1609)

1672 Newton writes to John Collins, “. . . about the inﬁnite series I am not yet resolved, not

knowing when I shall proceed to ﬁnish it.” [32]

1741 birthdate of Carl Friedrich Hindenburg, German mathematician (d. 1808)

1773 Gerolamo Saccheri, a Jesuit priest, received the imprimatur of the Inquisition for his

Euclides ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus (Euclid Cleansed of Every Blemish), an important

forerunner of non-Euclidean geometry. [25]

1807 day of death of Johann (III) Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1744)

1832 Charles Babbage became the ﬁrst recipient of the Royal Astronomical Society’s Gold

Medal

1880 Boncompagni informed Genocchi that he had received a copy of the ﬁve unedited letters

and all the mathematical notes of Germain [2]

1904 birthdate of Alfred Leon Foster, American mathematician (d. 1994)

13

1941 day of death of Ivan Ivanovich Privalov, Soviet mathematician (b. 1891)

1944 birthdate of Erno Rubik, Hungarian mathematician, educator and inventor (1974) of Ru-

bik’s Cube

July, 14

1671 birthdate of Jacques d’Allonville, French astronomer and mathematician (d. 1732)

1686 Newton replies to a letter of Halley (June 20, 1686) about Hook protesting against New-

ton’s work on the inverse square law: “And now having sincerely told you the case between

Mr Hooke and me, I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters.

I have considered how best to compose the present dispute, and I think it may be done

by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition.” This scholium was “The inverse law

of gravity holds in all the celestial motions, as was discovered also independently by my

countrymen Wren, Hooke and Halley.”

1793 birthdate of George Green, British mathematical physicist (d. 1841)

1800 day of death of Lorenzo Mascheroni, Italian mathematician (b. 1750)

1831 On the Bastille Day, Galois was at the head of a protest, wearing the uniform of the

disbanded artillery, and came heavily armed with several pistols, a loaded riﬂe, and a

dagger. He was again arrested. He received a nine months sentence. During his stay in

prison, Galois at one point drank alcohol for the ﬁrst time at the goading of his fellow

inmates.

1865 day of death of Benjamin Gompertz, British self-educated mathematician and actuary (b.

1779)

1868 Tape measure patented. Alvin J. Fellows of New Haven, Connecticut, received patent

no.79,965 for the ﬁrst tape measure. The tape measure was enclosed in a circular base

with a spring lock to hold the tape at any desired point.

14

1905 birthdate of Laurence Chisholm Young, British mathematician (d. 2000)

1928 birthdate of Errett Albert Bishop, American mathematician (d. 1983)

1953 day of death of Richard von Mises, Austrian-American mathematician and aerodynamicist

(b. 1883)

1954 At a Conference for California Teachers of Mathematics, a Los Angeles dentist named

Leon Bankoﬀ presented a talk proving that the 2000 year old proof of Archimedes that

there were a pair of congruent “Archimedean Twin Circles” in the Arbelos was in fact

false. He produced a third identical circle, now usually called the ”Bankoﬀ triplet circle”.

1956 day of death of John Miller, Scottish mathematician (b. 1871)

1993 Joan Ginther, former mathematical teacher, ﬁrst won $5.4 million in the Lotto Texas.

Her next win came in 2006 when she won $2 million in the Holiday Millionaire scratch-oﬀ.

Her third win happened in 2008, when she won $3 million from a Millions and Millions

ticket. In 2010, she won $10 million, her largest prize yet, bringing her total winnings to

$20.4 million. The odds of winning this many times are one in 18 septillions (1042). All

of her winning tickets were purchased in Texas, and two of them were bought from the

same convenience store in Bishop, Texas. Some people suppose that she has solved the

algorithm of the lottery.

2017 day of death of Maryam Mirzakhani, Iranian mathematician (b. 1977)

July, 15

998 day of death of Abu al-Wafa Buzjani, Persian mathematician and astronomer (b. 940)

1636 Euler wrote to Mersenne that “a number nis a sum of exactly three integral squares if

and only if a2nis”. [23]

15

1662 The Royal Society of London (founded in 1660) received its charter from King Charles II

1834 St. Vladimir University in Kiev (now Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University) founded

1865 birthdate of Wilhelm Wirtinger, Austrian-German mathematician (d. 1945)

1906 birthdate of Adolph-Andrei Pavlovich Yushkevich, Soviet historian of mathematics (d.

1993)

1922 birthdate of Leon M. Lederman, American physicist and mathematician, Nobel Prize

laureate (d. 2018)

1928 The ENIGMA machine encodes its ﬁrst message

1930 birthdate of Stephen Smale, American mathematician and computer scientist

1931 day of death of Ladislaus Bortkiewicz, Russian-German economist and mathematician (b.

1868)

1961 day of death of Nina Karlovna Bari, Soviet mathematician (b. 1901)

1998 a biography of the famous mathematician Paul Erd¨os The Man Who Loved Only Numbers

written by Paul Hoﬀman was ﬁrst published

July, 16

1678 birthdate of Jakob Hermann, Swiss mathematician (d. 1733)

16

1748 (July 5 by old style) Michail Lomonosov in a letter to Euler stated the idea of conservation

of matter in the following words: “All changes in nature are such that inasmuch is taken

from one object insomuch is added to another. So, if the amount of matter decreases in

one place, it increases elsewhere. This universal law of nature embraces laws of motion as

well, for an object moving others by its own force in fact imparts to another object the

force it loses”.

1749 Goldbach knows how to prove the following special case of Euler’s missing lemma: If

8m+ 4 is a sum of four odd squares, then 2m+ 1 is a sum of four squares [23]

1819 birthdate of Siegfried Heinrich Aronhold, German mathematician (d. 1884)

1848 50 years anniversary of Gauss’ doctorate celebrated. As a part of celebration, Gauss was

to light his pipe with a manuscript page from his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. His student

Dirichlet was outraged by this sacrilege and boldly snatched the paper as a treasured

memento.

1903 birthdate of Irmgard Fl¨ugge-Lotz, German mathematician and engineer (d. 1974)

1995 Amazon.com sells its ﬁrst book

2010 day of death of Michail Michailovich Lavrentiev, Soviet-Russian mathematician (b. 1932)

July, 17

Yellow Pig Day. Despite its name, the day is not a celebration of the porcine world, but

a celebration of the number 17.

1698 birthdate of Pierre Louis Maupertuis, French mathematician and philosopher (d. 1759)

1790 day of death of Johann (II) Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1710)

1831 birthdate of Victor Mayer Am´ed´ee Mannheim, French mathematician (d. 1906)

1863 birthdate of Herbert Richmond, British mathematician (d. 1948)

1868 birthdate of Peter Comrie, Scottish mathematician (d. 1944)

1877 birthdate of Archibald Henderson, American mathematician and writer (d. 1963)

1879 It was announced in Nature that Kempe had proved the four-color conjecture. A correct

proof was ﬁrst obtained by Appel and Haken (1977).

17

1909 birthdate of Geoﬀrey Walker, British mathematician (d. 2001)

1911 day of death of Hermann C¨asar Hannibal Schubert, German mathematician (b. 1848)

1912 day of death of Henri Poincar´e, French mathematician, physicist, and engineer (b. 1854)

1929 birthdate of Sergei K. Godunov, Russian mathematician

1917 day of death of Giuseppe Veronese, Italian mathematician (b. 1854)

1935 The ﬁrst problem was entered into the Scottish Book, a large bound notebook that Stefan

Banach brought to the Scottish Cafe in Lw´ow for mathematicians to record research

problems

1944 day of death of William James Sidis, American mathematician and anthropologist (b.

1898)

1975 birthdate of Terence Chi-Shen Tao, Australian mathematician

1980 day of death of Boris Delaunay, Soviet mathematician (b. 1890)

1993 day of death of Adolph-Andrei Pavlovich Yushkevich, Soviet historian of mathematics (b.

1906)

1998 day of death of Michael James Lighthill, British mathematician (b. 1924)

2014 a few years after his retirement, when brushing his teeth, Thomas Royen had a ﬂash

of insight: how to use the Laplace transform of the multivariate gamma distribution to

achieve a relatively simple proof for the Gaussian correlation inequality [41]

July, 18

1013 birthdate of Hermann of Reichenau, German mathematician (d. 1054)

1635 birthdate of Robert Hooke, English natural philosopher, architect and polymath (d. 1703)

1742 day of death of Abraham Sharp, English mathematician (b. 1653)

1768 birthdate of Jean Robert Argand, Swiss-French amateur mathematician (d. 1822)

1807 day of death of Thomas Jones, English mathematician (b. 1756)

1813 birthdate of Pierre Laurent, French mathematician (d. 1854)

18

1856 birthdate of Giacinto Morera, Italian engineer and mathematician (d. 1909)

1863 birthdate of Kelly Miller, American mathematician, the ﬁrst black man to attend Johns

Hopkins University (d. 1939)

1872 in a lecture to the Berlin Academy, Karl Weierstrass gave the classic example of a contin-

uous nowhere diﬀerential function

1899 birthdate of Robert Schlapp, Scottish mathematician (d. 1991)

1908 birthdate of Beatrice Aitchison, American mathematician, statistician, and transportation

economist (d. 1997)

1930 day of death of Karl Emmanuel Robert Fricke, German mathematician (b. 1861)

1979 Great Britain issued a stamp honoring Alices Adventures in Wonderland

July, 19

1739 d’Alembert made his ﬁrst contribution to the ﬁeld of mathematics, pointing out the errors

he had detected in Analyse d´emontr´ee (published 1708 by Charles-Ren´e Reynaud) in a

communication addressed to the Acad´emie des Sciences

1767 birthdate of Fran¸cois-Joseph Servois, French mathematician (d. 1847)

1819 Poisson submitted a paper on the solution of the wave equation. He used the method of

power series in this work. [7]

1878 day of death of Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (b. 1847)

1817 birthdate of Charles Auguste Briot (d. 1882)

1865 birthdate of Wilhelm Wirtinger, Austrian mathematician (d. 1945)

1886 birthdate of Michael Fekete, Hungarian-Israeli mathematician (d. 1957)

19

1894 birthdate of Aleksandr Khinchin, Russian mathematician (d. 1959)

1895 George Cantor ﬁrst uses Aleph-null in a letter to Felix Klein [8]

1913 birthdate of Mary Cannell, British historian of mathematics (d. 2000)

1939 birthdate of Yves Meyer, French mathematician

1947 day of death of John Clark, Scottish mathematician (b. 1861)

1982 day of death of Hugh Everett III, American physicist and mathematician (b. 1930)

1997 day of death of Eric Charles Milner, British mathematician (b. 1928)

July, 20

1632 Pierre de Carcavi became a member of the parliament of Toulouse

1819 day of death of John Playfair, Scottish mathematician, physicist, and geologist (b. 1748)

1876 birthdate of Otto Blumenthal, German mathematician (d. 1944)

1882 birthdate of Olga Hahn-Neurath, Austrian mathematician and philosopher (d. 1937)

1866 day of death of Bernhard Riemann, German mathematician (b. 1826)

1922 day of death of Andrey Markov, Russian mathematician (b. 1856)

1937 day of death of Olga Hahn-Neurath, Austrian mathematician and philosopher from the

Vienna Circle (b. 1882)

1959 the ﬁrst International Mathematical Olympiad began in Brasov, Romania

1977 day of death of Fritz Joachim Weyl, Swiss mathematician (b. 1915)

1997 day of death of Eric Charles Milner, English-born mathematician (b. 1928)

July, 21

1849 birthdate of Robert Simpson Woodward, American physicist and mathematician (d. 1924)

1861 birthdate of Herbert Ellsworth Slaught, American mathematician (d. 1937)

1873 day of death of Delﬁno Codazzi, Italian mathematician (b. 1824)

1924 birthdate of Robert Simpson Woodward, American physicist and mathematician (d. 1924)

1925 day of death of Giovanni Frattini, Italian mathematician (b. 1852)

1926 birthdate of John Leech, British mathematician (d. 1992)

1932 birthdate of of Michail Michailovich Lavrentiev, Soviet-Russian mathematician (d. 2010)

1937 day of death of Edwin Bailey Elliott, British mathematician (b. 1851)

1966 day of death of Francesco Cantelli, Italian mathematician (b. 1875)

1966 day of death of Philipp Frank, Austrian-American physicist, mathematician, and philoso-

pher, Vienna Circle member (b. 1884)

1967 Brazil issued a stamp with M¨obius strip on it to commemorate the 6th Brazilian Mathe-

matical Congress

20

1993 day of death of Edwin James George Pitman, Australian mathematician (b. 1897)

2011 day of death of Franz Leopold Alt, Austrian-born American mathematician (b. 1910)

2016 day of death of Roger Godement French mathematician, (b. 1921)

2017 day of death of Myhailo Yosypovych Yadrenko, Ukrainian mathematician (b. 1932)

July, 22

Pi Approximation Day. Also known as Casual Pi Day, the day is dedicated to the mathe-

matical constant πthat denotes the relationship between a circle’s circumference and its

diameter and is denoted by the fraction 22/7 which calculates approximately to 3.14.

1575 day of death of Francisco Maurolico, Italian Benedictine and mathematician (b. 1494)

1694 Johann Bernoulli sent ”L’Hospital’s rule” to L’Hospital under the terms of their agreement

of 17 March 1694

1755 birthdate of Gaspard de Prony, French mathematician and engineer (d. 1839)

1784 birthdate of Friedrich Bessel, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1846)

1795 birthdate of Gabriel Lam´e, French mathematician (d. 1870)

1826 day of death of Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian mathematician and astronomer (b. 1746)

1882 birthdate of Konrad Hermann Theodor Knopp, German mathematician (d. 1957)

1902 birthdate of Reinhold Baer, German mathematician (Jd. 1979)

1925 Norbert Wiener wrote to his friend Phillip Franklin: “As to the state of the market:

diﬀerential geometry seems rather quiet, and some of the principal operators have deserted

it for other securities. Real and complex variables continue ﬁrm, without much change.

Analysis situs has a bull market. Bull operators have been very active in diﬀerential

equations, also. Quantum theory continues speculative, with chances of a very sharp rise,

but the market contains a lot of wildcat stock. Hilbert, Brouwer, and Co. are doing well

with mathematical logic.”

1935 birthdate of John Robert Stallings, American mathematician (d. 2008)

1936 birthdate of Geraldine Claudette Darden, American mathematician

1943 day of death of William Fogg Osgood, American mathematician (b. 1864)

21

1954 birthdate of Ingrid Daubechies, Belgian physicist and mathematician

1959 day of death of David van Dantzig, Dutch mathematician (b. 1900)

1966 day of death of Philipp Frank, Austrian-American physicist and mathematician (b. 1884)

1978 Roger Ap´ery gave a talk entitled “Sur l’irrationalit´e de ζ(3)” to outline proofs that ζ(3)

and ζ(2) were irrational

1983 Science reported that Gerd Faltings proved the Mordell conjecture (often called now Falt-

ings’ theorem)

1899 day of death of Otakar Boruvka, Czech mathematician (b. 1899)

July, 23

1754 Lagrange published his ﬁrst work in the form of a letter in Italian

1775 birthdate of ´

Etienne-Louis Malus, French physicist and mathematician (d. 1812)

1854 birthdate of Ivan Vladislavovich Sleszynski, Ukrainian-Polish mathematician (d. 1931)

1856 birthdate of Bal Gangadhar Tila, Indian mathematician, philosopher, and militant na-

tionalist (d. 1920)

1888 birthdate of Fritz Carlson, Swedish mathematician (d. 1952)

1903 day of death of Eduard Weyr, Czech mathematician (b. 1852)

1918 Emmy Noether ﬁrst presented her famous theorem on a lecture to the G¨ottingen Mathe-

matical Society [5]

1920 birthdate of Herbert Federer, American mathematician (d. 2010)

1927 The English term eigenvalue ﬁrst appears in a letter to Nature from A. S. Eddington

beginning “Among those . . . trying to acquire a general acquaintance with Schr¨odinger’s

wave mechanics there must be many who ﬁnd their mathematical equipment insuﬃcient

to follow his ﬁrst great problem — to determine the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the

hydrogen atom” (the term was derived from Hilbert’s use of Eigenwert in 1904) [28]

1932 birthdate of Derek Thomas Whiteside, British historian of mathematics, best known for

editing the 8-volume Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. (d. 2008)

1960 birthdate of Juha Heinonen, Finnish-American mathematician (b. 2007)

1964 day of death of Werner Wolfgang Rogosinski, German-British mathematician (b. 1894)

1964 day of death of Samarendra Nath Roy, Indian-American mathematician and an applied

statistician (b. 1906)

1987 day of death of Boris Shabat, Soviet mathematician (b. 1917)

July, 24

1786 birthdate of Joseph Nicollet, French mathematician and explorer (d. 1843)

22

1851 birthdate of Friedrich Schottky, Polish-German mathematician (d. 1935)

1854 birthdate of Ivan Vladislavovich Sleszynski, Ukrainian-Polish mathematician (d. 1931)

1856 birthdate of ´

Emile Picard, French mathematician (d. 1941)

1860 Yale University authorized the granting of Doctor of Philosophy degrees

1871 birthdate of Paul Epstein, German mathematician (d. 1939)

1888 birthdate of Dunham Jackson, American mathematician (d. 1946)

1923 birthdate of Christine Mary Hamill, English mathematician (d. 1956)

1934 day of death of Hans Hahn, Austrian mathematician (d. 1879)

1983 day of death of Eberhard Frederich Ferdinand Hopf, Austrian mathematician (b. 1902)

1999 day of death of Alexander (Smbat) Abian, Iranian-born Armenian-American mathemati-

cian (b. 1923)

July, 25

1741 Euler arrives in Berlin to become director of Mathematics at Frederick the Great’s newly

formed Academy of Science

1783 founding of the Royal Academy of Science in Turin

1807 Gauss named Professor of Astronomy and director of the new observatory in G¨ottingen

1808 birthdate of Johann Benedict Listing, German mathematician (d. 1882)

1825 birthdate of Henry Wilbraham, English mathematician (d. 1883)

1831 a comrade of Galois, Raspail quoted Galois in a letter from prison: “And I tell you, I will

die in a duel over some low class coquette. Why? Because she will invite me to avenge

her honour which another has compromised”. [36] Raspail continues that Galois, still in a

delirium, attempted suicide, and that he would have succeeded if his fellow inmates hadn’t

forcibly stopped him.

1915 birthdate of Ivan Petrovich Egorov, Soviet mathematician (d. 1990)

1923 birthdate of Edgar Gilbert, American mathematician (d. 2013)

1980 day of death of Euphemia Lofton Haynes, American mathematician (b. 1890)

1992 day of death of Ralph Philip Boas Jr., American mathematician, teacher, and journal

editor (b. 1912)

July, 26

1271 birthdate of Zhao Youqin, Chinese astronomer, mathematician and physicist (d. 1335)

1684 day of death of Elena Cornaro Piscopia, Italian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1646)

1711 birthdate of Lorenz Christoph Mizler, German physician, mathematician, and historian

(d. 1778)

23

1712 Brooke Taylor describes what we now call a “Taylor series” in a letter to John Machin

1749 Euler observes that the Four-Squares Theorem follows if it can be shown to hold for all

numbers of the form n= 8n+ 1 (or, more generally, for all numbers of any of the forms

8n+awith a= 1, 3, 5, or 7). [23]

1766 Frederick the Great wrote to d’Alembert, thanking him for his suggestion of hiring La-

grange to succeed Euler at the Berlin Academy: “To your care and recommendation am

I indebted for having replaced a half-blind mathematician by a mathematician with both

eyes, which will especially please the anatomical members of the academy.”

1902 birthdate of Stanislaw Golab, Polish mathematician (d. 1980)

1903 birthdate of Kurt Mahler, German-Australian mathematician (d. 1988)

1907 birthdate of Nachman Aronszajn, Polish American mathematician (d. 1980)

1912 birthdate of Tadashi Nakayama or Tadasi Nakayama, Japanese mathematician (d. 1964)

1918 The famous paper “Invariante Variationprobleme” by Emmy Noether is published in

G¨ottinger Nachrichten

1925 day of death of Gottlob Frege, German mathematician and philosopher (b. 1848)

1932 day of death of Oliver Dimon Kellogg, American mathematician (b. 1878)

1937 birthdate of Ernest Vingerg, Soviet-Russian mathematician (d. 2020)

1941 day of death of Henri Lebesgue, French mathematician (b. 1875)

1942 day of death of Alfred Tauber, Hungarian-born Austrian mathematician (b. 1866)

1942 day of death of Georg Alexander Pick, Austrian mathematician (b. 1859)

1955 day of death of Raymond Clare Archibald, American mathematician (b. 1875)

24

1976 Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken of the University of Illinois communicated their proof

of the Four Color Theorem to the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society

1977 day of death of Oskar Morgenstern German-American economist and mathematician (b.

1902)

1984 day of death of George Gallup, American mathematician and statistician (b. 1901)

1997 day of death of Kunihiko Kodaira, Japanese mathematician (b. 1915)

2000 day of death of John Tukey, American mathematician (b. 1915)

2006 day of death of Andrei Roiter, Soviet-Ukrainian mathematician (b. 1937)

2013 day of death of Harley Flanders, American mathematician (b. 1925)

2016 day of death of Solomon Feferman, American philosopher and mathematician (b. 1928)

July, 27

1667 birthdate of Johann Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1748)

1759 day of death of Pierre Louis Maupertuis, French mathematician and philosopher (b. 1698)

1829 By a remarkable coincidence, both Cauchy and Sturm sent papers to the Acad´emie des

Sciences dealing with diﬀerential equations. Both of them used techniques which we

recognize as matrix methods [7]

1837 Dirichlet presented his ﬁrst analytic number theory paper at a meeting of the Berlin

Academy of Sciences. He proved the fundamental theorem that bears his name: Every

arithmetical sequence an +b,n= 0,1,2, . . . of integers, where aand bare relatively prime,

contains inﬁnitely many primes

1844 day of death of ´

Agoston Scholtz, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1916)

1861 The Athenaeum magazine carried a review of Charles Dodgson’s pamphlet entitled The

Formula of Plane Trigonometry in which he suggested new symbols for the six basic trig

functions. The reviewer was not convinced.

1867 birthdate of Derrick Norman Lehmer, American mathematician (d. 1938)

1871 birthdate of Ernest Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo, German mathematician (d. 1953)

1907 birthdate of Irene Fischer, Austrian-American geodesist and mathematician (d. 2009)

1931 day of death of Jacques Herbrand, French mathematician(b. 1908)

25

1936 Einstein writes to John Tate, editor of the Physical Review angrily withdrawing a paper

that he had submitted for publication but had been rejected after peer review. Einstein

and Rosen’s paper claimed that gravitational waves did not exist. It was Einstein who

introduced gravitational waves in his theory of general relativity in 1916, within a few

months of ﬁnding the correct form of the ﬁeld equations for it. However by 1936 he had

changed his mind.

1953 birthdate of Pantelis Damianou, Cypriot mathematician (d. 2020)

1999 day of death of Aleksandr Danilovich Aleksandrov, Russian mathematician, physicist, and

mountaineer (b. 1912)

2015 day of death of John William Scott Cassels, British mathematician (b. 1922)

July, 28

1619 Kepler wrote to Napier expressing his enthusiasm for Napier’s invention of logarithms

1818 day of death of Gaspard Monge, French mathematician and engineer (b. 1746)

1829 Galois’ father committed suicide after a bitter political dispute with the village priest. A

couple of days later, Galois made his second and last attempt to enter the Polytechnique,

and failed yet again.

1849 birthdate of Robert Forsyth Scott, British mathematician (d. 1933)

1899 Cantor asked Dedekind whether the set of all cardinal numbers is itself a set, because, if

it is, it would have a cardinal number larger than any other cardinal

1934 Hans Zassenhaus completed his doctoral dissertation Kennzeichnung endlicher linearer

Gruppen als Permutationsgruppen

1948 A.Turing writes to Jack Good with an estimate of the number of neurons in the human

brain: “I have repeatedly looked in books on neurology . . .and never found any numbers

oﬀered. My own estimate is 3 ×108to 3 ×109. ”

1954 birthdate of Gerd Faltings, German mathematician

26

1956 day of death of Luigi Fantappi`e, Italian mathematician (b. 1901)

1999 day of death of Trygve Haavelmo, Norwegian economist and mathematician, Nobel Prize

laureate (b. 1911)

July, 29

1654 Pascal wrote to Fermat, questioning his solution to the ‘problem of the points,’ a proba-

bility problem: “Impatience has seized me as well as it has you, and although I am still

abed, I cannot refrain from telling you that I received your letter in regard to the problem

of the points yesterday evening from the hands of M. Carcavi, and that I admire it more

than I can tell you. I do not have the leisure to write at length, but, in a word, you have

found the two divisions of the points and of the dice with perfect justice. I am thoroughly

satisﬁed as I can no longer doubt that I was wrong, seeing the admirable accord in which

I ﬁnd myself with you.”

1698 In a letter to John Bernoulli, Leibniz introduces the dot for multiplication: “I do not

like ×as a symbol for multiplication, as it is easily confounded with x; .. . often I simply

relate two quantities by an interposed dot and indicate multiplication by “·”. Hence, in

designating ratio I use not one point but two points, which I use at the same time for

division.” [4]

1739 D’Alembert, age 21, submitted his ﬁrst mathematical paper to the Academy of Sciences

1781 day of death of Johann Kies, German astronomer and mathematician (b. 1713)

1839 day of death of Gaspard de Prony, French mathematician and engineer (b. 1755)

1840 Ada Lovelace reported to her mother that a tutor had been found and that her math-

ematical studies were once more underway. She was now working under the tutelage of

Augustus De Morgan (1806–1871). [10]

1858 birthdate of Francesco Gerbaldi, Italian mathematician (d. 1934)

1867 Thomas Hill, president of Harvard College, wrote to Benjamin Peirce: “I have the honor

of informing you that the University, on Commencement Day, conferred on you the Degree

of Doctor of Laws in recognition of the transcendent ability with which you have pursued

mathematical physical investigations, and in particular for the luster which she has herself

for so many years borrowed from your genius.”

1912 birthdate of Noel Bryan Slater, British mathematician and physicist (d. 1973)

1925 birthdate of Harold W. Kuhn, American mathematician (d. 2014)

1944 day of death of David Eugene Smith, American mathematician, educator, and editor (b.

1860)

1996 day of death of Marcel-Paul Sch¨utzenberger, French mathematician (b. 1920)

27

2004 day of death of Walter Feit, Austrian mathematician (b. 1930)

2015 a 15th type of pentagon that would tile the plane was announced by Casey Mann, Jennifer

McLoud, and David Von Derau of the University of Washington Bothell

July, 30

1738 Euler sends a letter to John Bernoulli with the solution to a question from Daniel Bernoulli

regarding isoperimetric curves, particularly the one for which the integral of rmgave a

maximum or minimum

1806 Gauss wrote to Schumaher: “It seems to be my fate to concur in nearly all my theoretical

works with Legendre. So it is in the higher arithmetic, in the research in transcendental

functions connected with the rectiﬁcation of the ellipse, in the foundations of geometry

and now again here [in the method of least squares, which] . . .is also used in Legendre’s

work and indeed right gallantly carried through” [29]

1859 Bernhard Reimann is appointed full professor at G¨ottingen, succeeding his two former

teachers, Gauss and Dirichlet

1907 The Axiom of Choice is usually given as created by Zermelo in 1908, presumably because

that was the year it appeared in Mathematische Annalen, but the date on the actual paper

is 30 July 1907. The paper contains “AXIOM VI. (Axiom of choice). If T is a set whose

elements all are sets that are diﬀerent from 0 and mutually disjoint, its union “union of

T” includes at least one subset S1 having one and only one element in common with each

element of T.”

1918 Richard Courant with Ferdinand Springer signed a contract for the series of books now

famous as the “Yellow Series.”

1978 day of death of Rufus Bowen, American mathematician (b. 1947)

1985 day of death of Julia Robinson, American mathematician (b. 1919)

2004 day of death of Adolph Winkler Goodman, American mathematician (b. 1915)

July, 31

1321 day of death of Ibn Al-Banna, Moroccan-berber mathematician, astronomer, Islamic

scholar, Suﬁ, and a one-time astrologer (b. 1256)

28

1669 Lucasian professor Isaac Barrow sent John Collins a manuscript of Newton’s De analysi

which was a summary of Newton’s work on the calculus and was written after Newton

saw Nicholas Mercator’s Logarithmotechnia (1668), which contained a series for log(1 + x),

in order that Newton would not lose credit for his work on inﬁnite series. Although this

manuscript was not published until 1704, it led to Newton’s appointment as Lucasian

professor on 29 October 1669

1704 birthdate of Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician and physicist (d. 1752)

1712 birthdate of Samuel K¨onig, German mathematician (d. 1757)

1726 day of death of Nicolaus II Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician and theorist (b. 1695)

1730 Goldbach proves that Fermat numbers are pairwise coprime. He claims that 1 is the only

square among the triangular numbers. [23]

1826 birthdate of Daniel Friedrich Ernst Meissel, German mathematician (d. 1895)

1851 Gauss witnessed the opening ceremonies when the newly constructed railway from Cassel

reached Gottingen.

1896 day of death of Ludwig Christian Wiener, German mathematician, physicist and philoso-

pher (b. 1826)

1863 birthdate of George Abram Miller, American mathematician (d. 1951)

1926 birthdate of Hilary Putnam, American mathematician, computer scientist, and philosopher

(d. 2016)

1943 Ireland issued two stamps to celebrate the centenary of the discovery of quaternions by

Sir William Rowan Hamilton

1927 birthdate of Felix Browder, American mathematician (d. 2016)

1945 birthdate of John O’Connor, British mathematician

2016 day of death of Seymour Papert, South African mathematician (b. 1928)

Conclusive remarks

Mathematical epigraph are taken from [27]. The dates (if diﬀerent is not indicated) are from [9,

24, 37, 40] (see also Wikipedia). Dates and events for the rest of the months are collected

in [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21]. At the last stages of preparation of the work we

found an excellent reference [31] (and similar [30]), so some of the dates (that are included in

29

these references also) were double-checked with events from [31, 30]. A day-by-day version of

this calendar can be found in [39]. At the last stages of preparation of this work we found an

excellent reference [31] (and closely related to this [30]), so some of the dates (that are included

in these references also) were double-checked with [31, 30].

References

[1] Archibald R.C., A Semicentennial History of the American Mathematical Society, 1888 1938 I, AMS,

1938.

[2] Borgato M.T., Neuenschwander E and Passeron I., Mathematical Correspondences and Critical Edi-

tions. Trends in the History of Science, Birkh¨auser, 2018.

[3] Ca jori F., The teaching and history of mathematics in the United States, Scholarly Resources, 1974.

[4] Ca jori F., A History of Mathematics, https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/31061 .

[5] Conover E., The beauty of symmetry. Emmy Noether had a lasting impact on her colleagues and

students, and on the ﬁelds of mathematics and physics, ScienceNews 193(11), June 23, 2018, p. 20,

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/emmy-noether-theorem-legacy-physics-math .

[6] Elstrodt J., The Life and Work of Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805-1859), Clay Mathematics Proceed-

ings,7, 2007.

[7] Grattan-Guinness I., Convolutions in French Mathematics, 1800–1840. From the Calculus and Me-

chanics to Mathematical Analysis and Mathematical Physics, Science Networks. Historical Studies,

1990.

[8] Grattan-Guinness I., From the Calculus to Set Theory 1630–1910. An Introductory History, Princeton

University Press, 2000.

[9] Historia Mathematica, 1974–2018, http://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toc/histmath.html .

[10] Hollings C, Martin U. and Rice A., The Lovelace–De Morgan mathematical correspondence: A critical

re-appraisal, Historia Mathematica,44, 2017, 202–231.

[11] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. January,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335858138 Mathematical Calendar January ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12535.57765

[12] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. February,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335859025 Mathematical Calendar February ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11067.57126

[13] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. March,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335881519 Mathematical Calendar March ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18355.17448

30

[14] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. April,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335881408 Mathematical Calendar April ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26743.78243

[15] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. May,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335881826 Mathematical Calendar May ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31855.59046

[16] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. June,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335881782 Mathematical Calendar June ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25144.70409

[17] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. August,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335884121 Mathematical Calendar August , DOI:

10.13140/RG.2.2.15602.66244

[18] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. September,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335884148 Mathematical Calendar September ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18119.24488

[19] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. October,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335884082 Mathematical Calendar October ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23152.40964

[20] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. November,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335886062 Mathematical Calendar November ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12037.50404

[21] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. December,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335888318 Mathematical Calendar December ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29653.58080

[22] Keen L., (Author, Editor), Kra I. (Editor), R. E. Rodriguez (Editor), Lipman Bers: A Life in

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