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Mathematical Calendar. April

N.M. Ivanova

September 18, 2019

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

E-mail: ivanova.nataliya@gmail.com

Abstract

In this series we list some important dates and events in history of mathematics and

mathematical culture.

Pure mathematicians just love to try unsolved

problems — they love a challenge.

Andrew Whiles

April, 1

1617 birthdate of Seth Ward, English mathematician, astronomer, and bishop (d. 1689)

1640 birthdate of Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (d. 1697)

1737 Euler reads his paper De fractionibus continuis dissertatio (Essay on continued fractions),

to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences

1776 birthdate of Sophie Germain, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (d. 1831)‡

1801 birthdate of Henry Perigal, Jr., British stockbroker and amateur mathematician (d. 1898)

1820 day of death of Isaac Milner, British mathematician (b. 1750)

1863 day of death of Jakob Steiner, Swiss mathematician (b. 1796)

1872 day of death of Martin Ohm, German mathematician, younger brother of physicist Georg

Ohm (b. 1792)

1874 birthdate of Ernest William Barnes, English mathematician and theologian (d. 1953)

1876 a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem by James A. Garﬁeld, then member of Congress from

Ohio, was published in the New England Journal of Education

1891 birthdate of Harold Jeﬀreys, English astronomer, geophysicist and mathematician (d.

1989)

1

1895 birthdate of Alexander Craig Aitken, New-Zeland’s mathematician (d. 1967)

1898 birthdate of William James Sidis, Ukrainian-Russian Jewish American mathematician,

anthropologist, and historian (d. 1944)

1916 birthdate of Sheila May Edmonds, British mathematician (d. 2002)

1921 day of death of Carl Johannes Thomae, German mathematician (b. 1840)

1947 birthdate of Alain Connes, French mathematician

1975 Martin Gardner announced that in November 1974, William McGregor, a graph theorist

of Wappingers Falls, N.Y., discovered a counterexample to the four-color conjecture. He

produced a map containing 110 regions that requires ﬁve colors†[9]

†The mathematics students at the University of Warwick realized that the column was an April

Fool’s joke, for they published a poem in Manifold, a journal of mathematical humor:

Oh Mr. Gardner,

What have you done?

You’ve started up a rumour

You should never have begun!

A four-colour hoax can’t

Be undone so quick . . .

Oh Mr. Gardner, what

A bloody silly trick!

‡Here is Brian McCabe’s poem for Sophie Germain [10]:

You were a child of the revolution

and a revolution yourself: your passion

sealed in your father’s library. Archimedes,

too intent on reading a future in the sand

to heed the question of a soldier, was speared

– at a slightly acute angle – through the heart.

Even your parents could not deter you

by conﬁscating light, heat and clothes:

with smuggled candles, wrapped in blankets,

you warmed your mind with calculus,

cut your hair and dressed as a man,

replaced a drop-out from the Academy.

’The heretofore indiﬀerent work of M. LeBlanc,’

the professor wrote, ’has undergone a transformation.’

2

Your talent was too conspicuous. The game was up:

you were unmasked as a mere girl.

The pitch for your biopic came back

from the producer: ’no love-interest’.

There was just the dismissive Monsieur Poisson,

– your rival in the ﬁeld of Elastic Plates –

who stretched and distorted your truths

till they snapped – yet the trembling curves

of the Eiﬀel Tower held fast. On one of them,

where your name should be, is Poisson.

You are a street in the 14th arrondissment,

a crater on Venus, and a mind that is still

gently quivering through the twin primes.

April, 2

1618 birthdate of Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Italian mathematician and physicist (d. 1663)

1888 birthdate of Antonio Signorini, Italian mathematical physicist and civil engineer (d. 1963)

1898 birthdate of Chiungtze C. Tsen, Chinese mathematician (d. 1940)

1906 birthdate of Shokichi Iyanaga, Japanese mathematician (d. 2006)

1923 birthdate of G. Spencer-Brown, English mathematician, psychologist (d. 2016)

1931 G¨odel, in a letter to Bernays, discusses the deﬁnition of truth for a ﬁrst-order system in a

second-order system [29]

1933 Emmy Noether’s right to teach at Gottingen was withdrawn because of her Jewish ancestry

1934 birthdate of Paul Cohen, American mathematician (d. 2007)

April, 3

1529 birthdate of Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1581)

1717 day of death of Jacques Ozanam, French mathematician (b. 1640)

3

1736 Euler replied to Ehler on Konigsberg Bridge Challenge: “. . . Thus you see, most noble Sir,

how this type of solution bears little relationship to mathematics, and I do not understand

why you expect a mathematician to produce it, rather than anyone else, for the solution is

based on reason alone, and its discovery does not depend on any mathematical principle.

Because of this, I do not know why even questions which bear so little relationship to

mathematics are solved more quickly by mathematicians than by others. In the meantime,

most noble Sir, you have assigned this question to the geometry of position, but I am

ignorant as to what this new discipline involves, and as to which types of problem Leibniz

and Wolﬀ expected to see expressed in this way. . . ” [15]

1753 Goldbach wrote Euler with a conjecture that every odd number greater than 3 is the sum

of an odd number and twice a square (he allowed 02)

1817 day of death of Friedrich Ludwig Wachter, German mathematician (b. 1792)

1835 birthdate of John Howard Van Amringe, American educator and mathematician (d. 1915)

1859 birthdate of Karl Heun, German mathematician (d. 1929)

1892 birthdate of Hans Rademacher, German-American mathematician (d. 1969)

1983 Taiwan marks the 400th anniversary of the arrival of Father Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) in

China with a pair of stamps

1900 birthdate of Albert Edward Ingham, English mathematician (d. 1967)

1900 day of death of Joseph-Louis-Fran¸cois Bertrand, French mathematician and educator (b.

1822)

1907 birthdate of Mark Grigorievich Krein, Soviet Jewish mathematician (d. 1989)

1998 day of death of Mary Cartwright, English mathematician (b. 1900)

1909 birthdate of Stanislaw Ulam, Polish-American mathematician and physicist (d. 1984)

April, 4

1617 day of death of John Napier, Scottish mathematician, physicist, and astronomer (b. 1550)

1809 birthdate of Benjamin Peirce, American astronomer, mathematician and educator (d.

1880)

1842 birthdate of ´

Edouard Lucas, French mathematician (d. 1891)

1868 birthdate of Philippa Fawcett, English mathematician and educator (d. 1948)

1870 Benjamin Peirce wrote in the introduction of his Linear Associative Algebra, “This work

has been the pleasantest mathematical eﬀort of my life. In no other have I seemed to

myself to have received so full a reward for my mental labor in the novelty and breadth

of the results.”

1884 birthdate of Thomas Murray MacRobert, Scottish mathematician (d. 1962)

4

1902 birthdate of Eberhard Frederich Ferdinand Hopf, Austrian mathematician (d. 1983)

1923 day of death of John Venn, English mathematician and philosopher (b. 1834)

1925 day of death of Walter William Rouse Ball, British mathematician and lawyer (b. 1850)

1949 birthdate of Shing-Tung Yau, Chinese-American mathematician

1961 day of death of Simion Stoilow, Romanian mathematician (b. 1873)

1981 day of death of Carl Ludwig Siegel, German mathematician (b. 1896)

April, 5

1588 birthdate of Thomas Hobbes, English scholar and amateur mathematician (d. 1679)

1622 birthdate of Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (d. 1703)

1632 In a letter to Mersenne, Descartes wrote that it took ﬁve or six week to him to discover a

solution to the problem Golius had posed (problem of locus stated at Pappus’s Collection

to mathematicians) [40]

1678 day of death of Claude Hardy, French lawyer and amateur mathematician (b. 1598)

1684 day of death of William Brouncker, English mathematician (b. 1620)

1711 as a continuation of an argument with Leibniz about priority of creation of Calculus,

Newton gave, from the chair of the Royal Society, “a short account of his invention, with

the particular time of his ﬁrst mentioning or discovering it” [3]

1727 ten days before his 20th birthday, Leonard Euler left Basel to join his friend Daniel

Bernoulli at the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg [39]

1861 day of death of Ferdinand Joachimsthal, German mathematician (b. 1818)

1869 birthdate of Sergey Chaplygin, Soviet physicist, mathematician, and engineer (d. 1942)

1877 birthdate of Georg Faber, German mathematician (d. 1966)

1900 day of death of Joseph Bertrand, French mathematician, economist (b. 1822)

1901 birthdate of Subbayya Sivasankaranarayana Pillai, Indian mathematician (d. 1950)

1908 Minkowski talk was published in G¨ottinger Nachrichten as a technical paper, “Die Grund-

gleichungen f¨ur die elektromagnetischen Vorg¨ange in bewegten K¨orpern”(“The Basic

Equations for Electromagnetic Processes in Moving Bodies”). This was Minkowski’s only

publication on the topic of electrodynamics and relativity to appear before his death. [46]

1911 birthdate of Walter Warwick Sawyer, mathematician, mathematics educator and author,

who taught on several continents (d. 2008)

1933 day of death of Hjalmar Mellin, Finnish mathematician (b. 1854)

1937 birthdate of Andrzej Schinzel, Polish mathematician

5

1955 Nobel laureate Bertrand Russell sent a letter to Albert Einstein along with a rough draft

of what would soon be known as the Russell–Einstein Manifesto — a written warning to

the world’s population on the dangers of nuclear weapons, and a plea for all leaders to

avoid war when faced with conﬂict — and asked him to be both a signatory and supporter

2004 day of death of Heiner Zieschang, German mathematician (b. 1936)

2009 day of death of Irving John Good, British mathematician (b. 1916)

April, 6

1528 day of death of Albrecht D¨urer, German painter, engraver, and mathematician (b. 1471)

1741 Euler’s ﬁrst paper on partitions (replying to September 4, 1740, Philip Naud´e’s question)

is read at the weekly meeting of the St. Petersburg Academy [38]

1748 Goldbach observes that if 2n+ 1 is a sum of three squares, then 2n+ 3, 4n+ 3, 4n+ 6

and 6n+ 3 are sums of four squares [28]

1749 birthdate of Samuel Vince, English clergyman, mathematician and astronomer (d. 1821)

1829 day of death of Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician (b. 1802)

1841 William Thompson, the future Lord Kelvin,formally entered at St. Peter’s, Cambridge as

a student

1922 Emmy Noether named “unoﬃcial associate professor” at Gottingen

1929 Norway issued a set of stamps in honor of t Neils Henrik Abel

1947 birthdate of Mike Worboys, English mathematician and computer scientist

1972 Cray Research founded by Seymour Cray

1993 day of death of John Charles Burkill, English mathematician (b. 1900)

April, 7

1348 Charles University founded in Prague by King Charles of Bohemia

1646 Torricelli sends “The geometry of indivisibles” To Michelangelo Ricci

1761 day of death of Thomas Bayes, English minister and mathematician (b. 1701)

1768 birthdate of Fran¸cois Joseph Fran¸cais, French mathematician (d. 1810)

1811 birthdate of Hasan Tahsini, Albanian astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher (d.

1881)

1823 birthdate of Guillaume-Jules Ho¨uel, French mathematician (d. 1886)

1823 day of death of Jacques Charles, French physicist and mathematician (b. 1746)

1866 birthdate of Erik Ivar Fredholm, Swedish mathematician (d. 1927)

1889 day of death of Paul David Gustav du Bois-Reymond, German mathematician (b. 1831)

6

1921 birthdate of Feza G¨ursey, Turkish mathematician and physicist (d. 1992)

1923 birthdate of Peter Hilton, English-American mathematician (d. 2010)

1933 day of death of Raymond Edward Alan Christopher Paley, English mathematician (b.

1907)

1934 day of death of Ernst Paul Heinz Pr¨ufer, German mathematician (b. 1896)

1940 A. Weil wrote to his wife Eveline from jail in Rouen: “My mathematics work is proceeding

beyond my wildest hopes, and I am even a bit worried — if it is only in prison that I work

so well, will I have to arrange to spend two or three months locked up every year?” [13]

1955 birthdate of Tim Cochran, American mathematician (d. 2014)

1970 The Netherlands issued a set of ﬁve stamps with geometrical motive designed with the aid

of a computer

1986 day of death of Leonid Kantorovich, Russian mathematician and economist (b. 1912)

1997 day of death of Wilhelm Fushchych, Soviet-Ukrainian mathematical physicist (b. 1936)

2009 day of death of Leonard E. Gillman, American mathematician (b. 1917)

2014 day of death of James Alexander Green, American-English mathematician (b. 1926)

April, 8

1461 day of death of Georg von Peuerbach, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1423)

1608 birthdate of Honor´e Fabri, French Jesuit, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and the-

ologist (d. 1688)

1732 birthdate of David Rittenhouse, American astronomer and mathematician (d. 1796)

1796 Gauss completed his ﬁrst of six proofs of quadratic reciprocity

1799 Gauss made still uninterpreted cryptic entry “REV. GALEN” in his scientiﬁc diary

1829 a letter arrived at Abel’s home (2 days after his death) informing him of his appointment

to a professorship at the University of Berlin

1859 birthdate of Edmund Husserl, German Jewish-Austrian mathematician and philosopher

(d. 1938)

1903 birthdate of Aurel Wintner, Hungarian-American mathematician (d. 1958)

1903 birthdate of Marshall Harvey Stone, American mathematician (d. 1989)

1913 day of death of Julius K¨onig, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1849)

1917 birthdate of Winifred Asprey, American mathematician and computer scientist (d. 2007)

1938 birthdate of Mary W. Gray, American mathematician, statistician, and lawyer

1943 the Rockerfeller Foundation review announced that the “diﬀerential analyzer” at MIT was

built at a cost of $130,500

1944 birthdate of Michael George Aschbacher, American mathematician

7

2005 day of death of Douglas Geoﬀrey Northcott, British mathematician (b. 1916)

2008 day of death of Graham Higman, English mathematician (b. 1917)

2018 amateur mathematician Aubrey de Grey found a 1581-vertex, non-4-colorable unit-

distance graph thus narrowing down the Hadwiger-Nelson problem (of ﬁnding the mini-

mum number of colors required to color the plane such that no two points at distance 1

from each other have the same color) to either 5, 6 or 7 colors

April, 9

1643 day of death of Benedetto Castelli, Italian mathematician (b. 1578)

1673 Leibniz elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London

1716 In a letter to Conti, Leibniz again reminded Newton of the admission he had made in the

scholium, which he was now desirous of disavowing; Leibniz also states that he always

believed Newton, but that, seeing him connive at accusations which he must have known

to be false, it was natural that he (Leibniz) should begin to doubt. [6]

1752 a letter from James Short informing about a paper by Euler on “Correcting the Aberrations

in the Object-Glasses of Refracting Telescopes” is read to the Royal Society

1754 day of death of Christian Freiherr von Wolﬀ, German philosopher and mathematician (b.

1679)

1791 birthdate of George Peacock, English mathematician (d. 1858)

1810 Pierre-Simon Laplace announced his Central Limit Theorem

1813 birthdate of Robert R Anstice, English mathematician (d. 1853)

1813 birthdate of Duncan Farquharson Gregory, Scottish mathematician (d. 1844)

1816 birthdate of Charles-Eug`ene Delaunay, French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1872)

1834 birthdate of Edmond N. Laguerre, French mathematician (d. 1886)

1852 Dirichlet asked the Minister of Culture to grant him the guardianship of Jacobi’s seven

children [33]

1865 birthdate of Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Polish-American mathematician and engineer (d.

1923)

1869 birthdate of ´

Elie Cartan, French mathematician (d. 1951)

1878 birthdate of Marcel Grossmann, Swiss mathematician (d. 1936)

1900 birthdate of Hendrik Douwe Kloosterman, Dutch mathematician (d. 1968)

1921 birthdate of Mary Jackson, African American mathematician and aerospace engineer (d.

2005)

1928 birthdate of Tom Lehrer, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and mathematician

1931 birthdate of Heisuke Hironaka, Japanese mathematician

8

1983 day of death of Yozo Matsushima, Japanese mathematician (b. 1921)

2002 day of death of Leopold Vietoris, Austrian mathematician (b. 1891)

2019 day of death of Elwyn Ralph Berlekamp, American mathematician (b. 1940)

April, 10

1651 birthdate of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, German mathematician, physicist, and

physician (d. 1708)

1662 Robert Hooke read his ﬁrst publication, a pamphlet on capillary action, to the Society for

the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning

1751 Euler writes to Clairaut after receiving a paper from Clairaut that explained his error in

a theory of the motion of the moon

1752 day of death of Joseph Louis Lagrange, Italian mathematician (b. 1736)

1755 Thomas Simpson introduced error distributions

1756 birthdate of John West, Scottish mathematician (d. 1817)

1766 birthdate of John Leslie, Scottish physicist and mathematician (d. 1832)

1793 Gaspard Monge was permitted to resign from the Ministry of the Navy and the Colonies of

France in order to undertake the urgent task of supplying the French army with gunpowder

1813 day of death of Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Italian mathematician and astronomer (b. 1736)

1920 day of death of Moritz Cantor, German mathematician and historian (b. 1829)

1930 day of death of William Edward Story, American mathematician (b. 1850)

1954 day of death of Arnold Dresden, Dutch-American mathematician (b. 1882)

1967 day of death of Oscar Chisini, Italian mathematician (b. 1889)

April, 11

1626 day of death of Marino Ghetaldi, Croatian mathematician and physicist (b. 1568)

1734 day of death of Thomas Fantet de Lagny, French mathematician (b. 1660)

1816 Gauss responded to Gerling (who had written to Gauss in March about Legendre’s theory

of parallels) that Legendre’s argument does not carry the weight of proof for him, and

then comments on what happens if Euclidean geometry is not correct [5]

1894 birthdate of Paul Finsler German and Swiss mathematician (d. 1970)

1904 birthdate of Phillip Hall, British mathematician (d. 1982)

1907 day of death of Christian Gustav Adolph Mayer, German mathematician (b. 1839)

1908 birthdate of Brian Kuttner, British mathematician (d. 1992)

1914 birthdate of Dorothy Lewis Bernstein, American mathematician (d. 1988)

1921 birthdate of Leo Moser, Austrian-Canadian mathematician (d. 1970)

9

1953 birthdate of Andrew Wiles, English mathematician

1969 day of death of Werner Schmeidler, German mathematician (b. 1890)

1974 day of death of Abraham Robinson, Jewish mathematician (d. 1974)

1989 day of death of Emil Grosswald, Romanian-American mathematician (b. 1912)

April, 12

1734 day of death of Thomas Fantet de Lagny, French mathematician (b. 1660)

1749 Euler closes the gap in his proof of e Two-Squares Theorem. He can prove the Four-

Squares Theorem except for the lemma: If ab and bare sums of four squares, then so

is a. [28]

1794 birthdate of Germinal Pierre Dandelin, Belgian mathematician and engineer (d. 1847)

1804 Gauss became a fellow of the Royal Society of London

1852 birthdate of Ferdinand von Lindemann, German mathematician (d. 1939)

1874 birthdate of William Charles Brenke, American mathematician (d. 1964)

1919 day of death of Friedrich Otto Rudolf Sturm, German mathematician (b. 1841)

1971 day of death of Wolfgang Krull, German mathematician (b. 1899)

1977 Fiji issued a stamp showing a world map in sinusoidal projection

2000 day of death of David George Crighton, British mathematician and physicist (b. 1942)

April, 13

953 birthdate of Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Karaji, Arab mathematician (b.

1029)

1728 birthdate of Paolo Frisi, Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (d. 1784)

1743 birthdate of Thomas Jeﬀerson, American President and mathematical enthusiast (d. 1826)

1791 Adrien-Marie Legendre was named one of the French Academy’s three commissioners for

the astronomical operations and triangulations necessary for determining the standard

meter. The others were Mechain and Cassini IV.

1813 birthdate of Duncan Farquharson Gregory, Scottish mathematician (d. 1844)

1869 birthdate of Ada Isabel Maddison, British mathematician (d. 1950)

1879 birthdate of Francesco Severi, Italian mathematician (d. 1961)

1894 day of death of Baldassarre Boncompagni, Italian historian of mathematics (b. 1821)

1909 birthdate of Stanislaw Ulam, Polish-American mathematician (d. 1984)

1949 birthdate of Len Cook, New Zealand-English mathematician and statistician

1992 day of death of Feza G¨ursey, Turkish mathematician and physicist (b. 1921)

2004 day of death of David Herbert Fowler, historian of Greek mathematics (b. 1937)

10

April, 14

1572 birthdate of Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician, philosopher (d. 1632)

1611 Galileo visited Rome at the height of his fame and was made the sixth member of the

Accademia dei Lincei (Lynx Society)

1629 birthdate of Christiaan Huygens, Dutch mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (d.

1695)

1822 In a letter to Gauss, Bessell recommends his student, Heinrich Ferdinand Scherk. Gauss

considered Scherk one of the best students he ever had [45]

1822 birthdate of Achille Sannia, Italian mathematician and politician (d. 1892)

1828 Having read Dirichlet’s article “Recherches sur les diviseurs premiers d’une classe de

formules du quatri`eme degr´e”, F.W. Bessel enthusiastically wrote to A. von Humboldt:

“. . . who could have imagined that this genius would succeed in reducing something ap-

pearing so diﬃcult to such simple considerations. The name Lagrange could stand at the

top of the memoir, and nobody would realize the incorrectness”. [8]

1914 Ramanujan ﬁrst disembarked in London

1917 birthdate of Nathan Saul Mendelsohn, American-born Canadian mathematician (d. 2006)

1927 birthdate of Marcel Berger, French mathematician (d. 2016)

1931 ﬁrst issue of the review journal Zentralblatt f¨ur Mathematik published by Springer

1935 day of death of Emmy Noether, German-American mathematician (b. 1882)

1964 day of death of Tatyana Afanasyeva, Russian-Dutch mathematician (b. 1876)

1983 day of death of Errett Albert Bishop, American mathematician (b. 1928)

2005 day of death of Saunders MacLane, American mathematician (b. 1909)

April, 15

1446 day of death of Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian mathematician (b. 1377)

1452 birthdate of Leonardo da Vinci (d. 1519)

1548 birthdate of Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician and astronomer (d. 1626)

1608 birthdate of Honor´e Fabri, French Jesuit theologian, mathematician, physicist and con-

troversialist (d. 1688)

1630 Descartes wrote to Mersenne, who had requested him to propose some appropriate math-

ematical problems to the Parisian mathematicians, that he is not able anymore to solve

mathematical problems himself [40]

1704 day of death of Johan van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician and statesman (b. 1628)

1707 birthdate of Leonhard Euler, Swiss-Russian mathematician and physicist (d. 1783)

11

1747 Goldbach is skeptical about some of Fermat’s claims, i.e. that every number is a sum of

three triangular numbers, or that every integer 8n+ 3 is the sum of three squares. [28]

1754 day of death of Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (b. 1676)

1764 day of death of Peder Horrebow, Danish astronomer and mathematician (b. 1679)

1793 day of death of Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian priest, mathematician, and astronomer

(b. 1718)

1809 birthdate of Hermann Grassmann, German linguist and mathematician (d. 1877)

1831 Gauss introduces the term “complex” for a+bi [34]

1904 term “discrete mathematics was introduced in The Twelfth Annual Report of the Ohio

State Academy of Science [34]

1912 the fourth dimension was spoken of by Albert Einstein as time

1929 birthdate of Thomas Brooke Benjamin, English mathematical physicist and mathemati-

cian (d. 1995)

1934 birthdate of James Wiegold, Welsh mathematician (d. 2009)

1990 day of death of Karl Heinrich Weise, German mathematician (b. 1909)

April, 16

1495 birthdate of Petrus Apianus, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1557)

1673 G. Leibniz wrote to Oldenburg about series: “I conjecture that Mr. Collins himself does

not speak of these summations of inﬁnite series because he brings forward the example of

the series 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, . . . which if it is continued to inﬁnity cannot be summed

because the sum is not ﬁnite, like the sum of the triangular numbers, but inﬁnite. But

now I am cramped by the space of my paper.”

1682 birthdate of John Hadley, English mathematician (d. 1744)

1705 Isaac Newton knighted by Queen Anne at Trinity College

1788 day of death of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buﬀon, French mathematician, cosmol-

ogist (b. 1707)

1816 Gauss writes to his friend H. C. Schumacker that he had independently discovered the

Arithmetic-Geometric mean as a youth of 14 in 1791 [1]

1820 birthdate of Victor Alexandre Puiseux, French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1883)

1823 birthdate of Gotthold Eisenstein, German mathematician (d. 1852)

1894 birthdate of Jerzy Neyman, Russian-American mathematician (d. 1981)

1898 birthdate of Helmuth Kneser, Baltic German mathematician (d. 1973)

1914 day of death of George William Hill, American astronomer and mathematician (b. 1838)

12

1931 Henrich Scholz wrote to Rudolf Carnap about G¨odel’s work: “What is going on with Mr

G¨odel? I hear all kinds of exciting things but I cannot make out what is all about” [29]

1932 birthdate of Myhailo Yosypovych Yadrenko, Ukrainian mathematician (d. 2017)

1998 day of death of Alberto Calder´on, Argentinian-American mathematician (b. 1920)

2008 day of death of Edward Norton Lorenz, American mathematician and meteorologist (b.

1917)

2019 day of death of Vladimir Boltyansky, Russian mathematician, educator (b. 1925)

April, 17

485 day of death of Proclus Diadochus, Greek mathematician and philosopher (b. 412)

1761 day of death of Thomas Bayes, English mathematician and minister (b. 1702)

1766 birthdate of John Leslie, Scottish mathematician (d. 1832)

1787 day of death of Wenceslaus Johann Gustav Karsten, German mathematician (b. 1732)

1798 birthdate of `

Etienne Bobillier, French mathematician (d. 1840)

1847 day of death of Fran¸cois-Joseph Servois, French mathematician (b. 1768)

1853 birthdate of Arthur Moritz Sch¨onﬂies, German mathematician (d. 1928)

1863 birthdate of Augustus Edward Hough Love, English mathematician (d. 1940)

1878 birthdate of Matteo Bottasso, Italian mathematician d. 1918)

1902 day of death of Eberhard Frederich Ferdinand Hopf, German mathematician (d. 1983)

1956 day of death of Herman M¨untz, German mathematician (b. 1884)

1977 day of death of Richard Dagobert Brauer, German-American mathematician (b. 1901)

1996 day of death of Piet Hein, Danish poet and mathematician (b. 1905)

2013 Yitang Zhang announced a proof that states there are inﬁnitely many pairs of prime

numbers that diﬀer by 70 million or less

April, 18

1557 Maurolico completed the ﬁrst volume of his Arithmetic

1796 Professor E.A.W. Zimmerman sent a short notice of Gauss’s work on constructibility of

regular polygons to the Jenenser Intelligenzblatt. He added, “It is worthy of notice that

Herr Gauss is now in his 18th year and has devoted himself here in Brunswick to philosophy

and classical literature with just as great success as to higher mathematics.”

1803 day of death of Louis Fran¸cois Antoine Arbogast, French mathematician (b. 1759)

1810 Gauss elected a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences

1831 University of the City of New York founded

1892 birthdate of Dmitrii Evgenevich Menshov, Soviet mathematician (d. 1988)

13

1904 birthdate of Stefan E Warschawski, American mathematician (b. 1904)

1907 birthdate of Lars Valerian Ahlfors, Finnish mathematician (d. 1996)

1916 birthdate of Ellis Robert Kolchin, American mathematician (d. 1991)

1918 birthdate of Hsien Chung Wang, Chinese-American mathematician (d. 1978)

1923 day of death of Pieter Hendrik Schoute, Dutch mathematician (b. 1846)

1928 birthdate of Mikio Sato, Japanese mathematician

1943 day of death of William Henry Metzler, Canadian mathematician (b. 1863)

1945 birthdate of Joseph Bernstein, Soviet-Israeli mathematician

1949 birthdate of Charles Louis Feﬀerman, American mathematician

1955 day of death of Albert Einstein (b. 1879)

1999 day of death of Gian-Carlo Rota, Italian-American mathematician (b. 1932)

1999 day of death of Istv´an Vincze, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1912)

2000 day of death of Mary Cannell, British historian of mathematics (b. 1913)

April, 19

1567 day of death of Michael Stifel, German monk and mathematician (b. 1487)

1610 upon receiving an advance copy of Galileo’s Starry Messenger, Johannes Kepler composed

a fan letter “I may perhaps seem rash in accepting your claims so readily with no support

of my own experience,” Kepler wrote to Galileo, “But should I not believe a most learned

mathematician, whose very style attests the soundness of his judgement?” [35]

1739 day of death of Nicholas Saunderson, English mathematician (b. 1682)

1748 birthdate of D’Amondans Charles de Tinseau, French mathematician (d. 1822)

1760 Euler writes the ﬁrst of many “Letters to a German Princess”

1831 day of death of Johann Gottlieb Friedrich von Bohnenberger, German astronomer and

mathematician (b. 1765)

1880 birthdate of Evgeny Evgenievich Slutsky, Soviet mathematician and economist (d. 1948)

1881 day of death of Karl Peterson, Latvian-Russian mathematician (b. 1828)

1883 birthdate of Richard von Mises, Austrian-American mathematician and physicist (d. 1953)

1885 birthdate of Leonida Tonelli, Italian mathematician (d. 1946)

1901 birthdate of Kiyoshi Oka, Japanese mathematician (d. 1978)

1905 birthdate of Charles Ehresmann, French mathematician (d. 1979)

1914 day of death of Charles Sanders Peirce, American mathematician and philosopher (b.

1839)

1933 day of death of Ernest William Hobson, English mathematician (b. 1856)

1957 ﬁrst FORTRAN program run

14

1958 France issued a stamp to honor Jean Cavailles (19031944)

1974 day of death of Alexander Dinghas, Turkish mathematician (b. 1908)

1977 The German Democratic Republic issued a stamp commemorating the 200th anniversary

of Gausss birth, 30 April 1777

2013 day of death of Kenneth Ira Appel, American mathematician (b. 1932)

April, 20

1344 day of death of Levi ben Gerson, Jewish French astronomer and mathematician (b. 1288)

1543 Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus published

1644 birthdate of Heinrich Meissner, German mathematician (d. 1716)

1829 Sim´eon Denis Poisson reads his Memoir on the Mean Results of Observations before the

Academy of Sciences. This paper contains his observations on the function f(x) = 1

π(1+x2)

which is often credited to Cauchy, whose interest in the function begins around 20 years

later [27]

1833 Jakob Steiner received an honorary degree from the University of Konigsberg

1839 birthdate of Francesco Siacci, an Italian mathematician, ballistician, and oﬃcer in the

Italian army (d. 1907)

1928 birthdate of Gerald Stanley Hawkins, English astronomer and mathematician (d. 2003)

1932 day of death of Giuseppe Peano, Italian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1858)

1942 day of death of Ludwig Berwald, Czech mathematician (b. 1883)

1945 day of death of Georg Feigl, German mathematician (b. 1890)

1957 day of death of Konrad Knopp, German mathematician (b. 1882)

1995 day of death of Paul Allen Catlin, American mathematician (b. 1948)

2006 day of death of Paul Moritz Cohn, German-British mathematician (b. 1924)

April, 21

1557(2) day of death of Petrus Apianus, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1495)

1642 birthdate of Simon de la Loub`ere, French mathematician, poet, and diplomat (d. 1729)

1652 birthdate of Michel Rolle, French mathematician (d. 1719)

1719 day of death of Philippe de La Hire, French mathematician and astronomer (b. 1640)

1774 birthdate of Jean-Baptiste Biot, French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician (d.

1862)

1825 day of death of Johann Friedrich Pfaﬀ, German mathematician (b. 1765)

1875 birthdate of Teiji Takagi, Japanese mathematician (d. 1960)

1882 birthdate of Maurice Kraitchik, Belgian mathematician and game designer (d. 1957)

15

1909 birthdate of Eduard L. Stiefel, Swiss mathematician (d. 1978)

1911 birthdate of Felix Adalbert Behrend, Jewish German-Australian mathematician (d. 1962)

1951 birthdate of Michael Freedman, American mathematician

1954 day of death of Emil Leon Post, Polish-American mathematician (b. 1897)

2005 day of death of William H Kruskal, American mathematician and statistician (b. 1919)

2006 day of death of Paul Moritz Cohn, German-British mathematician (b. 1924)

2010 day of death of Herbert Federer, American mathematician (b. 1920)

2013 day of death of Shakuntala Devi, Indian mathematician and astrologer (b. 1929)

April, 22

1592 birthdate of Wilhelm Schickard, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1635)

1724 birthdate of Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, trained as a mathematician and physi-

cist (d. 1804)

1811 birthdate of Otto Hesse, German mathematician (d. 1874)

1830 birthdate of Thomas Archer Hirst, English mathematician (d. 1892)

1884 birthdate of David Enskog, Swedish mathematical physicist (d. 1947)

1887 birthdate of Harald August Bohr, Danish mathematician (d. 1951)

1891 birthdate of Harold Jeﬀreys, English mathematician, geophysicist, and astronomer (d.

1989)

1903 birthdate of Taro Morishima, Japanese mathematician (d. 1989)

1903 birthdate of John Francis Riordan, American mathematician (d. 1988)

1910 birthdate of Norman Steenrod, American mathematician (d. 1971)

1916 birthdate of Hanfried Lenz, German mathematician (d. 2013)

1923 Emmy Noether received a contract at G¨ottingen for teaching algebra, including lectures

and exercises [7]

1927 Sugiura left Copenhagen for G¨ottingen

1929 birthdate of Michael Atiyah, English-Lebanese mathematician (d. 2019)

1935 birthdate of Bhama Srinivasan, Indian-American mathematician

1940 A. Weil wrote to his wife Eveline from jail in Rouen: “My mathematical fevers have

abated. . . before I can go any further it is incumbent upon me to work out the details of

my proofs” [13]

1943 birthdate of Scott W. Williams, American mathematician

1945 day of death of Wilhelm Cauer, German mathematician (b. 1900)

1948 day of death of Herbert Richmond, British mathematician (b. 1863)

2008 day of death of Derek Thomas Whiteside, British historian of mathematics (b. 1932)

16

April, 23

1628 birthdate of Johannes Hudde, Dutch mathematician and politician (d. 1704)

1827 William Rowan Hamilton presented a paper on optics, “Theory of systems of rays,” to

the Royal Irish Academy while still an undergraduate

1839 day of death of James Wood, British mathematician (b. 1760)

1858 birthdate of Max Plank, German physicist (d. 1947)

1910 birthdate of Sheila Scott Macintyre, Scottish mathematician (d. 1960)

1911 birthdate of Felix Adalbert Behrend, German-Australian mathematician (d. 1962)

1914 birthdate of Georgii Nikolaevich Polozii, Soviet mathematician (d. 1968)

1933 birthdate of Annie Easley, American computer scientist, mathematician, and engineer (d.

2011)

1973 USA issued a commemorative stamp honoring the 500th year of the publication of Coper-

nicus’ De Revolutionibus

1977 day of death of Boris Pavlovich Demidovich, Soviet mathematician (b. 1906)

2013 day of death of Frank W. J. Olver, English-American mathematician (b. 1924)

April, 24

1562 birthdate of Xu Guang-qi, Chinese mathematician (d. 1633)

1656 day of death of Thomas Fincke, Danish mathematician and physicist (b. 1561)

1750 birthdate of Simon Antoine Jean Lhuilier, Swiss mathematician (d. 1840)

1800 Library of Congress established in Washington

1863 birthdate of Giovanni Vailati, Italian philosopher, historian of science, and mathematician

(d. 1909)

1897 ﬁrst American Mathematical Society sectional meeting held

1899 birthdate of Oscar Zariski, Russian-American mathematician (d. 1986)

1919 birthdate of David Blackwell, American mathematician (d. 2010)

1924 birthdate of Isadore Manuel Singer

1947 birthdate of Ovide Arino, French mathematician (d. 2003)

1949 Columbia issued a stamp honoring the mathematician Julio Garavito Armero (1865–1920)

April, 25

1744 day of death of Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer, physicist, and mathematician (b.

1701)

1840 day of death of Simeon Denis Poisson, French mathematician and physicist (b. 1781)

17

1849 birthdate of Felix Klein, German mathematician (d. 1925)

1879 birthdate of Edwill Bidwell Wilson, American physicist and mathematician (d. 1964)

1810 Wilhelm von Humboldt sends Gauss an oﬀer of 1500 Thalers a year to serve as ordentliches

Mitglied of the Academy with the assurance that, “. . .you are only requested to lend your

name as a full professor to the new university, and, as much as your leisure and health

allow, to teach a course from time to time.” [45]

1898 Bjørnson wrote to hi friend: “Sophus Llie has been here with his whole family. He is

someone You ought to get to know! It is a fundamental and life-aﬃrming experience.

What a fellow! [41]

1903 birthdate of Andrey Kolmogorov, Soviet mathematician (d. 1987)

1912 birthdate of Donald Clayton Spencer, American mathematician (d. 2001)

1931 birthdate of Felix Berezin, Soviet mathematician and physicist (d. 1980)

1999 day of death of William Hunter McCrea, English astronomer and mathematician (b. 1904)

2000 day of death of Lucien Le Cam, French mathematician and statistician (b. 1924)

April, 26

1572 day of death of Petrus Ramus, French mathematician and logician (b. 1515)

1760 Euler was asked to tutor the niece of Frederick the Great, the Princess of Anhalt-Dessau

1766 D’Alembert after writing to Frederick II in praise of Lagrange writes to Lagrange about

an oﬀer to move to Berlin: “My dear and illustrious friend, the king of Prussia has charged

me to write you that, if you would like to come to Berlin to occupy a place in the Academy,

he would give you a pension of 1,500 crowns, which are 6,000 French pounds. . . Mr Euler,

unhappy for reasons of which I do not know the details, but in which I see that everyone

thinks him wrong, requests permission to leave and wants to go to St. Petersburg. The

king, who was not too anxious to grant it, would deﬁnitely give it to him if you accept

the proposition that he has made”

1815 day of death of Carsten Niebuhr, German mathematician, cartographer, and explorer in

the service of Denmark (b. 1733)

1832 birthdate of Robert Tucker, English mathematician (d. 1905)

1874 birthdate of Edward Huntington, American mathematician (d. 1952)

1876 day of death of Osip Ivanovich Somov, Russian mathematician (b. 1815)

1902 day of death of Lazarus Immanuel Fuchs, Jewish-German mathematician (b. 1833)

18

1903 In a letter to Volterra, Levi-Civita wrote: “Before leaving [for the Easter holiday] I started

and now go on studying wave theory [. . . ] — it is the subject I shall develop in my course

of higher mechanics. I met, however, a preliminary diﬃculty [. . . ] concerning the lack of

a deﬁnition of wave, both general and rigorous” [2]

1920 day of death of Srinivasa Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (b. 1887)

1922 birthdate of Asger Hartvig Aaboe, American historian of the exact sciences and mathe-

matician (d. 2007)

1925 birthdate of Vladimir Boltyansky, Soviet mathematician, educator (d. 2019)

1976 day of death of Carl Benjamin Boyer, American historian of sciences, and especially math-

ematics (b. 1906)

April, 27

1755 birthdate of Marc-Antoine Parseval, French mathematician (d. 1836)

1740 The French Academie des Sciences announced that their prize on the ebb and ﬂow of the

tides would be shared between Leonhard Euler, Daniel Bernoulli, Antoine Cavalleri and

Colin Maclaurin [11]

1837 birthdate of Paul Albert Gordan, German mathematician (d. 1912)

1843 birthdate of Hermann Felix M¨uller, German mathematician and historian of mathematics

(d. 1928)

1913 birthdate of Irving Adler, American mathematician, writer (d. 2012)

1920 birthdate of Mark Krasnosel’skii, Soviet mathematician (d. 1997)

1932 birthdate of Gian-Carlo Rota, Italian-American mathematician and philosopher (d. 1999)

1936 day of death of Karl Pearson, English mathematician (b. 1857)

1938 day of death of Edmund Husserl, Czech mathematician and philosopher (b. 1859)

1952 day of death of Guido Castelnuovo, Italian mathematician and statistician (b. 1865)

1978 day of death of Guido Stampacchia, Italian mathematician (b. 1922)

April, 28

1664 Trinity College, Cambridge awards a scholarship to Isaac Newton to study for his Master’s

Degree

1686 the ﬁrst book of Newton’s Principia was completed [6]

1693 G. Leibniz wrote to L’Hospital, announcing his discovery of determinants ﬁfty years before

Cramer. Leibniz’s work had little or no inﬂuence because it was not published until 1850

in his Mathematische Schriften.

19

1714 Leibniz, in a letter to Chamberlayne, wrote “. . . that Newton produced a book to be

published, which was written purposely to discredit me, and sent it to Germany, France,

and Italy, as in the name of the [Royal] Society”; and he stated “that there was great

room to doubt whether Newton knew his invention before he had it from him”. [3]

1765 birthdate of Sylvestre Fran¸cois Lacroix, French mathematician (d. 1834)

1773 birthdate of Robert Woodhouse, English mathematician (d. 1827)

1817 C.F. Gauss wrote to the astronomer H. W. M. Oblers, saying, “I am becoming more and

more convinced that the necessity of our (Euclidean) geometry cannot be proved, at least

not by human intellect nor for the human intellect.”

1831 birthdate of Peter Guthrie Tait, Scottish physicist and mathematician (d. 1901)

1843 day of death of William Wallace, Scottish mathematician (b. 1768)

1854 birthdate of Hertha Marks Ayrton, Polish-British engineer, mathematician, and physicist.

(d. 1923)

1868 birthdate of Georgy Voronoy, Ukrainian mathematician (d. 1908)

1897 In a letter to Fuchs, Dedekind expressed skepticism of a tale about Gauss attempting to

light his pipe with a copy of his Disquisitiones Arithmeticiae [32]

1906 birthdate of Kurt G¨odel, Czech-American mathematician, philosopher (d. 1978)

1906 birthdate of Richard Rado, Jewish German mathematician (d. 1989)

1912 day of death of Wilhelm Cauer, German mathematician (b. 1900)

1923 birthdate of Fritz Joseph Ursell, British mathematician (d. 2012)

1937 birthdate of David Herbert Fowler, historian of Greek mathematics (d. 2004)

1946 day of death of Louis Bachelier, French mathematician (b. 1870)

1975 day of death of Hans Arnold Heilbronn, German-Jewish mathematician (b. 1908)

1983 Greece issued a stamp portraying Archimedes and his Hydrostatic Principle

1986 day of death of R.H. Bing, American mathematician (b. 1914)

April, 29

1667 birthdate of John Arbuthnot, Scottish physicist and mathematician (d. 1735)

1699 the French Academy of Sciences held its ﬁrst public meeting, in the Louvre

1756 Benjamin Franklin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society

1831 Weber is oﬀered the position of full professor of Physics at Gottingen to ﬁll the position

of Tobias Mayer, partially on the recommendation of Gauss

1832 Galois was released from the prison

1850 birthdate of William Edward Story, American mathematician (d. 1930)

1854 birthdate of Henri Poincar´e, French mathematician, physicist, and engineer (d. 1912)

20

1864 day of death of Charles-Julien Brianchon, French mathematician (b. 1783)

1872 day of death of Jean-Marie-Constant Duhamel, French mathematician and physicist (b.

1797)

1894 day of death of Giuseppe Battaglini, Italian mathematician (b. 1826)

1906 birthdate of Eug´ene Ehrhart, French mathematician (d. 2000)

1916 day of death of Jørgen Pedersen Gram, Danish mathematician (b. 1850)

1926 birthdate of Vera Nikolaevna Maslennikova, Soviet mathematician d. 2000)

1930 birthdate of Yuan Wang, Chinese mathematician

1936 birthdate of Volker Strassen, German mathematician

1970 day of death of Paul Finsler, German-Swiss mathematician (b. 1894)

2005 day of death of Louis Leithold, American mathematician (b. 1924)

2005 day of death of Leonid Genrikhovich Khachiyan, Soviet mathematician (b. 1952)

2005 day of death of Louis Leithold, American mathematician (b. 1924)

2013 day of death of Ernest Michael, American mathematician (b. 1925)

April, 30

1633 Galileo was forced to recant his scientiﬁc ﬁndings related to the Copernican Theory as

“abjured, cursed and detested” by the Inquisition

1695 Bernoulli explains to Leibniz his reasons for the use of the term “integral calculus” for

Leibniz’s new calculus

1777 birthdate of Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician and physicist (d. 1855)

1807 Gauss replies to S. Germain letter (February 20, 1807 informing him that she is the

person who had written to him using the name M. LeBlanc) that this will not change

their correspondence [4]

1861 birthdate of John Clark, Scottish mathematician (d. 1947)

1891 Nature magazine publishes Peter Guthrie Tait’s “The Role of Quaternions in the Algebra

of Vectors”

1895 Georg Cantor, in a letter to Felix Klein, explains the choice of aleph for the cardinality of

sets [12]

1904 birthdate of George Robert Stibitz, American mathematician (d. 1995)

1905 birthdate of Sergey Nikolsky, Russian mathematician (d. 2012)

1905 Einstein completed his Doctoral thesis, with Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental

Physics, serving as pro-forma advisor

1907 day of death of Charles Howard Hinton, British mathematician (b. 1853)

1916 birthdate of Claude Shannon, American mathematician and engineer (d. 2001)

21

1977 day of death of Charles Fox, British-Canadian mathematician (b. 1897)

1980 day of death of Stanislaw Golab, Polish mathematician (b. 1902)

1989 day of death of Gottfried Maria Hugo K¨othe, German mathematician (b. 1905)

1993 CERN announces World Wide Web protocols will be free

2011 day of death of Daniel Gray Quillen, American mathematician (b. 1940)

Conclusive remarks

Mathematical epigraph are taken from [31]. The dates (if diﬀerent is not indicated) are from [14,

30, 42, 44] (see also Wikipedia). Dates and events for the rest of the months are collected

in [16–26]. A day-by-day version of this calendar can be found in [43]. At the last stages of

preparation of this work we found an excellent reference [37] (and closely related to this [36]), so

some of the dates (that are included in these references also) were double-checked with [36,37].

References

[1] Almkvist G., Berndt B. Gauss, Landen, Ramanujan, the arithmetic-geometric mean, ellipses, π, and

the Ladies Diary (1988). In: Pi: The Next Generation, Springer, Cham, 2016.

[2] Brechenmacher F, Jouve G., Mazliak L. and Tazzioli R., Images of Italian Mathematics in France:

The Latin Sisters, from Risorgimento to Fascism, Birkh¨auser, 2016.

[3] Brewster D. Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, Cambridge Univer-

sity Press, 2010.

[4] Bucciarelli L.L. and Dworsky N., Sophie Germain. An Essay in the History of the Theory of Elasticity,

Studies in the History of Modern Science (Book 6), Springer, 1980.

[5] Burris S., Gauss and Non-Euclidean Geometry, 2003, https://www.math.uwaterloo.ca/ snbur-

ris/htdocs/noneucl.pdf .

[6] Cajori F., A History of Mathematics, https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/31061 .

[7] Dick A., Emmy Noether 1882-1935, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

[8] Elstrodt J., The Life and Work of Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805-1859), Clay Mathematics Proceed-

ings,7, 2007.

[9] Gardner M., Time Travel and Other Mathematical Bewilderments, W H Freeman & Co, 1987.

[10] Growney J., Intersections – Poetry with Mathematics, https://poetrywithmathematics.blogspot.com/

.

[11] Guiciardini N., The Development of Newtonian Calculus in Britain 1700–1800, Cambridge University

Press, 2003.

[12] Hallett M., Cantorian Set Theory and Limitation of Size, Oxford Logic Guides, 1986.

22

[13] Hersh R. and John-Steiner V., Loving and Hating Mathematics: Chal lenging the Myths of Mathemat-

ical Life, Princeton University Press, 2010.

[14] Historia Mathematica, 1974–2018, http://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toc/histmath.html .

[15] Hopkins B. and Wilson R.J., The Truth about K¨onigsberg, The College Mathematics Journal,35(3)

2004, 198–207.

[16] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. January,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335858138 Mathematical Calendar January ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12535.57765

[17] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. February,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335859025 Mathematical Calendar February ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11067.57126

[18] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. March,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335881519 Mathematical Calendar March ,

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18355.17448

[19] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. May, to appear.

[20] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. June, to appear.

[21] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. July, to appear.

[22] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. August, to appear.

[23] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. September, to appear.

[24] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. October, to appear.

[25] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. November, to appear.

[26] Ivanova N., Mathematical Calendar. December, to appear.

[27] Kolmogorov A.N. and Yushkevich A.P. (ed.), Mathematics of the 19th century : mathematical logic,

algebra, number theory, probability theory, Birkh¨auser Verlag, 1992.

[28] Lemmermeyer F., Euler, Goldbach, and “Fermat’s Theorem”, Elem. Math. 65 (2010) 144–153.

[29] Mancosu P., The Adventure of Reason: Interplay Between Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathemat-

ical Logic, 1900–1940, Oxford University Press, 2010.

[30] Mathematical association of America. On this day, https://www.maa.org/news/on-this-day . Springer,

2018.

[31] Mathematics Quotes, Brainy Quotes, https://www.brainyquote.com/topics/mathematics .

[32] Merzbach U., An Early Version of Gauss’s Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, pp. 167–177, in: Dauben, ed.,

Mathematical Perspectives. Essays on Mathematics and its Historical Development, Academic Press,

1981.

23

[33] Merzbach U.C., Dirichlet: A Mathematical Biography, Springer, 2018.

[34] Miller J., Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics,

http://jeﬀ560.tripod.com/e.html .

[35] Ording P., 99 Variations on a Proof, Princeton University Press, 2019.

[36] Pat’s Blog, https://pballew.blogspot.com/ .

[37] Rickey V.F., A calendar of mathematical dates, http://fredrickey.info/hm/Dates/default.htm .

[38] Sandifer E., How Euler Did It, http://eulerarchive.maa.org/hedi/ .

[39] Sandifer E., The Early Mathematics of Leonhard Euler, MAA, 2007.

[40] Sasaki C. Descartes’s Mathematical Thought, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

[41] Stubhaug A., The Mathematician Sophus Lie: It was the Audacity of My Thinking, Springer Science

& Business Media, 2013.

[42] Tanton J., Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Facts On File, Incorporated, 14 May 2014 — Electronic

books.

[43] This day in history of mathematics, https://www.facebook.com/This-day-in-history-of-mathematics-

103991334328402/

[44] Vinogradov I.M. (editor), Mathematical Encyclopedia, 1–5, Sovetskaya enciklopediya, 1977–1985.

[45] Waldo Dunnington G., Gray J. and Dohse F.-E., Carl Friedrich Gauss: Titan of Science, Mathemat-

ical Association of America, 2004.

[46] Weinstein G., Max Born, Albert Einstein and Hermann Minkowski’s Space-Time Formalism of Special

Relativity, ArXiv:1210.6929.

24