ArticlePDF Available


Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 92
Importance of Training of Public Managers by
Distance Education
Antonio Cezar Bornia¹, Arcangelo dos Santos Safanelli2, Luiz Salgado Klaes3
1Department of Production Engineering, University of Santa Catarina, FLORIANOPOLIS, BRAZIL
2Department of Administration, University of Santa Catarina, FLORIANOPOLIS, BRAZIL
3Department of Administration, University of Santa Catarina, FLORIANOPOLIS, BRAZIL
Abstract This work refers to a research carried out with the objective of emphasizing the importance of the
training of public managers through training in the distance modality. In order to reach the proposed objective
and respond to the research problem, we used the exploratory research and case study, as well as reviewing the
literature allowing the deepening of the study. It emerged from the research that the skills required of managers
are technical, intellectual, cognitive, relational, didactic and pedagogical, methodological, leadership and
organizational. However, it has been identified that there are suggestions for improvement, such as specific
trainings (courses) for managers, being better qualified for this type of education (distance), as well as training
in the area of people management, to better understand the philosophy of Distance Education (DE), making
institutions have more specific rules for the organization in this type of learning. Therefore, regardless of
behavioral and context knowledge, the Public Manager is required to master the main managerial techniques in
the organizational field and its human, financial and production resources and knowledge in public
management, evidently referenced in an ethical commitment with the construction of a just society.
Keywords Distance Education (DE). Training of Public Managers. Organizational skills.
The Education has been characterized over the years
as an instrument by which governments seek to minimize
social differences. In order to achieve this important goal,
governments have been looking for different strategies
and not just the traditional technologies used in the
classroom (LITTO, FORMIGA, 2009).
With the changes that have taken place since the end
of the 20th century in the labor market, brought about by
new technologies, such as videoconferencing, multimedia
courses on CD-DVD ROM and the internet itself, people
began to have more access to information and,
consequently, opening new possibilities in terms of
teaching and learning, which expand traditional
boundaries. This change allowed that the physical
presence of students in the classroom was not also
considered an indispensable condition for learning. From
this, Distance Education (DE) began to gain space in
educational institutions (RUMBLE, 2003).
However, this also requires better training of
professionals to face the new challenges imposed by the
new technologies on the education professionals.
DE offers a great contribution to people because it
allows people to attend school in a more flexible and
adequate way to their reality. The popularization of the
use of computers and the advancement of the Internet
allowed an expansion of the DE and resulted in the great
challenge of knowing if people are prepared for this new
type of education.
The Open University of Brazil (UAB) Project was
created by the Ministry of Education (MEC) in 2005,
within the scope of the Forum of State for Education, for
the articulation and integration of a National DE System,
on an experimental basis, with a view to systematizing the
actions, programs, projects and activities pertaining to the
public policies aimed at the expansion and internalization
of the offer of free and quality higher education in Brazil
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 93
The Bachelor's Degree in Public Administration of the
National Public Administration Training Program
(PNAP), in turn, is inserted in this context and responds
to the needs of contemporary public organizations, which
seek prepared, innovative managers with a broad vision
of the reality that surrounds them the government context,
trained. Within this Program, the Lato sensu Postgraduate
Course in Municipal Public Management (DE) was
offered at the Federal University of Santa Catarina
(UFSC), with the purpose of training the public
management of several regions of Santa Catarina and Rio
de Janeiro Great Southern.
The objective of this work is to emphasize the
importance of the training of public managers through the
distance modality.
Competences are the qualities that people need to
possess so they can develop their work efficiently and
effectively (DUTRA, 2000). The concepts and
characteristics of competencies will be addressed in this
Competence can then be defined as the set of
qualifications that the person must possess to perform a
certain type of work with a higher level of performance
(GIL, 2006). The concept of competence is strictly related
to the development of the individual, and to continuous
training, that is, the opportunity to improve or adapt
For Resende (2003: 32), competence "is the
transformation of knowledge, skills, abilities, interest,
will, etc. in practical results. Having knowledge and
experience and not knowing how to apply them in favor
of an objective, a need, a commitment means not being
competent. " Fleury (2002 apud BENETTI et al., 2005)
defines competence as a responsible and recognized
responsible knowledge that involves mobilizing,
integrating, transferring knowledge, resources, skills, that
add economic value to the organization and social value
to the individual.
According to Ruzzarin, Amaral and Siminovschi
(2002), it is possible to affirm that the French School
developed a conception of competences very widespread
in the business and academic circles, whose classification
is based on three fundamental elements: (a) knowledge
(knowledge); (b) know how to do (skills) and (c) know
how to be (attitudes).
These skills (knowledge, skills and attitudes) to be
developed in professionals can and should be developed
with programs of development of people that, in addition
to the question of the valuation of the professional, bring
advantages to the institution of education through the
management and investment of skills and knowledge
(BENETTI et al., 2005).
Attitude is the main component of competence, which
corresponds to a set of values, beliefs and principles
formed throughout life, which thus determine the attitude
of people. These behaviors are manifested in the face of
everyday situations and tasks that develop in the day- to-
day, among others, that mean the wanting to do. That is, it
would participate in a competition and negotiate
(GRAMIGNA 2002).
According to Resende (2003), the competences can be
classified in different types: (a) techniques: domain only
of certain specialties; b) intellectuals: applications of
mental skills; (c) cognitive: mixed intellectual capacity
with mastery of knowledge; (d) relational: involve
practical activities of relationships and interactions; (e)
social and political: relations and participation in society;
(f) didactic-pedagogical: focused on education and
teaching; (g) methodological: techniques and means of
organizing activities and works; (h) leadership: personal
skills and knowledge of techniques to influence and lead
people; (i) organizational: organizational and business
management skills.
The literature on DE is quite vague in the context of
history. His embryo can be traced back to Plato's time
(427-347 BC), at the time when that philosopher wrote a
collection of letters and more than thirty philosophical
dialogues, notably in his Discourse on Socrates, in which
he defended this in the trial that sentenced him to death
(SCHNEIDER, 1999 apud MELO, COLLOSSI, 2004).
The emergence of DE dates back to the 15th century,
when Johannes Guttenberg, in Germany, composed the
words using mobile characters (ALVES, 1994). Since
then, the book has been read not only at school, at home
and in the most varied places.
As a consequence, DE followed a progressive
consolidation path, and this teaching modality is
perceived by Moore and Kearsley (2008) where they find
three stages, defined as first, second and third generation
The dynamics of technology and the growth of
information, linked to the generation of new products,
have posed challenges to organizations in their economic
and administrative life. According to Maia (2000), these
challenges, coupled with new theories, are demanding
continuous reassessment of work and solutions with
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 94
quality differentials and short deadlines, so that
companies survive competitiveness.
For a better understanding of the influence imposed
on the educational process at the time of the Industrial
Revolution, it is enough to realize that during this period
the production line was segmented and the product
massified, following the model advocated by Ford and the
capitalist system, making the educational field prone to
new ideas and methods that, at the same time as
equalizing knowledge, also allowed to open the
opportunity of innovation, being a favorable path for the
DE. In this phase, the DE was identified as a model of
industrial education in which planning occurs to ensure
the development of the proposed actions in the teaching-
learning process (BELLONI, 2009).
For the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (1998), DE is an
innovative factor in education systems because of its
applicability to creating, improving and overcoming
current problems. With this, sufficient learning strategies
are established to respond to the new requests of the
students and the social demands, hitherto unknown or
According to a report by the Industrial Research and
Development Advisory Committee (IDARC), the
importance of DE can be translated as an Information
Revolution, characterized by one of the increasingly
powerful devices for storing, manipulating and recovering
knowledge and to control the production processes, which
are causing a large part of the previous education and
training to be out of date or simply useless.
"Useful knowledge has an average life of ten years,
intellectual capital depreciates around 7% a year (a much
higher rate than the hiring of new employees), with the
consequent reduction of the effectiveness of the labor
force, work "(MELO, COLLOSSI, 2004, p.193).
DE is an innovative development in higher education
that uses technology to facilitate learning without the
constraints of time or place. A learning community must
necessarily be associated with a physical location: a
school, a university, a class or a laboratory. With the
advent of technology, the new notion of learning
community has moved into virtual space (MAIA;
Depending on the complexity of the project,
especially the scope and scale of service, the number of
professionals involved and the distribution of roles may
vary. It is normal to find institutions that maintain a fixed
staff in their functional frameworks and another variable,
outsourced or not, contracted on demand. Even
institutions varying in the organization of their structures,
some professional profiles are typical of DE projects,
regardless of the scope and the predominantly used
technologies (LITTO and FORMIGA, 2009).
Meyer Jr and Murphy (2003, p. 102) expose the DE
when it is passive, and present interagent orientation:
Passive distancelearning does not give rise to
questions and answers between teachers and students and
the evaluation of student performance is also more
difficult. Interactive communication over the internet
enables dialogue and an efficient assessment of student
learning. Just as the printing industry has made higher
education available on a previously unimaginable scale,
interactive distance education promises to increase that
scale again.
The DE is an important resource because it is an
appropriate way to attend large contingents of students
more effectively than other modality and without risk of
reducing the quality of services offered as a result of the
expansion of the clientele served (NUNES, 2010).
Due to the growth of DE, there is a need for training
policies and strategies for the continuous improvement of
this teaching. Without this, it is difficult to expand and
recognize this form of education (UNESCO, 1998).
The DE counts with different organizations involved,
such as private institutions, open universities, class
entities, software companies, international programs,
among others. "There are clear indicators that show that
open and distance learning will be adopted and integrated
by conventional institutions, probably at all levels of
education and in all sectors" (UNESCO, 1998, p.35).
One of the most striking features of DE is the physical
separation between teacher and students for most of the
time. In order to communicate, it is necessary to mediate
the media, media used in the course (printed material,
audio, video, teleconference, video conferencing, internet,
software, among others) that act as a filter in
communication, differentiating it from the classroom. In
the face-to-face class, even if the students' participation is
restricted by shyness, or by the number of students in the
same room, the teacher has a series of signals that allow
interaction (RODRIGUES, 1998).
In the issue of scale, professionals must provide the
necessary care in their planning. It is not mandatory to
have a large public to start the DSA, but the planners will
have to adapt to the particularities of their country, taking
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 95
into account the language and social culture (UNESCO,
There is, however, a clear indication that yesterday's
education is inadequate in response to the challenges of
the future. The main concept of education continues to be
that learning is accomplished once in a lifetime and is
essentially undertaken in preparation for the rest of it
(UNESCO, 1996).
Distance learning planning is seen as an indispensable
tool for successful teaching. Faced with many challenges
that will come, education is an indispensable tool for
humanity to progress in the ideals of peace, freedom and
social justice. Educational policies are a permanent
process of enriching knowledge, technical capacity and,
above all, a privileged structure of people and
relationships between individuals, groups and between
nations (DELORES, 1996).
Many options of environments and systems for
management of DE courses through the internet are
available in the market for those interested in
implementing a solution of this type of teaching in their
organizations. Although these options can be
differentiated by particular details such as user interface
and interactivity, these solutions have converged to the
same technology, the internet (GEDEDINE; TESTA;
FREITAS, 2008).
A strategy for DE strategy, which needs to be part of
the training role, should include harmonic goals, clear
definition of objectives to be followed and coordination at
national level, as well as national socioeconomic
development policies (RUMBLE, 2003).
The lack of technological infrastructure is one of the
major common problems of distance learning in
developing countries, such as Brazil. In its planning, the
DE can concentrate simple technologies as long as it has a
balanced view, since new forms of technologies that are
suitable for training are less costly than previous
The implementation of a Distance Education Center
(CEAD) has been a common procedure of educational
institutions as an organ capable of fulfilling this function
in the management process, but there are still challenges
to be overcome in its implementation. One of them refers
to the strategic structuring and planning that really take
care of the internal clients of CEAD, such as teachers,
tutors (learning mediators), pedagogical team, material
production, who are in the front line during the first
months of functioning of CEAD (RIBEIRO, 2007).
Within the characteristics of the DE is communication
and resources. The evolution of electronic media can be
considered one of the major responsible for maximizing
the use of remote systems. In this way, attendance to the
student became possible in any place in the world, as long
as the latter has access to technology and, especially, in
real time, making the use of DE in educational programs
increase considerably with the over the years
(PACHECO, 2010).
Understanding DE as the process resulting from poly
teaching, in which several actors contribute in the
organization and production of its content in various
media, pedagogical arrangement in technologically
mediated learning activities, as well as believing that the
evaluative activity in the process should be to take care
that are peculiar to their peculiarities, the distinction
between DE and traditional teaching is made (ROCHA,
It is the evaluation a transformative action that
encourages the critical-reflexive capacity of intervention
on a certain theme, information or knowledge, whose
value is the transforming reflection in action. This, which
is propelled to the new reflections, permanent of the
educator on its reality, accompanies pari passu, the
educando in its trajectory of knowledge construction
(HOFFMANN, 2003).
In this sense, consider factors such as evaluation in
process and continuous evaluation that takes into account
the relationship between the action and the realities
found, that is attentive to the daily diagnosis of the
student, which considers the ability of the student to
appropriate certain knowledge in activity of interactive-
collaborative-cooperative learning, are the same as the
reflexive basis for planning and control of learning
performance in multimedia environments, connected and
requiring teacher and student pedagogical-technological
skills (ROCHA, 2017).
Changes in the contemporary world, in the face of the
globalization of the economy and the explosion of
information and communication technologies and,
consequently, the configuration of a new paradigm of
society, require the acquisition and application of new
knowledge. In this new economic and social context, the
DE has acquired great importance. As a consequence, a
growing number of institutions take it up in their training
programs to meet the demands that increase exponentially
Each day, evaluating in the DE becomes more
complex the transformative reflection before the wealth
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 96
of variables that interfere in the processes of planning,
execution and management of the resulting results.
Differently from the assessment in face-to-face education,
in the DE, one observes the adherence to new criteria and
modalities, in an attempt to increase the learning potential
by the formative, continuous and summative modes, but
without losing sight of the different forms and spaces
learning, connection pedagogy and the flexibility of
choosing new learning methods, times, spaces and
partners. In addition to what should be considered
relevant the profile of the student who has chosen this
system as an educational option (ROCHA, 2017).
What characterizes the differentiation of DE in
relation to face-to-face education is the teacher's
responsibility not to be in the teacher as an individual, but
in the institution that brings together teachers and
specialists for the elaboration of the appropriate didactic
material, in the accompaniment of the student in his /
their learning. In the same way, the institution is
responsible for the logistics of the use, guaranteeing the
flow of the information of the bidirectional
communication; in short, of the teacher-student didactic
relationship (LOBO NETO, 1994).
They are developed as prerequisites for evaluating the
following competences in the according to Rocha (2017):
a) Teaching and learning - encourage collaborative-
cooperative learning, encourage autonomy. Articulate and
strengthen learning by searching;
b) Cloud teaching - harnessing new skills for learning
in social networks, in virtual learning communities, in M-
Learning2, in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs),
in Open Educational Resources (REAs) etc .;
c) Performance indicators - develop skills to plan and
monitor indicators of quality through meaningful
learning, indicators of cooperation and knowledge
appropriation. Compliance indicators and results;
d) Context or nature - to evaluate without losing sight
of the diversity of socio-cultural, socio-economic, socio-
political, ethical, ideological or religious realities that mix
in the virtual spaces and classrooms, beyond the four
walls of the traditional school;
e) Learning styles - to develop competences for the
differentiated look in the evaluation of cognitive,
physical, emotional aspects more andragogic or more
pedagogical (continuous pedagogical-andragogic);
consider the divergent, assimilating, convergent and
usable learning styles recommended by Kolb (1984); and
f) Technological-mediatic skills - to invest in the field
of educational technologies for technologically mediated
course or activity (ROCHA, 2017).
As in any organization facing difficulty, a Higher
Education Institution (HEI) would be no different.
Managing a DE requires a much greater diversity of
knowledge than managing a school, high school or
university and, as a whole, it will not be possible to
recruit staff with this knowledge. The institution will have
to develop its own staff until it reaches the diversity and
depth of knowledge required. Realistically, this takes
time, and it will not be an exaggeration to say that a new
DE institution needs two to five years until the core of its
staff reaches its full operational capacity (FREEMAN,
Didactics is the art of transmitting knowledge; is also
described as the technique of teaching and using science
in order to make learning more efficient. It can be placed
between educational theories and pedagogical practice.
Using it to engage the student will make learning even
more meaningful. According to Carvalho (2008), this
involvement will occur when the teacher creates the
conditions for the student to learn and share the
knowledge, through strategies and stimuli, the following
a) Discuss openly, always respecting opinions;
b) Know the expectations and needs of the student;
c) Orient instruction through feedback, an intrinsic
agent in e-learning;
d) Integrate in an interdisciplinary and contextual
manner all presented content;
e) Promote the collaborative construction of
knowledge and always value student-student, teacher-
student and vice versa relationships.
Due to the difference in the target audience, the
learning conditions and processes are also very different.
Distance learning may require or develop different skills
and competencies than conventional education. It is
possible to take advantage of the broader experience and
to apply more immediately the knowledge acquired in the
work or in living situations (PACHECO, 2010).
The present work is characterized as a qualitative
case study. The research is based on primary data,
through the literature review pertinent to the theme.
Among the advantages of the qualitative approach are:
emphasis on the subjective interpretation of individuals,
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 97
delineation of the context of the research environment,
not very structured approach, multiple sources of
evidence, importance of the conception of organizational
reality and proximity to the phenomenon studied, among
others (BRYMAN , 1989). However, the emphasis of this
approach is not on the structure of organizations. This is
an important element to meet the researcher's interest.
The concern is to unravel the unfolding of events that
culminate in the results, whose main interest is not only in
these, but how one came to them, contributing to explain
why things (MIGUEL, 2012).
The study can also be classified as descriptive and
applied research. This is justified because it is a study
about a reality, with the objective of knowing the
phenomenon and proposing solutions to the challenges
and problems encountered (RICHARDSON, 1989).
The choice of the case study is justified by presenting
a detailed account of a social phenomenon that involves,
for example, its configuration, structure, activities,
changes in time and relationship with other phenomena,
as a method of visualizing social reality, using a set of
techniques and usual research in social investigations
such as interviews, participant observation, use of original
documents, data collection and other pertinent. It
constitutes a holistic and intensive description of a well-
defined phenomenon (it can be a program, an institution,
a person, a group of people, a process or a social unit), the
qualitative case study. This shows that the interest of the
researcher is more concerned with the understanding of
social processes that occur in a given context, than
between relations established in the discovery, in the
interpretation, being much more than the simple
verification of hypothesis (GODOI; .
Participant observation was also used, since one of
the researchers worked in the management of the DE
course related to PNAP. During the course (from the
beginning of 2012 to the end of 2013), students' progress
and behavior were observed, most of them being public
servants (such as city councilors, municipal secretaries,
among others). Observational data are obtained in their
natural form and hence their importance (BARBETTA,
REIS and BORNIA, 2010).
To The Bachelor's Degree in Public Administration in
the distance modality is offered by professionals linked to
the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), mostly
from the Department of Administration Sciences, within
the UAB / MEC Program and in partnership with
municipal governments. Its policy is the democratization
of access and the internalization of a public education,
free of charge and of quality (PEDAGOGICAL
The design of the Bachelor's Degree in Public
Administration is aimed at training graduates able to act
efficiently and effectively in the context of public
management, in the light of ethics, seeking to contribute
to the achievement of the objectives and development of
governmental and non-governmental organizations, in
order to enable them to meet the needs and the
development of society (PEDAGOGICAL PROJECT OF
The general objective of the course is to train
professionals with a broad knowledge of Public
Administration, capable of acting at the federal, state and
municipal levels, competently administering
governmental and non-governmental organizations in a
proactive, democratic and ethical manner, taking into
account view of the transformation and development of
society and the country (PEDAGOGICAL PROJECT OF
These are some of the main characteristics of the
Pedagogical Project of the Bachelor's Degree in Public
Administration (PNAP).
Within the PNAP, the Specialization Course in
Municipal Public Management has as its objective the
qualification of personnel of higher level aiming the
exercise of managerial activities. Specifically, you want
a) to train managers to act in the administration of
macro (government) and micro (organizational units)
public systems;
b) to train professionals with adequate training to
intervene in social, political and economic reality;
c) contribute to the improvement of the management
of the activities carried out by the Brazilian State, at the
federal, state and municipal levels; and
d) to contribute to the public manager developing a
strategic vision of public affairs from the systematic and
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 98
in-depth study of the administrative reality of the
government or its productive units.
The course, for academics, will allow the professional
growth of the student through:
a) orientation of the ability of critical thinking to the
problems of government;
b) developing the ability to strategically analyze
organizational / environment relationship issues rather
than offering only operational solutions;
c) strengthening the ability to communicate through
face-to-face and distance discussions (chats), case studies,
written work and seminar presentations, among other
The Basic Module was composed of nine subjects of
thirty hours each, making a total of two hundred and
seventy hours.
In the evaluation of the course, among the questions
asked after the end of the course, the question "The
Course helped train professionals able to act in the public
service?". Was considered in the average as "very good"
(muito bom), this meeting the expectations of most
students, as shown below:
The work was a theoretical research, based on the
perception of the students (public managers in the
majority) that carried out this specialization.
Fig. 1: Did the course help train professionals able to act
in the public service?
In the conceptual, social and characteristics aspects of
the DE, its results allow to conclude the recognition of its
importance in the presented context. The lack of some
specific DE standards for HEIs makes it difficult and
time-consuming to reach desirable levels. Ideal to make
special commissions to cause MEC and UFSC to
elaborate norms for this purpose.
In environments where changes occur permanently
and at high speed, still characterized by the scarcity of
resources and the high level of competitiveness ordered
by contemporary society, it is required that the
professional responsible for conducting public
organizations has developed their creativity, critical spirit
and their ability to produce new knowledge.
Allied to this dynamic and flexible personality, an
essential profile to ensure the good performance of the
management professional, it is also necessary for the
Public Manager to develop a strategic vision of public
affairs, which can be obtained from a systematic and in-
depth study the various areas of action in the field of
Administration and the integration of these areas in terms
of conceptual and analytical knowledge.
Thus, regardless of behavioral and context knowledge,
the Public Manager is required to master the main
managerial techniques in the organizational field and their
human, financial and production resources and
knowledge in public management, evidently referenced in
a ethical commitment to building a just society.
To meet the expectations of this emerging society, we
seek to train professionals with solid and modern
competence, in full conditions of efficient and effective
performance, concerned with the social relevance of the
product of their work, presenting skills for proactivity and
creativity; logical, critical and analytical reasoning;
systemic and strategic vision for negotiations, decision
making, leadership and teamwork.
The development of a fairer society, with a better
distribution of income and permanent generation of jobs,
is the consequence of a series of economic, social and
political factors, being important the practices of
organization and administration of the work, adopted in
the society, during the course of its development process,
both in the public area and in the organizational area. In
this sense, the role reserved for training is of relevant
importance, since the specialists specialists (managers
and policy makers) will be able to intervene in the social,
political and economic reality of the country.
[1] ALVES, João Roberto Moreira. A educação à distância no
Brasil: síntese histórica e perspectivas. Rio de Janeiro:
Instituto de Pesquisas em Educação, 1994.
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 99
[2] BARBETTA, Pedro Alberto; REIS, Marcelo Menezes;
BORNIA, Antônio Cezar. Estatística: para cursos de
engenharia e informática. 3. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2010
[3] BELLONI, Maria Luiza. Educação a Distância. São Paulo:
Autores Associados, 2009.
[4] BENETTI, Kelly Cristina et al. Competências Docentes
para EAD: uma perspectiva teórica. In: COLÓQUIO
NA AMÉRICA DO SUL, 5., 2005, Mar del Plata. Trabalho
apresentado... Universidad Mar del Plata, p. 1-15.
Disponível em: <
content/BD_documentos/2189.pd HYPERLINK
content/BD_documentos/2189.pdf"f>. Acesso em: 2 set.
[5] BRYMAN, Alan. Research methods and organization
studies. London: Unwin Hyman, London, 1989.
[6] CARVALHO, Ricardo. Como aplicar o ensino à distância
na prática. 2008. Disponível em:
ensino-a-distancia-na-pratica>. Acesso em: 5 set. 2017.
[7] DELORS, Jacques. La educación encierra un tesoro:
informe a la UNESCO de la Comisión Internacional sobre
la educación para el siglo XXI. Paris: UNESCO, 1996.
[8] DUTRA, Joel Souza. Gestão de pessoas: modelo,
processos, tendências e perspectiva. São Paulo: Atlas,
[9] FREEMAN, Richard. Planejamento de sistemas de
educação à distância: um manual para decisores, 2003.
Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 10 jul. 2017.
[10] FRIGOTTO, G.; CIAVATTA, M. Educar o trabalhador
cidadão produtivo ou o ser humano emancipado. Trabalho,
Educação e Saúde, Rio de Janeiro, v. 1, n. 1, p. 45-60,
Compreendendo as iniciativas de educação a distância via
internet: estudo de caso em duas grandes empresas no
Brasil. Revista de Administração Pública, Rio de Janeiro,
v. 40, n. 3, 2006. Disponível em: <http: //>.
Acesso em: 23 jan. 2008.
[12] GODOY, Christiane Kleinübing; SILVA, Arielson Barbosa
da; BANDEIRA-DE-MELO, Rodrigo. Pesquisa qualitativa
em estudos organizacionais: paradigmas, estratégias e
métodos. São Paulo: Saraiva, 2007.
[13] GRAMIGNA, Maria Rita. Modelo de competências e
gestão dos talentos. São Paulo: Pearson Makron Books,
[14] HOFFMANN, Jussara. Avaliação Mito e Desafio: uma
perspectiva construtivista. 32 ed. Porto Alegre: Mediação,
[15] KOLB, D. A. (1984). Aprendizagem Experiencial,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall Infed - David A.
Kolb, Na aprendizagem experiencial. 1984. Disponível em:
< Acesso em: 06
abr. 2017>.
[16] LITTO, Frederic Michael; FORMIGA, Manuel Marcos
Maciel. Educação à distância: o estudo da arte. São Paulo:
Pearson Education do Brasil, 2009.
[17] MAIA, Carmem. Guia brasileiro de educação a distância:
São Paulo: Esfer, 2000.
[18] ___________; MEIRELLES, F. S. A. Educação a
Distância nas Universidades Públicas Brasileiras. In:
DISTÂNCIA, IX, 2002. Anais. São Paulo: ABED, 2002.
[19] LOBO NETO, Francisco da Silveira. Educação a distância:
alternativa de democratização de ensino. Notas para
palestra no seminário sobre EAD. Fundação João Pinheiro.
Belo Horizonte, 1994.
[20] MELO, Pedro Antônio de. COLLOSSI, Nelson. Cenários
da Gestão Universitária na Contemporaneidade.
Organizadores. Florianópolis: Insular, 2004.
[21] MEYER JÚNIOR, Victor; MURPHY, J. Patrick.
Dinossauros, Gazelas e Tigres: abordagens da
administração universitária. 2. ed. Florianópolis: Insular,
[22] MIGUEL, Paulo Augusto Cauchick (organizador).
Metodologia de pesquisa em engenharia de produção e
gestão de operações. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier:
ABREPO, 2012.
[23] MOORE, Michael G.; KARSLEY, Greg. Educação à
distância: uma visão integrada. São Paulo: Cengage
Learning, 2008.
[24] NUNES, Ivônio Barros. Noções de educação à distância.
Disponível em: <
rau/ead/document/?view=3>. Acesso em: 29 jun. 2010.
Aprendizaje abierto y a distancia: perspectivas y
consideraciones políticas. Universidad Nacional de
Educación a Distancia, Instituto Universitario de
Educación a Distancia, Cátedra. UNESCO de Educación a
Distancia. Madrid: Unesco: 1998.
[26] PACHECO, Andressa Sasaki Vasques. Evasão e
permanência dos estudantes de um Curso de Administração
do Sistema Universidade Aberta do Brasil: uma teoria
fundamentada em fatos e na gestão do conhecimento. Tese.
298 f. Florianópolis: UFSC, 2010.
MODALIDADE A DISTÂNCIA. Ministério da Educação.
Brasília, 2009.
[28] RESENDE, Enio. O livro das competências:
desenvolvimento das competências: a melhorauto-ajuda
para pessoas, organizações e sociedade. 2. ed. Rio de
Janeiro: Qualitymark, 2003.
[29] RIBEIRO, Luis Otoni Meireles. Gestão de EAD: a
importância da visão sistêmica e da estruturação dos
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept- 2019] ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O) Page | 100
CEADs para a escolha de modelos adequados. 2007, p.
151. Dissertação - (Mestrado em Administração) -
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre,
[30] RICHARDSON, Roberto et al.. Pesquisa social: métodos e
técnicas. 2. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 1989.
[31] ROCHA, Enilton Ferreira. Avaliação na EaD: estamos
preparados para avaliar? Disponível em:
ton_Rocha.pdf>, 2017. Acesso em: 07 jan 2017.
[32] RODRIGUES, Rosângela Schwarz. Modelo de avaliação
para cursos de ensino à distância: estrutura, aplicação e
avaliação. 1998. 154 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em
Engenharia de Produção) - Universidade Federal de Santa
Catarina, Florianópolis, 1998.
[33] RUMBLE, Greville. A gestão dos sistemas de ensino à
distância. Tradução Marília Fonseca. Brasília: UNESCO,
[34] RUZZARIN, Ricardo; AMARAL, Augusto;
SIMINOVSCHI, Marcelo. Gestão por
[35] competências: indo além da teoria. Porto Alegre:
SEBRAE/RS, 2002.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
A obra Pesquisa Qualitativa em Estudos Organizacionais: paradigmas, estratégias e métodos reúne quinze trabalhos de pesquisadores dedicados à reflexão e à sistematização da prática científica no campo dos estudos organizacionais. Distantes da pretensão de dominação e manipulação dos objetos, os trabalhos admitem o conhecimento científico como autoconhecimento, como processo de reformulação de crenças, e identificam-se com o fato de que a abertura à experiência do saber modifica e constrói o próprio pesquisador. Resultado de cinco anos de planejamento, organização, autorreflexão e interação com os autores, esta publicação nasceu do interesse no debate epistemológico e metodológico no campo organizacional. Situado entre a retomada de textos publicados e a necessidade de prosseguir com textos inéditos, a construção do livro foi acompanhada pela criação lenta e tácita de uma visão qualitativa integrada. Os debates nas sessões de pesquisa dos encontros científicos, nos últimos anos, permitiram, por meio da discussão e da aproximação entre as pessoas, o surgimento da identificação e do entendimento comum entre os autores acerca do objeto do livro: a visão qualitativa nos estudos organizacionais. A concepção das estratégias e métodos de pesquisa propostos na obra indica que compreender fenômenos organizacionais exige práticas que conduzam a construção de um conhecimento intersubjetivo e compreensivo. Portanto, os capítulos tendem a indicar caminhos para examinar as produções significativas dos próprios sujeitos - discursos, relatos, imagens, representações - geradas e construídas por atores, de forma dialógica, revelando experiências vivenciadas em seus próprios contextos sociais e históricos. Destinada a pesquisadores e estudantes que começam a perceber modificações em seus pressupostos durante a realização de pesquisa, questionando suas certezas prévias e produzindo novas concepções, a obra Pesquisa Qualitativa em Estudos Organizacionais introduz a incerteza da compreensão e da interpretação no interior das estratégias e métodos de pesquisa analisados. A intenção dos autores é compartilhar experiências metodológicas de forma sistematizada, mas sem a ilusão de prescrever, uma vez que a criação de práticas de pesquisa é protagonizada pela própria comunidade científica, constituindo a pluralidade metodológica e incentivando o debate epistemológico. Organizadores
Full-text available
This research adopts the Grounded Theory method, because the tool contribution to develop new theories, as the flexibility in the field, subject, and objectives. Thereby, it was performed a qualitative case study, in the management course in Santa Catarina Federal University. It was interviewed sixty managers, students and tutors. To analyses this study, it was used the multiparadigmatic approach, according to the interpretive paradigms (predominant), functionalist, critical theory (radical humanist and radical structuralism) and knowledge management. As results, it was able to perceive the functionalism paradigm predominance, related with an effective investigation. In relation the theory developed with the database, the main results were the management structure and the large amount of offered options to the students.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A disseminação da informação, aliada à proliferação das mídias interativas, tem colocado recursos como o computador, a Internet e o vídeo, a serviço da educação e, o uso destas novas tecnologias tem delineado uma grande transformação nos processos de ensino-aprendizagem. Uma parte significativa desta transformação está relacionada ao uso da educação a distância (EAD) como forma de atingir novos públicos e desenvolver novas metodologias de ensino. Um dos fatores críticos de sucesso em EAD é o foco direcionado para as necessidades dos alunos e a definição de conteúdos que atendam a estas necessidades. Levando em consideração estes fatores, destacamos que o principal objetivo desta pesquisa é fazer um levantamento e comparar, as diversas metodologias e técnicas adotadas nos cursos a distância oferecidos pelas universidades no Brasil. A amostra será composta por seis universidades públicas que já oferecem cursos à distância, localizadas nas principais capitais das regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Também será apresentado um levantamento comparativo para identificar formas de interação e suporte aos alunos semelhantes entre as universidades, ou seja, grupos que possuam características similares quanto aos materiais utilizados, a estruturação dos cursos, formas de interação aluno/professor, suporte ao aluno, tecnologias utilizadas e sistemas de avaliação adotados.
Full-text available
Este artigo analisa o funcionamento e as características das iniciativas de educação a distância em grandes empresas no Brasil. Foram realizados dois estudos de caso, um na universidade corporativa de uma subsidiária de uma multinacional americana e outro em um centro de treinamento da produção (CTP) de uma subsidiária de uma multinacional européia. O estudo de caso utilizou basicamente três formas de coleta de dados: a observação direta das instalações e funcionamento das unidades de análise, a realização de entrevistas informais (não-estruturadas) com alguns integrantes das equipes durante o período de observação e a realização de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os resultados ajudam a compreender essas organizações no que se refere a aspectos como concepção educacional, público-alvo, financiamento, desenvolvimento dos cursos, avaliação, custos iniciais, retorno sobre o investimento, vantagens e desvantagens.
This paper summarizes experiments report and reflections about the importance of creating a local distance education structure in each university, to develop tools and strategic planning, focused on the specific needs of the institution, like multiple courses, publics and levels, as well as internal clients (teachers team, media production team, tutors, etc.). Models of distance courses are presented, for different situations, mainly for professional and technological and engineering education. Distance education, in a scale prospective, requires professional
A educação à distância no Brasil: síntese histórica e perspectivas
  • João Roberto Moreira
ALVES, João Roberto Moreira. A educação à distância no Brasil: síntese histórica e perspectivas. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto de Pesquisas em Educação, 1994. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-9, Sept-2019]
Competências Docentes para EAD: uma perspectiva teórica
  • Kelly Benetti
  • Cristina
BENETTI, Kelly Cristina et al. Competências Docentes para EAD: uma perspectiva teórica. In: COLÓQUIO INTERNACIONAL SOBRE GESTÃO UNIVERSITÁRIA NA AMÉRICA DO SUL, 5., 2005, Mar del Plata. Trabalho apresentado... Universidad Mar del Plata, p. 1-15. Disponível em: < HYPERLINK ""f>. Acesso em: 2 set.
Como aplicar o ensino à distância na prática
  • Ricardo Carvalho
CARVALHO, Ricardo. Como aplicar o ensino à distância na prática. 2008. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 5 set. 2017.