Book

Video Verification in the Fake News Era

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Abstract

This book presents the latest technological advances and practical tools for discovering, verifying and visualizing social media video content, and managing related rights. The digital media revolution is bringing breaking news to online video platforms, and news organizations often rely on user-generated recordings of new and developing events shared in social media to illustrate the story. However, in video, there is also deception. In today's "fake news" era, access to increasingly sophisticated editing and content management tools and the ease with which fake information spreads in electronic networks, require the entire news and media industries to carefully verify third-party content before publishing it. As such, this book is of interest to computer scientists and researchers, news and media professionals, as well as policymakers and data-savvy media consumers.
... Journalism, which had a primordial function as a filter and for decoding messages in transit, proved to be impotent under this polyphonic framework (Bennet and Livingston 2021). Traditional media have lost their hegemonic role of information control, in a daily life permeated by content produced by users/spectators/ consumers (UGC) 3 , who, namely through social media, disseminate information at a frantic pace (Mezaris et al., 2019). The result of this change is that we live under the spectre of disinformation, in such a way that the European Union, recognizing the importance of this issue, created a Code of Practice to counteract the phenomenon. ...
... However, a society as strongly "visual" as the one we live in could not help but be very sensitive to disinformation through images. This is mainly because the dissemination of devices capable of capturing, editing, and sharing images has increased a lot in recent years (Mezaris et al., 2019). This more "visual" side of our society has even led to the emergence of a new form of disinformation: the "deepfakes". ...
Article
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The abundance of information has brought new challenges to our global digital societies, in such a way that it has become mandatory to speak of a “post-truth world” when we analyse the effects of technology and social media on our daily lives. The indelible mark of this issue has been cemented more and more noticeably in our public space: in 2016 the word of the year was post-truth (Hendricks and Vestergaard, 2019), and, in 2017, it was fake news (Dalkir and Katz, 2020). In this article, we attempt to systematize the main lines of reflection on the issue of disinformation and clarify the concepts associated with it, thus trying to highlight the different axes that constitute the complexity of the phenomenon.
... Working with content creators, some of whom are also popular YouTube channels such as Crash Course and Weird History, Boclips aims to provide schools and educators with rightcleared videos after realising how information online could be overwhelming and confusing for students ('Boclips: Curated Educational Videos for Student Learning'; refer to Boclips n.d.). InVID is another tool offered to netizens for video verification (Mezaris et al. 2019). First introduced in 2017, InVID has recently been upgraded to InVID WeVerify, a plugin that can be added to Chrome ('Verification Plugin' n.d.). ...
... Realising how online videos can be overwhelming and confusing for students, companies like Boclips have dedicated themselves to video content vetting for the benefit of educators and learners (Boclips n.d.). InVID WeVerify is another application offered to internet users for video verification (Mezaris et al. 2019) but focuses on identifying fake or manipulated news reports or footage. However, tools to establish provenance and tracing sources for online audio-visuals are still relatively limited for historical content. ...
... Several studies on information avoidance has emphasized the influence of information overload, distress, and confusion (Chae, 2016) and negative affective responses such as fear and worry (Chae, 2015). Specific to polarizing issues in the era of fake news (Mezaris et al., 2019), publics' declining trust in the news (Quintani et al., 2019) is a critical consideration regarding publics' disengagement from controversial issue information. A recent survey from the Pew Research Center also indicates that the American public believe that distrust in each other and in institutions like the government and the media is a key obstruction to solving crucial social problems (Rainie et al., 2019). ...
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Capturing a unique moment within a particularly volatile political climate where various issues such as climate change, immigration, and healthcare are increasingly polarized, this survey examines the factors driving publics’ engagement in and disengagement from communication on controversial sociopolitical issues. It applies and expands the situational theory of problem solving (STOPS) by integrating the theoretical insights from the literature of information omission and avoidance. Results not only support the applicability of the STOPS model in explaining publics’ communication on controversial sociopolitical problems but also the viability of integrating two new behavioral outcomes – information omission and avoidance – into the STOPS framework.
... Similarly, Wheaton (2018) addressed text, image, and video as the major fake news contents, but focused only on textual analysis. A few more studies analyzed different types of fake news contents, such as text (e.g., Guacho et al., 2018;Wheaton, 2018), image (e.g., Carlson, 2009), video (e.g., Mezaris et al., 2019), text and image (e.g., Zhou & Zafarani, 2020). However, Parikh and Atrey (2018) presented the most comprehensive typology of fake news content by analyzing different news stories. ...
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This study analyzes 419 fake news items published in India, a fake-news-prone country, to identify the major themes, content types, and sources of social media fake news. The results show that fake news shared on social media has six major themes: health, religion, politics, crime, entertainment, and miscellaneous; eight types of content: text, photo, audio, and video, text & photo, text & video, photo & video, and text & photo & video; and two main sources: online sources and the mainstream media. Health-related fake news is more common only during a health crisis, whereas fake news related to religion and politics seems more prevalent, emerging from online media. Text & photo and text & video have three-fourths of the total share of fake news, and most of them are from online media: online media is the main source of fake news on social media as well. On the other hand, mainstream media mostly produces political fake news. This study, presenting some novel findings that may help researchers to understand and policymakers to control fake news on social media, invites more academic investigations of religious and political fake news in India. Two important limitations of this study are related to the data source and data collection period, which may have an impact on the results.
... The Copyright Ontology, through the combination of Semantic Web and blockchain technologies, has been applied during the development of the Rights Management module in the context of the EU H2020 project InVID 4 , which focuses on the verification of social media video content for the news industry [11]. The Rights Management module is structured as detailed in Figure 6. ...
Conference Paper
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Solutions based on distributed ledgers require sophisticated tools for data modelling and integration that can be overcome using semantic and Linked Data technologies. One example is copyright management, where we attempt to adapt the Copyright Ontology so it can be used to build applications that benefit from both worlds, rich information modelling and reasoning together with immutable and accountable information storage that provides trust and confidence on the modelled rights statements. This approach has been applied in the context of an application for the management of social media re-use for journalistic purposes.
Article
In this study, we discuss the training of mass communication specialists in terms of competence approach and compliance with professional standards. The relevance of the topic of the study is due to changes in journalism education in Russia and abroad, the emergence of organizational innovations in higher education, and the development trends of the system of professional journalism. The study examined the formation of professional competencies, job responsibilities, knowledge, skills, and abilities in students as a result of mastering the basic educational curriculum for Bachelor's and Master's degree programs in journalism. The study was based on the educational standard and the basic educational program for Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Journalism at the Institute of Philology and Journalism of the National Research University Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. The methodology allowed us to study effective strategies in contemporary media education and a comparative typological analysis of the types of professional journalistic activities. To evaluate the quality of education and the professional standing of future journalists on the labor market, journalism students of the Institute of Philology and Journalism of Lobachevsky University were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The survey participants were 2nd–4 year undergraduate students and first-year graduate students. The experience of the Institute of Philology and Journalism of Lobachevsky University in developing and implementing self-established educational standards illustrates one of the vectors of modernizing the basic educational program for Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Journalism, which represents a balanced combination of the needs of employers, the traditions of classical education, and an awareness of the social, cultural and educational role of journalism in society. The authors concluded that it is necessary to continuously work on improving the process of training future specialists in the field of mass communication, in accordance with the opportunities for further professional self-fulfillment of graduates. The results of this study may be of interest to the developers of educational programs in the field of journalism, the staff of educational and methodological commissions, and the executive staff of educational institutions of higher education.
Chapter
The concluding chapter briefly draws together key ideas from each of the preceding chapters. The chapter then returns to the point of departure from the introduction: the present relevance of the research. The chapter presents several examples of how we might apply the insights from the historical context to current circumstances, and it points out limitations in forcing such connections.
Article
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COVID-19-related online fake news poses a threat to Indian public health. In response, this study seeks to understand the five important features of COVID-19-related social media fake news by analyzing 125 Indian fake news. The analysis produces five major findings based on five research questions. First, the seven themes of fake news are health, religiopolitical, political, crime, entertainment, religious, and miscellaneous. Health-related fake news (67.2%) is on the top of the list that includes medicine, medical and healthcare facilities, viral infection, and doctor-patient issues. Second, the seven types of fake news contents are text, photo, audio, video, text and photo, text and video, and text and photo and video. More fake news takes the form of text and video (47.2%). Third, online media produces more fake news (94.4%) than mainstream media (5.6%). More interestingly, four social media platforms: Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp, and YouTube, produce most of the fake news. Fourth, relatively more fake news has international connections (54.4%) as the COVID-19 pandemic is a global phenomenon. Fifth, most of the COVID-19-related fake news is negative (63.2%) which could be a real threat to public health. These results may contribute to the academic understanding of social media fake news during the present and future health-crisis period. This paper concludes by stating some limitations regarding the data source and results, as well as provides a few suggestions for further research.
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19-related online fake news poses a threat to Indian public health. In response, this study seeks to understand the five important features of COVID-19-related social media fake news by analyzing 125 Indian fake news. The analysis produces five major findings based on five research questions. First, the seven themes of fake news are health, religiopolitical, political, crime, entertainment, religious, and miscellaneous. Health-related fake news (67.2%) is on the top of the list that includes medicine, medical and healthcare facilities, viral infection, and doctor-patient issues. Second, the seven types of fake news contents are text, photo, audio, video, text and photo, text and video, and text and photo and video. More fake news takes the form of text and video (47.2%). Third, online media produces more fake news (94.4%) than mainstream media (5.6%). More interestingly, four social media platforms: Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp, and YouTube, produce most of the fake news. Fourth, relatively more fake news has international connections (54.4%) as the COVID-19 pandemic is a global phenomenon. Fifth, most of the COVID-19-related fake news is negative (63.2%) which could be a real threat to public health. These results may contribute to the academic understanding of social media fake news during the present and future health-crisis period. This paper concludes by stating some limitations regarding the data source and results, as well as provides a few suggestions for further research.
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