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The Effectiveness of Outdoor Learning in Improving Spatial Intelligence

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  • SMA TQ-Mu'adz Bin Jabal Kendari

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Spatial intelligence is essential for geography education students for identifying geosphere phenomena. This research to measure spatial intelligence and the effectiveness of the application of outdoor learning in geography education students. This research is a pre-experimental study with a pretest-posttest one group design. The form of field learning activities in the form of camps and a series of practical activities. Before the student activity will present a pre-test which has the same weight as the final test given the end of the activity. Data collection techniques use tests, as well as observations for conformity between design and action. Spatial intelligence test instruments will test for validity, reliability and different. The test format is designed using geographic spatial intelligence references. Data analysis through homogeneity, normality and hypothesis testing using the t-test. Hypothesis testing results show that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted, which is indicated by the results of tcount = 1.7108> ttable 0.492 with a significance level of 5%. Research conclusion there is student’s spatial intelligence increase through outdoor learning activities.
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Journal for the Education of Gifted Young
Scientists, 7(3), 717-730, September 2019
e-ISSN: 2149- 360X
http://jegys.org
Research Article
The Effectiveness of Outdoor Learning in Improving Spatial
Intelligence
La Ode AMALUDDIN1, RAHMAT2, SURDIN3, Muhammad Isa RAMADHAN4,
Desi Nurul HIDAYAT5, Andri Estining SEJATI6, I Gede PURWANA7 & Suritno
FAYANTO8
Received: 7 July 2019 Accepted: 20 August 2019
Abstract
Spatial intelligence is essential for geography education students for identifying
geosphere phenomena. The aim of research to measure spatial intelligence and the
effectiveness of the application of outdoor learning in geography education
students. It used a pre-experimental study with a pretest-posttest one group design.
The form of field learning activities in the form of camps and a series of practical
activities. Before the student activity will present a pre-test which has the same
weight as the final test given the end of the activity. Data collection techniques use
tests, as well as observations for conformity between design and action. Spatial
intelligence test instruments will test for validity, reliability and different. The test
format is designed using geographic spatial intelligence references. Data analysis
through homogeneity, normality and hypothesis testing using the t-test. Hypothesis
testing results show that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted, which is indicated by
the results of tcount=1.7108> ttable 0.492 with a significance level of 5%. This
research concludes that outdoor learning models can improve students' spatial
intelligence and can increase their intelligence specifically in geography learning.
Keywords:
spatial intelligence, outdoor learning, education, learning process
To cite this article:
Amaluddin, L.O., Rahmat., Surdin., Ramadhan, M. I., Hidayat, D. N., Sejati,
A. E., Purwana, I. G., & Fayanto, S. (2019). The Effectiveness of Outdoor
Learning in Improving Spatial Intelligence. Journal for the Education of Gifted
Young Scientists, 7(3), 717-730. DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.17478/jegys.613987
1
Department of Geography Education University of Halu Oleo, E-mail: laode.amaluddin@uho.ac.id.
2
Department of Mathematic Education University of Halu Oleo, E-mail: rahmat_lison@uho.ac.id.
3
Department of Geography Education University of Halu Oleo, E-mail: bahisurdin@gmail.com.
4
Department of Geography Education Manado State University, E-mail: mr.ramadhan179@gmail.com.
5
Department of Geography Education State University of Surabaya, E-mail: desi_nurhy12@yahoo.com.
6
Department of Geography Education Sembilanbelas November University of Kolaka, E-mail:
andriest@usn.ac.id.
7
Department of Physics Education Sembilanbelas November University of Kolaka, E-mail:
purwana_physics@usn.ac.id.
8
Department of Master in Physics Education University of Ahmad Dahlan, E-mail: suritnofayanto@gmail.com.
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 718
Introduction
In human perception, the view of visual objects is very crucial. It can be a
separator and differentiator of information received. Spatial intelligence is a
process of perception in translating, selecting and organising information received,
present or that observed. For which the whole thing takes place in activities of
observation or direct observation of objective reality. A study in the outdoor can
construct the person no stranger with their surrounding environment and can
direct person attitude for environmental awareness and its sustainability (Vera,
2012). Özdilek et al. (2011) explained that outdoor learning in environmental
education can increase knowledge and positive attitude toward the environment.
Spatial Intelligence has a central role in the scientific realm (Hegarty, 2009). For
example, geography such as the activity of interacting the processes that form the
geological formation or structure that forms the mountains. In addition, for
instance, in outdoor activities that use maps, maps are a picture of the earth's
surface, which poured in the data field or two dimensions. The user must be able
to visualize the image of the object and associate it with the appearance of the
object in the area. Spatial thinking or spatial understanding involves the ability to
think in shaping and organizing spatial objects or spatial processes that occur.
Outdoor learning is a teaching and learning activity that directed towards
students facing the object of study. In some developing countries, it experiences
symptoms of reducing a time for students to study outside the classroom
(Rickinson, 2004). The tradition of learning and curriculum design does not pay
attention to learning activities outside the school and is limited to extracurricular
activities, in contrast to developed countries that have paid attention to outdoor
learning activities even early on.
The approach to outdoor learning is the value and effectiveness as well as the
possibility to combine theoretical knowledge with experience-based learning. It is
because the information is not only derived from the class but more than that, this
model builds students' knowledge obtained from various sources (Salam et al.,
2019).
Outdoor learning can improve learning success, especially in the cognitive
domain that has a formula (Bloom, 1976) and perfected by (Krathwohl, 2002).
Learning is a linking process between current information and relevant concepts
in-person cognitive structure (Dahar, 2011). Next, Gunarsa (1982) meaningful
learning, there is an interactional relation between concept and necessary
structurally development. Then Arsyad (1997), direct observations provide a
complete impression and meaningful on existing information and ideas.
The approach to learning outside the classroom uses outdoor settings as a
means. The learning process using nature as a medium seen as very useful in
knowledge management, where everyone will be able to feel, seeing can even do it
themselves so that the transfer of knowledge based on experience in nature can be
719 Amaluddin et al.,
felt, translated, developed based on capabilities. The selection of outside-class
learning activities refers to the experience cone of Dale, as proposed by Molenda et
al., (1996) Direct Purposeful Experience is the experience of students getting a
result of their activities. Students experience, feel for themselves, everything related
to achieving goals. Students relate directly to the object to study without using an
intermediary because students get directly into concrete so that it will have high
accuracy.
The approach to outdoor learning uses outdoor settings as a means. The
learning process using nature as a medium seen as very useful in knowledge
management, where each person will be able to feel, see directly even can do it
themselves so that the transfer of knowledge based on experience in nature can
felt, translated, developed based on the capabilities possessed. This approach
sharpens physical activity and social children where children will do more activities
that indirectly involve cooperation between friends and the ability to create. This
activity will bring up the process of communication, problem-solving, creativity,
decision making, mutual understanding and respect for differences (Husamah,
2013). Intelligence Spatial-Visual is an ability to capture the world of visual space
appropriately, as possessed by a decorator and architect. Included in this
intelligence is the ability to recognize shapes and objects appropriately, make
changes in the shape of objects in mind and recognize these changes, describe a
thing/object in mind and change it in original form and reveal data in a graph
(Suparno, 2004).
In fact, only several students and a small number of postgraduate students
have the opportunity to develop these skills at a satisfactory level. Spatial
intelligence means one of the intelligence that supports one to visualize
information and synthesize data and concepts into visual or image metrics
(Suprapto et al., 2018). Students who are in the realm of thinking are already in
analytical thinking ability; it is still often found that there are difficulties in
identifying objects, differentiating and processing information related to geosphere
phenomena. It based on the process of receiving geosphere information in the
form of indirect visualization through the learning media used. Ratnasari et al.
(2018) suggested that teachers have not used innovative learning models and the
learning media used are still not varied; therefore, learning tends to be annoying for
some students. It caused by the lack of processing multiple intelligences in student
learning.
In addition, there is an assumption that most students, especially in the
geography education environment, have not yet built up a perfect spatial
understanding because the help of direct learning activities is difficult to provide.
Geography is an educational discipline that indicates the relationship between
humans and exploits space with better representation as diagrams and maps,
photographs (Utami and Zain, 2018). It is essential to understand because
geography concerned in the process of improving spatial intelligence because
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 720
geography is a science that combines physical aspects and social aspects of the
earth's surface are spatially (Urfan et al., 2018). Next, according to Sumarmi (2012),
one of geography study object is about earth surface and also all processes that
relation between place and the human interaction. The outdoor learning process
can provide students with direct experience and can make lessons more concrete
or real (Prasetya, 2014). Meanwhile, Mariana (2005) argues that outdoor study can
help in the overall students development, and there are physical-motoric, socio-
emotional, cultural, and intellectual.
In this encourages researchers to design research related to how spatial
intelligence enhanced through direct learning activities outside the classroom. The
purpose of this study is expected to be able to provide learning concepts for
improving spatial intelligence and scientific understanding of geography education
students. Spatial intelligence is a primary tool that must be possessed by geography
students to identify geosphere phenomena, while outside-class learning is
considered sufficient for geographic, scientific knowledge and understanding in the
form of spatial intelligence.
Method
This research is a pre-experimental study carried out on the department of
Geography Education, University of Halu Oleo. The sample was several students
who purposively selected with specific considerations of 25 people. This research
includes three stages, namely the research preparation stage, the research phase,
and the final stage of the study. The research preparation stage is as follows:
Firstly, the preparation of instruments and media activities for participants
(research samples): formed a team tasked with organizing camp activities. Other
activities, location determination and survey. Location criteria are the availability of
geosphere phenomena that can use as a material as part of research treatments or
treatments.
Secondly, the preparation of research instruments in the form of visual-spatial
category intelligence test devices. Thirdly, Judgment test instrument to the expert
team of the department of psychology education, Halu Oleo University. Fourthly,
test the test instrument
The data collection tool used is a test instrument that contains questions about
spatial intelligence that designed to source from geographic teaching material or
content. Test instruments have passed the validity test using the Pearson product-
moment correlation formula with a very low validity level-enough. The low validity
of the questions expected that there are no guidelines in making the question of
spatial intelligence using geographic material sources. After testing the validity, the
reliability test using Cronbach alpha formula, the results of the instrument
reliability category in the category is sufficient (0.405). The whole process of data
analysis uses statistical tests, has passed the homogeneity test, normality is then
carried out hypothesis testing using the t-test test formula.
721 Amaluddin et al.,
Result and Discussion
Data from the test results of spatial geography intelligence students are presented
in the form of data descriptions of each variable as follows: Spatial intelligence pre-
test learning results showed a mean of 49.64, a minimum value of 25, a maximum
value of 85, with a standard deviation of 17.387. While the results of the post-test
in the table show the mean of 74.80, the minimum score is 50, the maximum score
is 90, with a standard deviation of 12.778. The following are the results of the post-
test in the form of a descriptive statistic in Table 1:
Table 1.
Statistical descriptives
Treatment
Mean
SD
Standar error
Pre-test
49.6400
17.38745
3.44749
Post-test
74.8000
12.78671
2.55734
Figure 1.
Improving Graph of Spatial Intelligence in Test Results
Based on the calculated results, it is known that the value of tcount = 0.492 while
the value of ttable=1.708 then H0 is rejected, thus there are differences in the results
of tests of geography education students in increasing spatial intelligence through
non-classroom learning. From the results of the ANOVA test, it was seen that
significant value (p-value) of 0.000 means> 0.05, this indicates that the decision
taken is to accept H1, which means that there are differences in the average value
of pre-test and post-test. Increased interpersonal intelligence of students is
characterized by an improvement that occurs in every aspect of interpersonal
intelligence assessment. In this demonstrates outdoor learning model can improve
the spatial intelligence of students.
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 722
Table 2.
The Result of ANOVA Test
Sum of squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig
Between Groups
7912.820
1
7912.820
33.973
.00
Within Groups
111179.760
48
232/912
Table 3.
Results of the Study
Result
Criteria
Interpretation
tcount= 0,492
tcount> ttable
(1,708 significant level 5%)
Hypothesis accepted
From the results of the study (see Table 2 and Table 3) on the group of
geography education students who included in the learning activities outdoor
classroom and given spatial intelligence test instruments. In general, showed an
increase in test results marked an increase in spatial intelligence. Seen from the
results of the analysis are shown in Table 2 and Table 3 that there is significant
learning in outdoor learning outcomes with value tcount = 0,492 < ttable = 1,708.
This result is in line with Alirman et al., (2019) suggests that in the learning
process, there is an influence of spatial thinking understanding on student
geography learning outcomes. Meanwhile, Rohmadi, 2018; Yani et al., 2018 said
there is a positive and significant correlation between spatial intelligence with the
capability to read technical images with a correlation coefficient of 0.371.
Sirih et al., (2019) argues that spatial intelligence is very influential on results,
especially on student learning outcomes. Next, Sirih et al., (2019) use two forms of
learning models to see differences in students' spatial intelligence. The results
explained that there are significant results obtained by interpreting the spatial
intelligence of students. Those who use the visual-spatial intelligence area can be
said to learn permanently, describe in detail the information and gain the skills.
This expression supported from Table 1 that the results of the study results of the
test scores before the outdoor learning activities on the test instrument showed the
results of 49.64 and the results of the tests after outdoor learning showed a result
of 74.80. Several factors influence the results of this study, namely the criteria for
the instrument and the process of outdoor learning. Based on the different test the
average test results before (pre-test) outdoor learning activities amounted to 49.64,
and the results of the test after (post-test) of 74.80 showed that outdoor learning
activities were higher and had increased. It is because visual-spatial intelligence,
students provided with mind mapping projects, demonstrations, card games and
crosswords, so students are required to think and construct their knowledge into
an organized pattern (Pratiwi et al., 2018).
The overall results of the study have several analysis results related to the
research process as follows: First, outdoor learning activities affect the way of
sampling, Use purposive sampling technique because not all students who selected
723 Amaluddin et al.,
as samples are willing to participate in camping activities or forms of outdoor
learning. So the sample of this study is a group of 25 students who are willing to
take part in activities outdoor learning. According to Vera (2012), the outdoor
study makes student learning activities more comprehensive and active because the
matter can be done by group working. According to Sumarmi (2012), the number
of members in each group must be considered to determine the effectiveness of
the data that should be collected.
Second, the low average test results before the outdoor learning activities in the
student group are because the teaching material in the lecture is not contextual,
besides students often do not know the empirical form of material content or
which is often exemplified in the lectures taught. The content of the material
taught in the form of conventional learning is not associated with material objects
that are in the closest environment of students, also influencing the understanding
of the test program questions used. The low results of these tests underlie the
formulation of the content of learning activities outdoor with a good plan.
According to Bilton (2010), without planning can make field observation not better
than learning in the classroom.
Third, Based on the instrument validity test, shows the results of validity with a
very low to a quite valid category. The low factor of instrument validity is assumed
by the composition of test questions (instruments) to measure spatial intelligence
related to geographic science that has never formulated before. Fourth, Outdoor
learning that used as a model in research is effective in increasing spatial
intelligence but is not efficient in financing. Meanwhile, according to Winarti et al.,
2019 argues that multiple intelligence includes spatial intelligence is an indicator
that needs to be taken into account in the learning process. According to him
(Winarti et al., 2019) multiple intelligences which there are aspects of spatial
intelligence is a teaching strategy that is oriented towards academic ability into
intelligence-oriented and focus on the potential of each student. This opinion is in
line with the opinion Prasetya (2014), one of weakness in the free study method is
financed to the object. According to Suprapto et al., (2018), visuospatial based
learning can improve student’s spatial intelligence. According to Johan et al. (2018),
visualisation can improve prospective physics teacher in earth science.
Learning effectiveness primarily determined by the planning of activities that
can describe follows:
a) Determination of a suitable location between content and objects. Associating
class material content in learning activities outdoor classroom is the first thing
that must be identified by researchers in outdoor learning activities from the
process of determining between teaching content and the availability of objects
in the field. In the scope of geographic science, the distribution of formal
geographic objects includes the Biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere,
and the lithosphere. These four aspects interpreted in various studies of lecture
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 724
material. According to Paisley et al. (2008), the outdoor study creates student
knowledge about the environment well.
b) Each course has an element of practice and then chose what practices
correspond to conditions in the field. The field requirements or location must
include at least four practical activities from some lecture material that can be
applied to that location. In this study determined the practice material based
on location suitability can be seen in the appendix of the activity. In summary,
the location of the activity must be observed, measured and observed.
According to Johnson (1990), learning willing to become high when a student
can make free and active throughout learning. According to Tuula (2013),
outdoor make active student participation in a learning activity, so they more
understand about student activity.
c) Selection of material and practice outside the classrooms. The next step in the
preparation of learning activities outside the classroom is the selection of
practice material and the arrangement of practical activities. The time aspect
that becomes a benchmark, because the duration of each practice must be able
to accommodate the involvement of participants in this case students to be
able to engage in activities. In the selection of practice, content pays attention
to aspects of time and duration. For example, in this research activity, the
night is filled with observations of celestial bodies and morning sketches of
landscapes. According to Thomas (2005), in the student report, there is data
connected with collecting criteria what previously planning.
d) Compilation of practice guide modules. In order to ensure effectiveness, the
material is arranged more concise and practical, containing explanations and
guidelines for work steps. An explanation assists in understanding related
material from the lecturer or as the filler of the material, and then the work
step guide is made in the form of syntax. Guides, besides containing good
explanations, also contain pictures of directives. According to Nugroho (2013),
engaging physically and mental emotionally encourages willingness, ability,
high curiosity, and as a driver for improving quality and learning success.
e) Technical plan for activities. After knowing the location, materials and
modules, the following steps are the preparation of the plan for carrying out
the activities. At this stage, researchers compile a sequence of material
activities and forms of work. The form of work preferred in groups according
to field management capabilities. Ensure that there is no free time that does
not contain content or pause other than resting time. The more content you
want to practice in the activity, the more time you use, the preparation of the
activity plan ensures that the entire material can be distributed evenly
throughout the learning activities. According to Brown (2012), outdoor
learning can make a student more understand about location concept include
physic and human activity in the location where they visit. According to Dolan
725 Amaluddin et al.,
(2016), outdoor study and primary geography discipline collaborate, especially
about spatial.
In addition, in this study using spatial intelligence in outdoor learning practices
place in two forms which students are told to draw and represent. It was done to
train students in the ability to create a symbol that can recognise from the current
object, such as people, plants, animals or houses. As well as the knowledge to
coordinate those elements are spatially into one section. The next step of
exploration which proposes to elaborate the ability to reflect design, and the use of
artistic expression, flexibility, creativity and discovery, and finally express emotions
and create specific effects. Therefore, students who study using the outdoor
learning model significantly get better grades. In this because the activities in the
learning process based on outdoor learning include skills that preformed in the
affective, cognitive and psychomotor aspects of students. This condition is
possibly related to the use of individual intelligence that enables success in the
learning process.
Conclusion
Based on the results of data analysis and hypothesis testing as well as increasing
spatial intelligence through the outdoor learning for geography education students,
conclusions can be drawn; There are differences in the results of spatial intelligence
tests of geography education students before and after participating in outdoor
learning activities. In this indicated by the results of the t-test obtained by the
results of tcount tcount = 0.492 while the value of ttable = 1.708 with the level of sig α
<= 0.05. Thus, it can conclude that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Joseph et al.
(2017) stated that spatial intelligence plays an essential role in improving students'
intelligence. It is evident with the difference in significance values in the analysis
results. Apart from all that, spatial intelligence is instrumental in supporting the
process of learning and training (Hegarty, 2010). In this because calculating the
spatial intelligence of students able to arrange and make patterns or reconstruct
their understanding in the form of cognitive patterns found in their minds. In a
study conducted by Yazici (2017) that students had good performance in
answering questions and had a significant correlation to students' positive
understanding. Students with local cognitive styles have higher spatial skills than
students with global styles.
Based on the average test results before and after outdoor learning activities on
the test results of spatial intelligence instruments. Where the results of the student
group test after participating in the outdoor learning activities are higher than the
results of the test before outdoor learning. That is, with an average value of 49.64
on the test results before and an average of 74.80 in the test results after the
outdoor learning activities. Salam et al. (2019) reported that there were interactions
learning model application to spatial intelligence of students. Salam et al.(2019)
reviewing the mathematics learning process the application of learning models
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 726
affects learning outcomes by paying attention to students who have high
intelligence and low intelligence. Whereas Ferdiansyah et al. (2019) reported in his
study that integrated geography learning was carried out to provide spatial
intelligence to students, so they could be able to complete the geography approach.
Therefore, outdoor learning activities are effective in increasing the spatial
intelligence of geography education students, and this can be seen from the
increase in the test results of spatial intelligence instruments.
Acknowledgements
The author would like thanks to Lembaga Pengembangan dan Pengabdian
Masyarakat University of Halu Oleo Indonesia for giving research grant university
funding DIPA 2018, we are very grateful to reviewers who have given suggestions.
Biodata of the Authors
La Ode Amaluddin, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Mawasangka. He is a lecture at Department Geography
Education University of Halu Oleo, Kendari, Indonesia. His
research is focused on Education especially in Geography and
Manajement Education.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, University of
Halu Oleo
Email: laode.amaluddin@uho.ac.id, Phone: (+62)81341882454 Orcid Number:
0000-0002-6104-1522
Rahmat, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at Sidodadi. He is a lecture
at Department Mathematics Education, University of Halu Oleo,
Kendari, Indonesia. His research is focused on Education
especially in Mathematics Education.
Affiliation: Department Mathematics Education, University of
Halu Oleo
Email: rahmat_lison@uho.ac.id, Phone: (+62)85241810094,
Orcid Number: 0000-0001-8421-4417
Drs. Surdin, M.Pd. He was born at Buton. He is a lecture at
Department Geography Education, University of Halu Oleo,
Kendari, Indonesia. His research is focused on Population
and Environment Education.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, University of
Halu Oleo, Email: bahisurdin@gmail.com,
Phone: (+62)85241711165,
Orcid Number: 0000-0002-6771-3393
727 Amaluddin et al.,
Muhamad Isa Ramadhan, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Raha, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. He is a lecture at
Department Geography Education, Manado State University,
Indonesia. His research is focused on Human Geography and
Outdoor Learning.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, Manado State
University,
Email:mr.ramadhan179@gmail.com, Phone:(+62)82316561626 Orcid Number:
0000-0002-3080-0469
Andri Estining Sejati, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Lamongan. He is a lecture at Department Geography
Education, Sembilanbelas November University of Kolaka,
Indonesia. His research is focused on Geography Education,
Physical Geography, Human Geography, and Geographic
Information System.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, Sembilanbelas
November Kolaka University, Email: andriest@usn.ac.id , Phone:
(+62)85230856074, Orcid Number: 0000-0003-2052-9094
Desi Nurul Hidayati, S.Pd., M.Pd. She was born at Kediri.
She is academition at Department Geography Education, State
University of Surabaya, Indonesia. Her research is focused on
Geography Education.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, University of
Surabaya, Email: desi_nurhy12@yahoo.com, Phone:
(+62)82337232387, Orcid Number: 0000-0003-3681-5213
I Gede Purwana Edi Saputra, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Lamoare, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. He is a lecture at
Department Physics Education, Sembilanbelas November
Kolaka University, Indonesia. His research is focused on Physics
Education, Existance Religion & Science.
Affiliation: Department Physics Education, Sembilanbelas
November Kolaka University
Email: purwana_physic@usn.ac.id, Phone: (+62)82394115055 Orcid Number:
0000-0003-3691-5213
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 728
Suritno Fayanto, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born in Waruruma
(Bau-Bau City). He is a Graduate student of master in physics
education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. His
research is focused on Physics Education, Multimedia Learning,
Education Technology, E-Learning.
Affiliation: Department of Master in Physics Education,
University of Ahmad Dahlan.
Email: suritnofayanto@gmail.com, Phone: (+62)82331373619
Orcid Number: 0000-0003-3969-2940
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In its third edition, Outdoor Learning in the Early Years is the complete guide to creating effective outdoor environments for young children’s learning. Comprehensively revised and updated throughout, this book covers every aspect of working outdoors in the early years and fully explains the importance of outdoor play to children’s development. Key topics covered include: how to manage and set up the outdoor area what children gain from being outside how to allow children to take managed risks making sense of work and play how outdoor provision helps children become self regulatory providing for both boys and girls in the outdoor environment research supporting the outdoor approach. A book for practitioners at every level of their career; each chapter includes discussions and questions for continuing development that can easily be incorporated into INSET as well as training within further or higher education. Outdoor Learning in the Early Years contains a multitude of ideas and activities for working outdoors in the early years and provides a framework within which professionals can analyse and develop their outdoor provision and environment. This book is essential reading for all EYFS and Key Stage 1 practitioners, and for trainee teachers, their tutors, and mentors.
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This research attempted to find whether spatial intelligence (without context) has a correlation to (contextual) spatial ability and affects geographic skills as crystallized ability (Gc). It employed the descriptive method with subjects including students at the primary, junior high, and senior high schools. The data were collected through two instruments, namely test and questionnaire. Data of test results were processed by tabulation technique and correlated for the scores of spatial intelligence, spatial ability, and geographic skills. The results show that spatial intelligence (Gf) tended to increase from the level of primary to junior high and to senior high school level, whereas spatial ability (Gc) and geographic skills (Geo-s) tended to decrease. Despite the decline, all three (Gf, Gc, and Geo-s) had the potentials for improvement. Thus, geography teachers are encouraged to participate in improving students’ spatial and geographic skills, so students can develop their potentials optimally for geographic skills and future career development.