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The Effectiveness of Outdoor Learning in Improving Spatial Intelligence

  • SMA TQ-Mu'adz Bin Jabal Kendari

Abstract and Figures

Spatial intelligence is essential for geography education students for identifying geosphere phenomena. This research to measure spatial intelligence and the effectiveness of the application of outdoor learning in geography education students. This research is a pre-experimental study with a pretest-posttest one group design. The form of field learning activities in the form of camps and a series of practical activities. Before the student activity will present a pre-test which has the same weight as the final test given the end of the activity. Data collection techniques use tests, as well as observations for conformity between design and action. Spatial intelligence test instruments will test for validity, reliability and different. The test format is designed using geographic spatial intelligence references. Data analysis through homogeneity, normality and hypothesis testing using the t-test. Hypothesis testing results show that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted, which is indicated by the results of tcount = 1.7108> ttable 0.492 with a significance level of 5%. Research conclusion there is student’s spatial intelligence increase through outdoor learning activities.
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Journal for the Education of Gifted Young
Scientists, 7(3), 717-730, September 2019
e-ISSN: 2149- 360X
Research Article
The Effectiveness of Outdoor Learning in Improving Spatial
Desi Nurul HIDAYAT5, Andri Estining SEJATI6, I Gede PURWANA7 & Suritno
Received: 7 July 2019 Accepted: 20 August 2019
Spatial intelligence is essential for geography education students for identifying
geosphere phenomena. The aim of research to measure spatial intelligence and the
effectiveness of the application of outdoor learning in geography education
students. It used a pre-experimental study with a pretest-posttest one group design.
The form of field learning activities in the form of camps and a series of practical
activities. Before the student activity will present a pre-test which has the same
weight as the final test given the end of the activity. Data collection techniques use
tests, as well as observations for conformity between design and action. Spatial
intelligence test instruments will test for validity, reliability and different. The test
format is designed using geographic spatial intelligence references. Data analysis
through homogeneity, normality and hypothesis testing using the t-test. Hypothesis
testing results show that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted, which is indicated by
the results of tcount=1.7108> ttable 0.492 with a significance level of 5%. This
research concludes that outdoor learning models can improve students' spatial
intelligence and can increase their intelligence specifically in geography learning.
spatial intelligence, outdoor learning, education, learning process
To cite this article:
Amaluddin, L.O., Rahmat., Surdin., Ramadhan, M. I., Hidayat, D. N., Sejati,
A. E., Purwana, I. G., & Fayanto, S. (2019). The Effectiveness of Outdoor
Learning in Improving Spatial Intelligence. Journal for the Education of Gifted
Young Scientists, 7(3), 717-730. DOI:
Department of Geography Education University of Halu Oleo, E-mail:
Department of Mathematic Education University of Halu Oleo, E-mail:
Department of Geography Education University of Halu Oleo, E-mail:
Department of Geography Education Manado State University, E-mail:
Department of Geography Education State University of Surabaya, E-mail:
Department of Geography Education Sembilanbelas November University of Kolaka, E-mail:
Department of Physics Education Sembilanbelas November University of Kolaka, E-mail:
Department of Master in Physics Education University of Ahmad Dahlan, E-mail:
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 718
In human perception, the view of visual objects is very crucial. It can be a
separator and differentiator of information received. Spatial intelligence is a
process of perception in translating, selecting and organising information received,
present or that observed. For which the whole thing takes place in activities of
observation or direct observation of objective reality. A study in the outdoor can
construct the person no stranger with their surrounding environment and can
direct person attitude for environmental awareness and its sustainability (Vera,
2012). Özdilek et al. (2011) explained that outdoor learning in environmental
education can increase knowledge and positive attitude toward the environment.
Spatial Intelligence has a central role in the scientific realm (Hegarty, 2009). For
example, geography such as the activity of interacting the processes that form the
geological formation or structure that forms the mountains. In addition, for
instance, in outdoor activities that use maps, maps are a picture of the earth's
surface, which poured in the data field or two dimensions. The user must be able
to visualize the image of the object and associate it with the appearance of the
object in the area. Spatial thinking or spatial understanding involves the ability to
think in shaping and organizing spatial objects or spatial processes that occur.
Outdoor learning is a teaching and learning activity that directed towards
students facing the object of study. In some developing countries, it experiences
symptoms of reducing a time for students to study outside the classroom
(Rickinson, 2004). The tradition of learning and curriculum design does not pay
attention to learning activities outside the school and is limited to extracurricular
activities, in contrast to developed countries that have paid attention to outdoor
learning activities even early on.
The approach to outdoor learning is the value and effectiveness as well as the
possibility to combine theoretical knowledge with experience-based learning. It is
because the information is not only derived from the class but more than that, this
model builds students' knowledge obtained from various sources (Salam et al.,
Outdoor learning can improve learning success, especially in the cognitive
domain that has a formula (Bloom, 1976) and perfected by (Krathwohl, 2002).
Learning is a linking process between current information and relevant concepts
in-person cognitive structure (Dahar, 2011). Next, Gunarsa (1982) meaningful
learning, there is an interactional relation between concept and necessary
structurally development. Then Arsyad (1997), direct observations provide a
complete impression and meaningful on existing information and ideas.
The approach to learning outside the classroom uses outdoor settings as a
means. The learning process using nature as a medium seen as very useful in
knowledge management, where everyone will be able to feel, seeing can even do it
themselves so that the transfer of knowledge based on experience in nature can be
719 Amaluddin et al.,
felt, translated, developed based on capabilities. The selection of outside-class
learning activities refers to the experience cone of Dale, as proposed by Molenda et
al., (1996) Direct Purposeful Experience is the experience of students getting a
result of their activities. Students experience, feel for themselves, everything related
to achieving goals. Students relate directly to the object to study without using an
intermediary because students get directly into concrete so that it will have high
The approach to outdoor learning uses outdoor settings as a means. The
learning process using nature as a medium seen as very useful in knowledge
management, where each person will be able to feel, see directly even can do it
themselves so that the transfer of knowledge based on experience in nature can
felt, translated, developed based on the capabilities possessed. This approach
sharpens physical activity and social children where children will do more activities
that indirectly involve cooperation between friends and the ability to create. This
activity will bring up the process of communication, problem-solving, creativity,
decision making, mutual understanding and respect for differences (Husamah,
2013). Intelligence Spatial-Visual is an ability to capture the world of visual space
appropriately, as possessed by a decorator and architect. Included in this
intelligence is the ability to recognize shapes and objects appropriately, make
changes in the shape of objects in mind and recognize these changes, describe a
thing/object in mind and change it in original form and reveal data in a graph
(Suparno, 2004).
In fact, only several students and a small number of postgraduate students
have the opportunity to develop these skills at a satisfactory level. Spatial
intelligence means one of the intelligence that supports one to visualize
information and synthesize data and concepts into visual or image metrics
(Suprapto et al., 2018). Students who are in the realm of thinking are already in
analytical thinking ability; it is still often found that there are difficulties in
identifying objects, differentiating and processing information related to geosphere
phenomena. It based on the process of receiving geosphere information in the
form of indirect visualization through the learning media used. Ratnasari et al.
(2018) suggested that teachers have not used innovative learning models and the
learning media used are still not varied; therefore, learning tends to be annoying for
some students. It caused by the lack of processing multiple intelligences in student
In addition, there is an assumption that most students, especially in the
geography education environment, have not yet built up a perfect spatial
understanding because the help of direct learning activities is difficult to provide.
Geography is an educational discipline that indicates the relationship between
humans and exploits space with better representation as diagrams and maps,
photographs (Utami and Zain, 2018). It is essential to understand because
geography concerned in the process of improving spatial intelligence because
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 720
geography is a science that combines physical aspects and social aspects of the
earth's surface are spatially (Urfan et al., 2018). Next, according to Sumarmi (2012),
one of geography study object is about earth surface and also all processes that
relation between place and the human interaction. The outdoor learning process
can provide students with direct experience and can make lessons more concrete
or real (Prasetya, 2014). Meanwhile, Mariana (2005) argues that outdoor study can
help in the overall students development, and there are physical-motoric, socio-
emotional, cultural, and intellectual.
In this encourages researchers to design research related to how spatial
intelligence enhanced through direct learning activities outside the classroom. The
purpose of this study is expected to be able to provide learning concepts for
improving spatial intelligence and scientific understanding of geography education
students. Spatial intelligence is a primary tool that must be possessed by geography
students to identify geosphere phenomena, while outside-class learning is
considered sufficient for geographic, scientific knowledge and understanding in the
form of spatial intelligence.
This research is a pre-experimental study carried out on the department of
Geography Education, University of Halu Oleo. The sample was several students
who purposively selected with specific considerations of 25 people. This research
includes three stages, namely the research preparation stage, the research phase,
and the final stage of the study. The research preparation stage is as follows:
Firstly, the preparation of instruments and media activities for participants
(research samples): formed a team tasked with organizing camp activities. Other
activities, location determination and survey. Location criteria are the availability of
geosphere phenomena that can use as a material as part of research treatments or
Secondly, the preparation of research instruments in the form of visual-spatial
category intelligence test devices. Thirdly, Judgment test instrument to the expert
team of the department of psychology education, Halu Oleo University. Fourthly,
test the test instrument
The data collection tool used is a test instrument that contains questions about
spatial intelligence that designed to source from geographic teaching material or
content. Test instruments have passed the validity test using the Pearson product-
moment correlation formula with a very low validity level-enough. The low validity
of the questions expected that there are no guidelines in making the question of
spatial intelligence using geographic material sources. After testing the validity, the
reliability test using Cronbach alpha formula, the results of the instrument
reliability category in the category is sufficient (0.405). The whole process of data
analysis uses statistical tests, has passed the homogeneity test, normality is then
carried out hypothesis testing using the t-test test formula.
721 Amaluddin et al.,
Result and Discussion
Data from the test results of spatial geography intelligence students are presented
in the form of data descriptions of each variable as follows: Spatial intelligence pre-
test learning results showed a mean of 49.64, a minimum value of 25, a maximum
value of 85, with a standard deviation of 17.387. While the results of the post-test
in the table show the mean of 74.80, the minimum score is 50, the maximum score
is 90, with a standard deviation of 12.778. The following are the results of the post-
test in the form of a descriptive statistic in Table 1:
Table 1.
Statistical descriptives
Standar error
Figure 1.
Improving Graph of Spatial Intelligence in Test Results
Based on the calculated results, it is known that the value of tcount = 0.492 while
the value of ttable=1.708 then H0 is rejected, thus there are differences in the results
of tests of geography education students in increasing spatial intelligence through
non-classroom learning. From the results of the ANOVA test, it was seen that
significant value (p-value) of 0.000 means> 0.05, this indicates that the decision
taken is to accept H1, which means that there are differences in the average value
of pre-test and post-test. Increased interpersonal intelligence of students is
characterized by an improvement that occurs in every aspect of interpersonal
intelligence assessment. In this demonstrates outdoor learning model can improve
the spatial intelligence of students.
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 722
Table 2.
The Result of ANOVA Test
Sum of squares
Mean Square
Between Groups
Within Groups
Table 3.
Results of the Study
tcount= 0,492
tcount> ttable
(1,708 significant level 5%)
Hypothesis accepted
From the results of the study (see Table 2 and Table 3) on the group of
geography education students who included in the learning activities outdoor
classroom and given spatial intelligence test instruments. In general, showed an
increase in test results marked an increase in spatial intelligence. Seen from the
results of the analysis are shown in Table 2 and Table 3 that there is significant
learning in outdoor learning outcomes with value tcount = 0,492 < ttable = 1,708.
This result is in line with Alirman et al., (2019) suggests that in the learning
process, there is an influence of spatial thinking understanding on student
geography learning outcomes. Meanwhile, Rohmadi, 2018; Yani et al., 2018 said
there is a positive and significant correlation between spatial intelligence with the
capability to read technical images with a correlation coefficient of 0.371.
Sirih et al., (2019) argues that spatial intelligence is very influential on results,
especially on student learning outcomes. Next, Sirih et al., (2019) use two forms of
learning models to see differences in students' spatial intelligence. The results
explained that there are significant results obtained by interpreting the spatial
intelligence of students. Those who use the visual-spatial intelligence area can be
said to learn permanently, describe in detail the information and gain the skills.
This expression supported from Table 1 that the results of the study results of the
test scores before the outdoor learning activities on the test instrument showed the
results of 49.64 and the results of the tests after outdoor learning showed a result
of 74.80. Several factors influence the results of this study, namely the criteria for
the instrument and the process of outdoor learning. Based on the different test the
average test results before (pre-test) outdoor learning activities amounted to 49.64,
and the results of the test after (post-test) of 74.80 showed that outdoor learning
activities were higher and had increased. It is because visual-spatial intelligence,
students provided with mind mapping projects, demonstrations, card games and
crosswords, so students are required to think and construct their knowledge into
an organized pattern (Pratiwi et al., 2018).
The overall results of the study have several analysis results related to the
research process as follows: First, outdoor learning activities affect the way of
sampling, Use purposive sampling technique because not all students who selected
723 Amaluddin et al.,
as samples are willing to participate in camping activities or forms of outdoor
learning. So the sample of this study is a group of 25 students who are willing to
take part in activities outdoor learning. According to Vera (2012), the outdoor
study makes student learning activities more comprehensive and active because the
matter can be done by group working. According to Sumarmi (2012), the number
of members in each group must be considered to determine the effectiveness of
the data that should be collected.
Second, the low average test results before the outdoor learning activities in the
student group are because the teaching material in the lecture is not contextual,
besides students often do not know the empirical form of material content or
which is often exemplified in the lectures taught. The content of the material
taught in the form of conventional learning is not associated with material objects
that are in the closest environment of students, also influencing the understanding
of the test program questions used. The low results of these tests underlie the
formulation of the content of learning activities outdoor with a good plan.
According to Bilton (2010), without planning can make field observation not better
than learning in the classroom.
Third, Based on the instrument validity test, shows the results of validity with a
very low to a quite valid category. The low factor of instrument validity is assumed
by the composition of test questions (instruments) to measure spatial intelligence
related to geographic science that has never formulated before. Fourth, Outdoor
learning that used as a model in research is effective in increasing spatial
intelligence but is not efficient in financing. Meanwhile, according to Winarti et al.,
2019 argues that multiple intelligence includes spatial intelligence is an indicator
that needs to be taken into account in the learning process. According to him
(Winarti et al., 2019) multiple intelligences which there are aspects of spatial
intelligence is a teaching strategy that is oriented towards academic ability into
intelligence-oriented and focus on the potential of each student. This opinion is in
line with the opinion Prasetya (2014), one of weakness in the free study method is
financed to the object. According to Suprapto et al., (2018), visuospatial based
learning can improve student’s spatial intelligence. According to Johan et al. (2018),
visualisation can improve prospective physics teacher in earth science.
Learning effectiveness primarily determined by the planning of activities that
can describe follows:
a) Determination of a suitable location between content and objects. Associating
class material content in learning activities outdoor classroom is the first thing
that must be identified by researchers in outdoor learning activities from the
process of determining between teaching content and the availability of objects
in the field. In the scope of geographic science, the distribution of formal
geographic objects includes the Biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere,
and the lithosphere. These four aspects interpreted in various studies of lecture
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 724
material. According to Paisley et al. (2008), the outdoor study creates student
knowledge about the environment well.
b) Each course has an element of practice and then chose what practices
correspond to conditions in the field. The field requirements or location must
include at least four practical activities from some lecture material that can be
applied to that location. In this study determined the practice material based
on location suitability can be seen in the appendix of the activity. In summary,
the location of the activity must be observed, measured and observed.
According to Johnson (1990), learning willing to become high when a student
can make free and active throughout learning. According to Tuula (2013),
outdoor make active student participation in a learning activity, so they more
understand about student activity.
c) Selection of material and practice outside the classrooms. The next step in the
preparation of learning activities outside the classroom is the selection of
practice material and the arrangement of practical activities. The time aspect
that becomes a benchmark, because the duration of each practice must be able
to accommodate the involvement of participants in this case students to be
able to engage in activities. In the selection of practice, content pays attention
to aspects of time and duration. For example, in this research activity, the
night is filled with observations of celestial bodies and morning sketches of
landscapes. According to Thomas (2005), in the student report, there is data
connected with collecting criteria what previously planning.
d) Compilation of practice guide modules. In order to ensure effectiveness, the
material is arranged more concise and practical, containing explanations and
guidelines for work steps. An explanation assists in understanding related
material from the lecturer or as the filler of the material, and then the work
step guide is made in the form of syntax. Guides, besides containing good
explanations, also contain pictures of directives. According to Nugroho (2013),
engaging physically and mental emotionally encourages willingness, ability,
high curiosity, and as a driver for improving quality and learning success.
e) Technical plan for activities. After knowing the location, materials and
modules, the following steps are the preparation of the plan for carrying out
the activities. At this stage, researchers compile a sequence of material
activities and forms of work. The form of work preferred in groups according
to field management capabilities. Ensure that there is no free time that does
not contain content or pause other than resting time. The more content you
want to practice in the activity, the more time you use, the preparation of the
activity plan ensures that the entire material can be distributed evenly
throughout the learning activities. According to Brown (2012), outdoor
learning can make a student more understand about location concept include
physic and human activity in the location where they visit. According to Dolan
725 Amaluddin et al.,
(2016), outdoor study and primary geography discipline collaborate, especially
about spatial.
In addition, in this study using spatial intelligence in outdoor learning practices
place in two forms which students are told to draw and represent. It was done to
train students in the ability to create a symbol that can recognise from the current
object, such as people, plants, animals or houses. As well as the knowledge to
coordinate those elements are spatially into one section. The next step of
exploration which proposes to elaborate the ability to reflect design, and the use of
artistic expression, flexibility, creativity and discovery, and finally express emotions
and create specific effects. Therefore, students who study using the outdoor
learning model significantly get better grades. In this because the activities in the
learning process based on outdoor learning include skills that preformed in the
affective, cognitive and psychomotor aspects of students. This condition is
possibly related to the use of individual intelligence that enables success in the
learning process.
Based on the results of data analysis and hypothesis testing as well as increasing
spatial intelligence through the outdoor learning for geography education students,
conclusions can be drawn; There are differences in the results of spatial intelligence
tests of geography education students before and after participating in outdoor
learning activities. In this indicated by the results of the t-test obtained by the
results of tcount tcount = 0.492 while the value of ttable = 1.708 with the level of sig α
<= 0.05. Thus, it can conclude that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Joseph et al.
(2017) stated that spatial intelligence plays an essential role in improving students'
intelligence. It is evident with the difference in significance values in the analysis
results. Apart from all that, spatial intelligence is instrumental in supporting the
process of learning and training (Hegarty, 2010). In this because calculating the
spatial intelligence of students able to arrange and make patterns or reconstruct
their understanding in the form of cognitive patterns found in their minds. In a
study conducted by Yazici (2017) that students had good performance in
answering questions and had a significant correlation to students' positive
understanding. Students with local cognitive styles have higher spatial skills than
students with global styles.
Based on the average test results before and after outdoor learning activities on
the test results of spatial intelligence instruments. Where the results of the student
group test after participating in the outdoor learning activities are higher than the
results of the test before outdoor learning. That is, with an average value of 49.64
on the test results before and an average of 74.80 in the test results after the
outdoor learning activities. Salam et al. (2019) reported that there were interactions
learning model application to spatial intelligence of students. Salam et al.(2019)
reviewing the mathematics learning process the application of learning models
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 726
affects learning outcomes by paying attention to students who have high
intelligence and low intelligence. Whereas Ferdiansyah et al. (2019) reported in his
study that integrated geography learning was carried out to provide spatial
intelligence to students, so they could be able to complete the geography approach.
Therefore, outdoor learning activities are effective in increasing the spatial
intelligence of geography education students, and this can be seen from the
increase in the test results of spatial intelligence instruments.
The author would like thanks to Lembaga Pengembangan dan Pengabdian
Masyarakat University of Halu Oleo Indonesia for giving research grant university
funding DIPA 2018, we are very grateful to reviewers who have given suggestions.
Biodata of the Authors
La Ode Amaluddin, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Mawasangka. He is a lecture at Department Geography
Education University of Halu Oleo, Kendari, Indonesia. His
research is focused on Education especially in Geography and
Manajement Education.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, University of
Halu Oleo
Email:, Phone: (+62)81341882454 Orcid Number:
Rahmat, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at Sidodadi. He is a lecture
at Department Mathematics Education, University of Halu Oleo,
Kendari, Indonesia. His research is focused on Education
especially in Mathematics Education.
Affiliation: Department Mathematics Education, University of
Halu Oleo
Email:, Phone: (+62)85241810094,
Orcid Number: 0000-0001-8421-4417
Drs. Surdin, M.Pd. He was born at Buton. He is a lecture at
Department Geography Education, University of Halu Oleo,
Kendari, Indonesia. His research is focused on Population
and Environment Education.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, University of
Halu Oleo, Email:,
Phone: (+62)85241711165,
Orcid Number: 0000-0002-6771-3393
727 Amaluddin et al.,
Muhamad Isa Ramadhan, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Raha, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. He is a lecture at
Department Geography Education, Manado State University,
Indonesia. His research is focused on Human Geography and
Outdoor Learning.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, Manado State
University,, Phone:(+62)82316561626 Orcid Number:
Andri Estining Sejati, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Lamongan. He is a lecture at Department Geography
Education, Sembilanbelas November University of Kolaka,
Indonesia. His research is focused on Geography Education,
Physical Geography, Human Geography, and Geographic
Information System.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, Sembilanbelas
November Kolaka University, Email: , Phone:
(+62)85230856074, Orcid Number: 0000-0003-2052-9094
Desi Nurul Hidayati, S.Pd., M.Pd. She was born at Kediri.
She is academition at Department Geography Education, State
University of Surabaya, Indonesia. Her research is focused on
Geography Education.
Affiliation: Department Geography Education, University of
Surabaya, Email:, Phone:
(+62)82337232387, Orcid Number: 0000-0003-3681-5213
I Gede Purwana Edi Saputra, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born at
Lamoare, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. He is a lecture at
Department Physics Education, Sembilanbelas November
Kolaka University, Indonesia. His research is focused on Physics
Education, Existance Religion & Science.
Affiliation: Department Physics Education, Sembilanbelas
November Kolaka University
Email:, Phone: (+62)82394115055 Orcid Number:
The effectiveness of outdoor learning 728
Suritno Fayanto, S.Pd., M.Pd. He was born in Waruruma
(Bau-Bau City). He is a Graduate student of master in physics
education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. His
research is focused on Physics Education, Multimedia Learning,
Education Technology, E-Learning.
Affiliation: Department of Master in Physics Education,
University of Ahmad Dahlan.
Email:, Phone: (+62)82331373619
Orcid Number: 0000-0003-3969-2940
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... Clements and Battista (1992) suggested that spatial thinking is essential to scientific thought. According to a report by the United States National Research Council, and spatial thinking skills (Peng & Sollervall, 2014;Rahmat et al., 2019;Seyhan, 2019). However, no research has been found that examined the effect of nature education on map literacy. ...
... Seyhan (2019) noted that out-of-school learning activities are effective in developing spatial perception abilities. Rahmat et al. (2019) also emphasised that out-of-school learning activities improve spatial intelligence. ...
This research aimed to identify the effect of nature education on map literacy skills and reflective thinking skill for problem-solving and explore the relationship between map literacy skills and reflective thinking skill for problem-solving. To this end, it used an exploratory sequential mixed methods design. The sample consisted of 36 students who were in the 7th grade. The data were collected using the Map Literacy Scale, the Reflective Thinking Skill Scale for Problem-Solving, and a semi-structured interview form, an activity book and student worksheets designed by the researchers. The quantitative results showed that the nature education provided statistically significantly improved students’ map literacy skills and reflective thinking skill for problem-solving and there was a strong correlation between the two skills. The interviews held with the participating students also support these findings. Based on these findings, it is recommended that teachers devote more time to nature education and curricula promote nature education.
... In another discourse, this study shows that there is compliance with the principle of the maxim of generosity, which is also indicated by efforts to benefit the speech partner with greater opportunities than self-benefit. According to Amaluddin et al. (2019) the communication in the group activity sharpens physical and social students. ...
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This research aims to investigate the implementation of politeness in the language of lecturers and students as well as students and students through online lectures at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka on the WhatsApp application. The research methodology used is descriptive qualitative with a focus on research, namely the fulfillment and violations of the principles of politeness in the language contained in online lecture conversations on WhatsApp. The data collection technique uses documentation or screenshots, and the data analysis technique uses content analysis methods with inductive procedures. The results indicate that the communication of lecturers to students and students to students based on the WhatsApp social network still pays attention to the principles of linguistic politeness in communication discourse. Based on the WhatsApp social network, students and lecturers can meet the principles of linguistic politeness, including maxim of wisdom, generosity, appreciation, simplicity, compatibility, and sympathy. However, there were also still some violations of the principle of politeness.
... Several institutions have tried to combine the two models unsuccessfully (Kukulska-hulme et al., 2011). The use of formal learning cannot solely equip students with all the knowledge and skills needed (Amaluddin et al., 2019;Lung-hsiang Wong, 2012). The learning experiences occur not only in the classroom but also outside, and therefore, linking the two is vital for creating smooth learning and academic success (L. ...
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Seamless Learning on the understanding of concepts and the ability to think critically. It compares Seamless Learning (SL) with conventional strategies using a quasi-experimental research design with a 2x2 factorial. The study involved a sample of 76 students who had enrolled in Islamic education courses in the first semester in the academic year of 2019/2020 of the State University of Malang, Indonesia. The samples were divided into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group consisted of 39 students who used the SL strategy, while the control group comprised 37 students using a conventional strategy. The study used a test instrument in the form of multiple-choice and essay, measuring the understanding of concepts and critical thinking abilities, respectively. Data then were analysed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), assisted by SPSS 23 for Windows. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups towards understanding concepts and critical thinking. The experimental groups had a better understanding of concepts and critical thinking than the control class. These results indicate that the learning process with the SL strategy proves that it can improve students' understanding of concepts and critical thinking. Key words: Seamless learning, Understanding of concepts, Critical thinking abilities, Project based learning.
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You are not born a good teacher, you become one. An effective strategy for learning to be a good teacher is to look at those who do it well. For this reason, educators who have obtained the highest grade, “excellent”, in the Docentia University Assessment Program can be good references. This book (in Spanish) compiles nineteen award-winning teacher practices in the field of Communication for readers to include in their pedagogical toolkit. An attempt has been made to make the practices reproducible. For this reason, the authors describe the procedure, duration, materials, evaluation, measurement of effectiveness and critical analysis of their excellent teaching practice. **Spanish version of the Abstract:** No se nace siendo un buen docente, se llega a serlo. Una estrategia eficaz para aprender a ser un buen docente es fijarse en aquellos que lo hacen bien. Por ello, educadores que han obtenido la nota más alta, “excelente”, en el Programa Docentia de evaluación universitaria pueden ser buenos referentes. Este libro recopila diecinueve prácticas de docentes premiados en el campo de la Comunicación para que los lectores las incluyan en su kit de herramientas pedagógicas. Se ha intentado que las prácticas sean reproducibles. Por ello, los autores cuentan el procedimiento, duración, materiales, evaluación, medición de la eficacia y análisis crítico de su práctica docente excelente.
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div align="center"> Abstract: This research aims to describe the influence of outdoor study-based guided inquiry on students' skills in compiling scientific papers and learning outcomes of geography. Using a quasi-experimental design, consisting of two classes, namely the IPS2 class (experiment) and IPS1 (control). The research subjects of class XI IPS at SMAN 1 Mawasangka Timur in the academic year 2020/2021. Selection of classes using purposive sampling technique. Data analysis using MANOVA. The results showed the sig. The Manova test is 0.000 < 0.05 for the ability to write geography scientific papers and 0.001 < 0.05 for learning outcomes, meaning that there is an influence of an outdoor study-based guided inquiry model on the skills of compiling scientific papers and student learning outcomes. Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan menguraikan pengaruh inkuiri terbimbing berbasis outdoor study pada keterampilan menyusun karya ilmiah dan hasil belajar geografi siswa. Menggunakan desain eksperimen semu, terdiri dua kelas, yakni kelas IPS2 (eksperimen) dan IPS1 (kontrol). Subjek penelitian siswa kelas XI IPS SMAN 1 Mawasangka Timur tahun pelajaran 2020/2021. Pemilihan kelas dengan teknik Purposive sampling . Analisis data menggunakan MANOVA. Hasil penelitian menunjukan nilai sig. uji Manova sebesar 0,000 < 0,05 untuk kemampuan menulis karya ilmiah geografi dan 0,001 < 0,05 untuk hasil belajar, artinya teradapat pengaruh model inkuiri terbimbing berbasis outdoor study pada keterampilan menyusun karya ilmiah dan hasil belajar geografi siswa. </div
Objectives. Although in recent years more and more scientific studies demonstrate the benefits of outdoor educational activities on the harmonious development of children, in Romania outdoor education is not practiced enough and even is less promoted. The aim of this study was, on the one hand to see to what extent and in what form teachers currently practice outdoor educational activities, and, on the other hand to study the expectations of students, teachers and parents to carry out more outdoor educational activities. Methods and sample. The research was carried out as a foreplay to a national campaign to promote outdoor education, initiated by three Romanian non-governmental organizations that encourage outdoor education and carry out educational activities outside. It was carried out in the pandemic period of the Coronavirus, therefore three online questionnaires were addressed to students, teachers and parents of students. A sample of 3770 questionnaires were completed by students in mainstream schools (from the 3nd to 12th grade), 1907 questionnaires completed by teachers, and 3644 questionnaires completed by parents. Results. In an overwhelming proportion, 94% of students and 95.5% of parents would like some of their school activities to take place outdoor, while only 2.1% of students said that they currently carry out educational activities in the open air. Conclusions. Half of the students (56.6%) wish for more than 3 hours of outdoor educational activities per week. In average, teachers would like to spend outdoors with students between 10-30 hours of teaching activity per year, and 44.7% of parents would like more than 60 teaching hours per year to take place outdoors. In Romania, several more studies are needed to show the importance and the educational value of outdoor educational activities and outdoor play for the holistic development of children. It is also imperative to amend legislation and official documents to ensure that children are properly educated and they play outdoors during the school year. Outdoor education and physical activity should become part of children’s daily routine and special attention should be to its potential for development.
Pressure to perform academically, financial stress, and accessibility of entering higher education institutions are common factors that impact the mental health of college students. Findings have suggested the mental health needs of college students worsened due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a conceptualized mental health counseling perspective for promoting campus wellness with a growth-oriented philosophy that emphasizes how to support college students through SAMHSA's wellness model. The SAMHSA wellness model addresses eight domains: emotional, environmental, intellectual, occupational, physical, social, financial, and spiritual. Each domain will be explored with practical strategies for faculty and higher education leaders to implement across a campus setting.
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Kemampuan berpikir spasial siswa perlu ditingkatkan dan diterapkan dalam proses pembelajaran salah satunya dengan cara memilih model pembelajaran yang menuntut keaktifan siswa. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh model pembelajaran EarthComm pada mata pelajaran geografi terhadap kemampuan berpikir spasial siswa SMA. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah Quasi Experimental dengan menerapkan post test only control group design. Sampel dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 66 orang siswa yang ditentukan secara acak. Teknik pengumpulan data diperoleh dari lembar tes kemampuan berpikir spasial yang telah diuji validitas dan reliabilitasnya. Soal tes dirancang sesuai indikator kemampuan berpikir spasial dan materi geografi. Analisis yang digunakan menggunakan uji Mann Whitney berbantuan SPSS 26.0 for Windows. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai signifikansi (.000) dan nilai rata-rata kelas eksperimen lebih besar (76.58) dibanding kelas kontrol (66.61). Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa model pembelajaran EarthComm pada mata pelajaran geografi berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir spasial siswa SMA. Model EarthComm melibatkan siswa belajar secara aktif dan langsung dalam melakukan penyelidikan ilmiah yang terbukti mampu merangsang kesadaran siswa untuk mengetahui permasalahan dasar tentang kondisi dan letak geografis suatu kawasan.
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The challenges of the 21st century and the advancement in technology in this era require continuous lifelong learning for social development and career advancement. This study explores pathways for adult learning to enhance the growth and development of people at work. The team of researchers used qualitative methods and the phenomenological approach to explore the avenues for adult learning. The findings revealed that the pathways for adult learning involve the use of experiential education, student internship programs, outdoor learning, and other approaches to lifelong adult learning. Moreover, adult learners should be guided and supported in order to learn how to self-regulate how they learn to achieve scholarship and career advancement while working. This study contributes to the literature by revealing the pathways for the eradication or reduction of illiteracy through adult learning.
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Geography education in the 21st century will require students to think critically to prepare themselves for the dynamic changes in the world in the future. It discusses the ability to think critically in orienting, analyzing, and solving problems with a spatial perspective is one of the fundamental abilities that must be supported by geography students. The spatial problem-based learning model (SPBL) has been developed by Silviariza & Handoyo (2020). This study aims to explore the spatial problem-based learning model of students' critical thinking skills. This study uses a quasi-experimental design with control and experimental groups. The study was conducted at the Department of Geography, State University of Malang. Participants in this study were students of Geography Education Study Program semester 3 with an average age range of 19 years. The control class offers A with 38 students consisting of 16 boys and 22 girls. While the experimental class offered K with 40 students consisting of 12 boys and 28 girls. Data collection is carried out after implementation with the SPBL model. Data obtained from the pretest and posttest activities in the control class and experiment with question sheets that were questioned on the matter of modification expertise from Ennis (2011). Furthermore, an independent sample t-test was conducted to analyze the data using SPSS for Windows version 23. The conclusion of the analysis shows a positive model of spatial problem based learning (SPBL) in Geography education to develop critical thinking skills. Thus, the results of this study can be used as valid data which proves that the Spatial Problem Based Learning Model as one of the learning models in Geography education and can be used by Geography teachers to improve students' critical thinking skills.
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Geography learning is meaningless if it is not followed by the development of students’ spatial thinking ability. Research aimed to 1) determine the effect of earthcomm learning and conventional learning on geography learning outcomes, 2) find out the effect of spatial thinking ability on geography learning outcomes, 3) find out the interaction between the application of earthcomm learning and spatial thinking ability on geography learning outcomes. Research used a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design. The research sample was taken from three high schools in Malang City, Indonesia. Geography learning outcomes data were obtained from paper-based test and spatial thinking ability data obtained from spatial thinking test instruments. Data were analyzed using Two Way ANOVA test using SPSS devices. The results of the research, 1) there is an effect of the application of learning to students’ geography learning outcomes, 2) there is an influence of the ability of spatial thinking on geography learning outcomes, 3) there is no interaction between the application of learning and spatial thinking on geography learning outcomes. Efforts to improve learning outcomes and spatial thinking ability are needed by students to face the challenges of global competition.
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Most all of earth and space science concepts are unobservable and require reasoning. Unobservable concepts have made prospective physics teachers found it hard to understand the concepts correctly. It needs visualization to help understand the concepts easily. The aim of this study was to enhance the mastery concept of earth science topic especially the earth atmosphere using interactive conceptual with visualizations and authentic data analysis with GrADS (Grid Analysis Display System). There were 23 prospective physics teachers in Bengkulu, Indonesia participated in this study. A convenience sampling technique was employed in this study. This study used pre-experimental, one group pretest-posttest design. The data were collected using pretest and posttest, questionnaires, and observation sheets. The pretest and posttest were analyzed quantitatively, while the questionnaires were analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that the prospective physics teachers’ concept mastery improved from no mastery to compete with the average normalized gain of 0.64 (medium category). 30.44% of the prospective physics teachers obtained the N-gain score in the high category and 69.56% obtained the N-gain score in the moderate category. This compilation gave them experience about the real condition of solar radiation in Indonesian atmosphere during their learning activity. It concluded that the earth science learning using interactive conceptual instruction supported by visualization and GrADS could enhance the students’ concept mastery.
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The study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of teaching strategy based on Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory to improve multiple intelligences and science process skills of junior high school students in Indonesia. The study used quasi experimental design and the effectiveness of the teaching strategy was evaluated by pretest-posttest-control-group design. The samples consisted of two schools selected by Stratified Random Sampling. The experimental group (n=63) was taught using the MI strategy while the control group (n=61) was taught using the traditional strategy. This study was conducted in 12 weeks. Data were obtained from multiple intelligences test, science process skills test, and observation sheets. The hypotheses of student multiple intelligences and science process skills were tested using Wilcoxon’s Signed Rank Test and ANOVA test. The results indicated that students who were instructed by using MI strategy improved on four specific types of multiple intelligences namely visual spatial, intrapersonal, kinesthetic, and musical intelligences. However, the interpersonal logic remains unchanged, while the mathematical logic decreases after treatment. Also, these showed an improvement of the science process skills, specifically in the questioning ability.
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This research intended to know how the spatial intelligence and students' achievement support the creativity of prospective student teachers. This study was conducted on the subject of plant anatomy with visuospatial-based learning. The visuospatial-based learning model used in this study is called the wimba learning model. The method of this research was a quantitative /quasi-experiment with the pre- and post-test group design. The population was fourth-semester students in four classes of Biology Education who took Plant Anatomy course in 2017 in a university situated a small town, West Java, Indonesia. The sample of this research was two classes picked using the purposive sampling regarding their homogenous sampling of having the same relative ability. The treatments for each class was that the use of the deductive and inductive approach. The variables measured were spatial intelligence, students’ achievement and creativity of TCIA (Test of Creative Imagery Abilities). The data processing adopting multiple correlation tests with SPSS was to see the relationship between the variables. The results showed that spatial intelligence and students’ achievement could support creativity at a moderate level, indicated by the value of Rdeductive = 0,451 and Rinductive = 0,474, Rinductive > Rdeductive, which meant that the inductive approach was better to support creativity. In conclusion, spatial intelligence and students’ achievement could support creativity, especially the inductive approach. The results of this study could be useful to improve the creativity of prospective biology teachers.
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This research was focused on investigating the effect of multiple intelligence -based learning as a learning approach towards students' concept mastery and interest in learning matter. The one-group pre-test - post-test design was used in this research towards a sample which was according to the suitable situation of the research sample, n = 13 students of the 7th grade in a private school in Bandar Seri Begawan. The students' concept mastery was measured using achievement test and given at the pre-test and post-test, meanwhile the students' interest level was measured using a Likert Scale for interest. Based on the analysis of the data, the result shows that the normalized gain was .61, which was considered as a medium improvement. in other words, students' concept mastery in matter increased after being taught using multiple intelligence-based learning. The Likert scale of interest shows that most students have a high interest in learning matter after being taught by multiple intelligence-based learning. Therefore, it is concluded that multiple intelligence – based learning helped in improving students' concept mastery and gain students' interest in learning matter.
In its third edition, Outdoor Learning in the Early Years is the complete guide to creating effective outdoor environments for young children’s learning. Comprehensively revised and updated throughout, this book covers every aspect of working outdoors in the early years and fully explains the importance of outdoor play to children’s development. Key topics covered include: how to manage and set up the outdoor area what children gain from being outside how to allow children to take managed risks making sense of work and play how outdoor provision helps children become self regulatory providing for both boys and girls in the outdoor environment research supporting the outdoor approach. A book for practitioners at every level of their career; each chapter includes discussions and questions for continuing development that can easily be incorporated into INSET as well as training within further or higher education. Outdoor Learning in the Early Years contains a multitude of ideas and activities for working outdoors in the early years and provides a framework within which professionals can analyse and develop their outdoor provision and environment. This book is essential reading for all EYFS and Key Stage 1 practitioners, and for trainee teachers, their tutors, and mentors.
This research attempted to find whether spatial intelligence (without context) has a correlation to (contextual) spatial ability and affects geographic skills as crystallized ability (Gc). It employed the descriptive method with subjects including students at the primary, junior high, and senior high schools. The data were collected through two instruments, namely test and questionnaire. Data of test results were processed by tabulation technique and correlated for the scores of spatial intelligence, spatial ability, and geographic skills. The results show that spatial intelligence (Gf) tended to increase from the level of primary to junior high and to senior high school level, whereas spatial ability (Gc) and geographic skills (Geo-s) tended to decrease. Despite the decline, all three (Gf, Gc, and Geo-s) had the potentials for improvement. Thus, geography teachers are encouraged to participate in improving students’ spatial and geographic skills, so students can develop their potentials optimally for geographic skills and future career development.