Article

Planning for Sustainable Stakeholder Engagement Based on the Assessment of Conflicting Interests in Projects

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  • FUM ------------------------ Civil Engineering ----- Construction Engineering and Management -------
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Abstract

The absence or lack of effective stakeholder engagement during project life cycle, especially at the earlier stages of planning and implementation often negatively impacts the expected performance of projects. The coupled consequences of the lack of contextual knowledge from the stakeholders with the lack of their support in the field necessitates effective stakeholder engagement. However, this integration faces challenges such as limitations of project resources and conflicting interests of the stakeholders. In this sense, project resources can be allocated based on the priorities of the fields of conflicts to facilitate stakeholder engagement of the projects. The goal of this paper is to provide a framework to enhance effectiveness of the stakeholder engagement in projects by systematically ranking the potential conflicts while combining the viewpoints of stakeholders and project management team. For this purpose, we draw on stakeholder theory, value-based management, matrix-based dependency modeling, and Total Quality Management to develop a stakeholder engagement framework while considering fuzzy inputs for reflecting the ambiguities at the project life cycle. The proposed approach is then applied to plan stakeholder engagement in case of a green building project in Iran. Practically, application of the proposed framework facilitates stakeholder engagement for project managers in line with sustainable goals through early assessment of the fields of potential conflicts of interests.

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... The extensive body of knowledge emphasises that SDGs must be achieved without compromising the rights and autonomy of local communities [6,7]. Many researchers, therefore, insist that the only truly just or fair outcome is the one that is achieved through the engagement of local communities in the decision-making processes [8,9]. While researchers argue that the local communities affected by a development initiative, and who stand to benefit the most, should be recognised as key stakeholders, many recent reports have highlighted the treatment of the affected community as a low-power stakeholder [5,[8][9][10]. ...
... Many researchers, therefore, insist that the only truly just or fair outcome is the one that is achieved through the engagement of local communities in the decision-making processes [8,9]. While researchers argue that the local communities affected by a development initiative, and who stand to benefit the most, should be recognised as key stakeholders, many recent reports have highlighted the treatment of the affected community as a low-power stakeholder [5,[8][9][10]. Low-power stakeholders have also been referred to as 'vulnerable' stakeholders for their low capacity to influence decision-making patterns that often result in their interests' manipulation [7]. ...
... Based on Freeman's [32] seminal work, Mitchell et al.'s [13] stakeholder attribute and salience framework is considered the most substantial contribution to the academic understanding of stakeholder types and salience [9,29,37]. Mitchell and colleagues' [13] stakeholder attribute and salience framework relies on three key assumptions: first, managers should pay attention to the stakeholders that are most salient to the achievement of their objectives; second, stakeholder salience is subjective and dependent upon managerial perception; and third, stakeholders and their salience can be determined through their possession of certain attributes [15,29]. They conceptualised three attributes-power, legitimacy, and urgency-to identify stakeholders and their salience. ...
Article
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Stakeholder engagement is a central tenet for understanding and solving sustainability challenges. Given the existing stakeholder knowledge base and the fact that practitioners mostly focus on the engagement of high-power and salience stakeholders, the interests of low-power and vulnerable stakeholders are often manipulated. Therefore, this research is devoted to the engagement of low-power and vulnerable stakeholders. Grounded in the stakeholder theory and the results of two illustrations, we demonstrate how the physical proximity of vulnerable stakeholders influences salience patterns in a multi-stakeholder engagement context. The contribution of the study is the conceptualisation of proximity as a stakeholder attribute, in addition to power, legitimacy, and urgency, to help managers identify and appropriately engage with vulnerable stakeholders. Thus, we extend stakeholder typologies by incorporating proximity into the existing attribute model. The proposed model addresses the paradoxical nature of stakeholder salience and engagement theories and furthers the sustainability agenda.
... Waligo et al. (2013) suggested that stakeholders ought to be active participants of the planning process and not mere recipients of sustainability planning initiatives. Bahadorestani et al. (2020) concluded that prioritising the interest of stakeholders in line with project values is paramount to proper stakeholder engagement (Ogunsanya et al., 2019). Therefore the implementation of stakeholder engagement is critical in balancing the environmental, social and economic conditions of projects (Rondinel-Oviedo and Schreier-Barreto, 2018). ...
... It is difficult to achieve set goal in a situation of conflict. Majority of conflicts in sustainable projects are as a result of high cost and unawareness of stakeholders on the life cycle benefits of these projects (Bahadorestani et al., 2020). Hence it is advisable for management teams to have adequate knowledge of stakeholder values and concerns to resolve conflicts. ...
... Identifying the right stakeholders can be a Hercules task especially in the case where engagement of the wrong stakeholder will negate the benefits of effective stakeholder engagement and harm project goals. It is further suggested that a database of competent and reliable stakeholders is developed for easy contact in future works (Bahadorestani et al., 2020). It has always been tough to balance diverse inputs from stakeholders. ...
Article
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Purpose: The absence of effective stakeholder engagement at the early planning and implementation stages impact projects negatively. However, the role of stakeholders in Sustainable Procurement (SP) is not well recognized and as such there is limited involvement of stakeholders in sustainable procurement of public works. This research examines the barriers to stakeholder engagement in sustainable procurement of public works. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey of 104 respondents from 8 procurement entities of tertiary institutions in Ghana was undertaken and validated with 7 procurement experts. After satisfying all the necessary tests of reliability of the survey instrument and sample size, the data was subjected to the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the critical barriers. Findings: The study’s results indicate that there are three cluster of barriers to stakeholder engagement in sustainable procurement of public works. They are Organisational structures and Knowledge driven factors, Attitudinal and Stakeholder Fatigue, and Relational and information sharing barriers. Implication: This study offers relevant data for policy makers, organisations and local communities in establishing controls against barriers to stakeholder engagement. Furthermore, this research presents policy makers with recommendations to enhance communication and organisational policies in enhancing stakeholder participation in Sustainable Procurement of Public (SPP) works in Ghana and other developing countries. Originality/Value: Although studies on sustainable procurement has increased with time, issues such as obstacles to stakeholder engagement in SP remain unexplored. Empirical data presented in this study bridges the gap that exists on the barriers of stakeholder engagement in SPP works in the Ghana Construction Industry.
... Stakeholders with high salience will be given additional attention, and, in the case of conflicting interests between stakeholders, the project values come first [60]. This approach can also be defined as "absolute attention to project values" [61], given that stakeholders are valued according to project contribution, and (2) the management for stakeholders approach, which allows managers to treat stakeholders based on their rights, and not exclusively by the values they contribute to the specific project. Identified also as an approach that gives "absolute attention to stakeholders' values" [61], it allows stakeholders to draw the attention of managers based on the interest they have in the project [62]. ...
... This approach can also be defined as "absolute attention to project values" [61], given that stakeholders are valued according to project contribution, and (2) the management for stakeholders approach, which allows managers to treat stakeholders based on their rights, and not exclusively by the values they contribute to the specific project. Identified also as an approach that gives "absolute attention to stakeholders' values" [61], it allows stakeholders to draw the attention of managers based on the interest they have in the project [62]. The management for stakeholders approach means that managers should welcome all stakeholders and treat them equally, whether they have the potential to harm or help the project [25]. ...
... However, there are examples of when poor stakeholder management leads to "conflicts and controversies about the implementation" of a specific project [6] (p. 321). To avoid negative impacts on the expected performance of a project, project managers should try to recognize stakeholder concerns and resolve any conflicting interests through the use of open dialogue [61]. To ensure the successfulness of a project, engagement with all relevant stakeholders is needed, while agile leaders must be prepared to listen, communicate, and interact [82][83][84]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyze the strategies that external stakeholders apply to influence sustainable projects. In order to investigate this phenomenon, we employed a qualitative case study approach considering the Serbian small hydro power plant project. For the purpose of this research, we developed a theoretical framework consisting of four types of different influence strategies, which were identified and then applied to our case. The results show that external stakeholders utilized all four strategies interchangeably, with the goal to influence the project and decision-makers. The case of the small hydro power plant project revealed certain relationships between influence strategies, as well as the intensity and direction of these relationships. It also revealed that external stakeholders were highly motivated by negative impacts on the environment. Five propositions were derived as a result of our research. This paper contributes not just to the project and stakeholder management literature but also to the practical knowledge of project managers. Understanding stakeholder actions and influence is essential to achieving project goals.
... Although the foregoing may seem theoretically simple, attaining such understanding under practical situations in megaprojects is exigent. Considering the involvement of numerous stakeholders and their multi-dimensional ambitions [7], the implementation of megaprojects is full of conflicting expectations and requisites among project participants [3,8,9]. This situation typically leads to opportunism, delay, cost overrun, and even project failure [10]. ...
... Moreover, the available research papers and references on shared vision for project stakeholders pertaining to megaprojects are limited. The majority of studies relevant to stakeholders in megaprojects focus on resolving conflicts among involved entities [8,11]. However, conflict resolution does not imply that stakeholders can achieve a ...
Article
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Shared vision is deemed a crucial success factor in defining complex relationships among various stakeholders and their multidimensional objectives in megaprojects. However, the current research development and literature on shared vision in megaprojects remain unclear. In particular, the prerequisites of shared vision among stakeholders are infrequently investigated. This work demonstrates that the value co-creation process is an essential prerequisite for promoting shared vision between clients and contractors in megaprojects. Furthermore, it aims to explore the influences of the value co-creation process on shared vision in such megaprojects. Two hundred and eighty-two valid questionnaires were collected from respondents involved in megaprojects in China. The responses were analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation model. The results indicate that two of the four interaction aspects of the value co-creation process, namely dialogue and access, can positively improve shared vision in megaprojects, whereas risk assessment and transparency cannot. However, from the individual perspectives of clients and contractors, only dialogue has a positive effect on the shared vision of clients with contractors. In contrast, access is the only variable that exerts a positive influence on the shared vision of contractors with clients. These findings reveal a unique causal relationship between the value co-creation process and shared vision in megaprojects. This affords new insight on improving cooperation between clients and contractors in megaprojects by synchronizing their perceptions and interactions via the value co-creation process.
... Stakeholder theory (McErlane et al., 2016;Bahadorestani et al., 2020); analysis of dynamic social networks based on interest groups (Tang et al., 2020); matrix-based dependency modelling and total quality management (Bahadorestani et al., 2020); stakeholder expectations theory (Hartmann and Hietbrink, 2013;Basten et al., 2016); leadership theories (Wu et al., 2016), models of excellence (Calvo-Mora et al., 2015). Table 8 connects the proposed core functions (PRM, EMP, MIS) with five features of emerging countries. ...
... Stakeholder theory (McErlane et al., 2016;Bahadorestani et al., 2020); analysis of dynamic social networks based on interest groups (Tang et al., 2020); matrix-based dependency modelling and total quality management (Bahadorestani et al., 2020); stakeholder expectations theory (Hartmann and Hietbrink, 2013;Basten et al., 2016); leadership theories (Wu et al., 2016), models of excellence (Calvo-Mora et al., 2015). Table 8 connects the proposed core functions (PRM, EMP, MIS) with five features of emerging countries. ...
... Recent studies have deemed stakeholder engagement crucial for the success of large societal projects [35,36], and stakeholder engagement is becoming an increasingly integral part of many projects, and within water resource management has become increasingly prevalent worldwide [37]. Due to the impact that public projects have on society, stakeholder engagement has been suggested as a required interaction for broadly societal transdisciplinary and multisectoral projects. ...
... Another indication of this is found within the literature on stakeholder engagement and large research projects on the paradox between an enforced academic push to the market rather than a stakeholder or end-user market demand-pull [44][45][46]. Very central to stakeholder engagement in research project literature are the value streams in a project [35,47]. This literature on value streams outlines three dominant approaches to stakeholder engagement, the first one being absolute attention to project values: here the project management team places more resources with the stakeholders, who are providing value to the project. ...
Article
Nitrogen (N) provides the agriculture industry with a wicked problem: it is an essential nutrient for efficient crop production, but N losses from agricultural production can harm both the stability of the environment and the health of humans. To limit this, targeted N regulation at the ID15 (1500 ha) level is slowly becoming a reality for farmers and authorities in Denmark. This paper explores the formulation of value propositions connected to developed technologies and concepts for retention mapping at the field level for more detailed targeted regulation. We explore all this through a comprehensive longitudinal ethnographic case study over a period of three years. We use the value proposition canvas to make sense of the viewpoints of the involved stakeholder groups. Our empirical setting is a large-scale research project in Denmark, a country that has high environmental goals regarding nitrogen loading. The publicly funded project involved a multitude of stakeholders, ranging from industry consultants, regulators, farmers and researchers from several disciplines. Important for our study is the fact that much of Denmark's regulation is based on a consensus-driven approach. Thus, it provides a compelling setting for exploring the creation of value propositions through multisector stakeholder engagement. Our findings indicate that, while there is a general movement towards targeted N regulation due to an advancement of knowledge, the practical side of its implementation is less straightforward. Here, stakeholder-formulated value propositions can facilitate this process, not only being connected to the measurement technology, but also relying on a link to a regulatory transformation.
... Recent studies have deemed stakeholder engagement crucial for the success of large societal projects [35,36], and stakeholder engagement is becoming an increasingly integral part of many projects, and within water resource management has become increasingly prevalent worldwide [37]. Due to the impact that public projects have on society, stakeholder engagement has been suggested as a required interaction for broadly societal transdisciplinary and multisectoral projects. ...
... Another indication of this is found within the literature on stakeholder engagement and large research projects on the paradox between an enforced academic push to the market rather than a stakeholder or end-user market demand-pull [44][45][46]. Very central to stakeholder engagement in research project literature are the value streams in a project [35,47]. This literature on value streams outlines three dominant approaches to stakeholder engagement, the first one being absolute attention to project values: here the project management team places more resources with the stakeholders, who are providing value to the project. ...
Article
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Better nitrogen management, technologies, and regulation are required to reduce nitrogen losses in the aquatic environment. New innovative technologies can support farmers in a more targeted planning of fertilizer application and crop management at the field level to increase the effect of measures when reducing nitrogen losses. However, if farmers do not perceive the need for such a concept, the demand (market pull) will be minimal, making the implementation of such a technology difficult. The lack of this market pull could, however, be counterbalanced by a market push from research or requirements from public sector stakeholders (regulators). Within this domain, the main objective of this paper was to study technological change over time and identify and understand the crucial stakeholder involvement using the Functions of Innovation Systems Approach. This article shows how stakeholders’ perceptions and participation evolved over a 10-year period. It examines the interplay between technology readiness and the perceived readiness and acceptance by affected stakeholders. We demonstrate how stakeholder engagement was crucial to ensure the development of the technologies by creating marketable options for their future implementation. A key dynamic that emerged in this process was the transition from a research push to a regulator pull. We demonstrate the fact that without the regulatory requirement linked to changes towards more targeting of measures, the technology would not, on its own, be a business case, although it would provide new knowledge, thus representing a gain for society. The specific findings can be used in countries where new technologies need to be developed, and where a link to the regulation can ensure the active use of the new technology and, therefore, make their implementation worthwhile.
... Two participants indicated that the inclusion of extra project parameters to measure and monitor for green building certification and an increase in project stakeholders e.g., the green building consultant introduces complexity during a project's delivery. [35] concur with this view and suggests appropriate stakeholder engagement to manage the complexity and additional requirements. Other research participants also highlight the increased amount of paperwork required during green building which requires additional skills and resources. ...
... Existen autores que se enfocan en solo un tipo de infraestructura y clasifican en el ciclo de vida de un proyecto los actores de interés como lo es [26]. En cambio, autores como [27,28] solo identifican actores de interés, no hacen alusión a un tipo de infraestructura específico y no los vinculan al ciclo de vida de un proyecto. ...
... The fuzzy approach of QFD has been applied in several fields [40], which perspective allows to cope with uncertainties associated with inputs while translating customer voice into engineering specifications [41]. The fuzzy QFD approach has been utilized, for example, in the enhancement of electric vehicles' market competitiveness [42], in risk assessment on multimodal transport network [43], in sustainable design of consumer electronics products [41], or in planning for sustainable stakeholder engagement based on the assessment of conflicting interests in projects by utilizing cascade of houses approach [44]. Furthermore, a method based on picture fuzzy linguistic sets and evaluation based on distance from average solution has been developed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of QFD in prioritizing engineering characteristics [45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Quality function deployment (QFD) has been a widely-acknowledged tool for translating customer requirements into quality product characteristics based on which product development strategies and focus areas are identified. However, the QFD method considers the correlation and effect between development parameters, but it is not directly implemented in the importance ranking of development actions. Therefore, the cross-relationships between development parameters and their impact on customer requirement satisfaction are often neglected. The primary objective of this study is to make decision-making more reliable by improving QFD with methods that optimize the selection of development parameters even under capacity or cost constraints and directly implement cross-relationships between development parameters and support the identification of interactions visually. Therefore, QFD is accessed from two approaches that proved efficient in operations research. 1) QFD is formulated as a network flow problem with two objectives: maximizing the benefits of satisfying customer needs using linear optimization or minimizing the total cost of actions while still meeting customer requirements using assignment of minimum cost flow approach. 2) QFD is represented as a hypergraph, which allows efficient representation of the interactions of the relationship and correlation matrix and the determination of essential factors based on centrality metrics. The applicability of the methods is demonstrated through an application study in developing a sustainable design of customer electronic products and highlights the improvements' contribution to different development strategies, such as linear optimization performed the best in maximizing customer requirements' satisfaction, assignment as minimum cost flow approach minimized the total cost, while the hypergraph-based representation identified the indirect interactions of development parameters and customer requirements.
... Two participants indicated that the inclusion of extra project parameters to measure and monitor for green building certification and an increase in project stakeholders e.g., the green building consultant introduces complexity during a project's delivery. [35] concur with this view and suggests appropriate stakeholder engagement to manage the complexity and additional requirements. Other research participants also highlight the increased amount of paperwork required during green building which requires additional skills and resources. ...
Article
Full-text available
The pursuit of sustainable development has resulted in a narrow focus on environmental sustainability in construction. In recent years, the concept of holistic sustainability in the construction sector has gained traction, with green-certified buildings being a major driver. However, studies have shown that green building certification does not necessarily embrace a holistic sustainability approach. Moreover, the misconceptualisation of sustainability has remained a barrier to the full adoption of sustainability principles in the industry. Under this premise, a study was carried out amongst practitioners on green-certified projects to explore their understanding of sustainability in construction. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with construction professionals, who were involved in green building certified projects. Findings reveal that although green building practitioners have a considerable understanding of the concept of sustainability, the certification process limits the operationalisation of the concept. The context of South Africa was used to generate results that are relevant to other contexts with similar settings and green certification tools. The implication of this study includes the need for further research on the operationalisation of social and economic sustainability concepts in green building certification.
... The definition "individuals, groups, or organizations who may affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project" proposed by PMI (2017a) is frequently cited. Simultaneously, the managerial implications of stakeholder management have also been examined in various studies (Bahadorestani et al., 2020;Klaus-Rosinska and Iwko, 2021;Mitchell and Agle, 1997). The findings have indicated that managing stakeholders and the associated risks could help reduce costs and improve management efficiency, thus playing a crucial role in PP success (Martinsuo and Geraldi, 2020). ...
Article
Purpose External stakeholder risks (ESRs) caused by unfavorable behaviors hinder the success of project portfolios (PPs). However, due to complex project dependency and numerous risk causality in PPs, assessing ESRs is difficult. This research aims to solve this problem by developing an ESR-PP two-layer fuzzy Bayesian network (FBN) model. Design/methodology/approach A two-layer FBN model for evaluating ESRs with risk causality and project dependency is proposed. The directed acyclic graph (DAG) of an ESR-PP network is first constructed, and the conditional probability tables (CPTs) of the two-layer network are further presented. Next, based on the fuzzy Bayesian network, key variables and the impact of ESRs are assessed and analyzed by using GeNIe2.3. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate and verify the application of the proposed model. Findings The proposed model is a useable and effective approach for ESR assessment while considering risk causality and project dependency in PPs. The impact of ESRs on PP can be calculated to determine whether to control risk, and the most critical and heavily contributing risks and project(s) in the developed model are identified based on this. Originality/value This study extends prior research on PP risk in terms of stakeholders. ESRs that have received limited attention in the past are explored from an interaction perspective in the PP domain. A new two-layer FBN model considering risk causality and project dependency is proposed, which can synthesize different dependencies between projects.
... Several studies have shown that sustainability goals agreed during the first phase of a project are often lost and left behind when information is passed on to the next phases in the project [9][10][11][12]. Knowledge transfer during development processes proves difficult due to the long life cycle of a project, the phased approach from planning to implementation, people involved in the project who leave and new people who come in and the different iterations to plans [13,14]. ...
Conference Paper
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The development of energy efficient buildings has been identified as a crucial part of the challenge to reach climate targets. Energy performance requirements are one of the most concrete and actionable parts of the sustainability program of urban development processes. However, after construction, there is often a lack of evaluation and follow-up of the energy performance requirements for the buildings, which limits the understanding of the state and progress of sustainable urban development processes and the ability to capture lessons learned related to energy performance. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into how the actual energy performance of buildings relates to the development process of an urban district that has been developed with a high sustainability profile. The urban district of Kvillebäcken (Gothenburg, Sweden) is used as a case study. The results of this paper contribute to a better understanding of the efficiency of the energy performance requirement as a tool during the urban development process, taking the actual energy performance of the buildings as a starting point.
... These tensions may arise as a result of discrepancies with respect to rational, emotional or spiritual knowledge or their associated capacities. The nature of these conflicts cannot be identified not approaches to their resolution cannot be explored without clear communication between the parties (Bahadorestani et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the concept of “practical wisdom” which may be defined as the ability to effectively manage one’s rational knowledge and to read and respond appropriately to the interplay of other people's emotions and one's own and their values. The aims of this study also are (1) to investigate the relationship between the spiritual, emotional and rational capacities which underpin practical wisdom and (2) to analyse the relationship between the practical wisdom co-created in and between individuals through these three capacities. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts a case study methodology by considering the experience provided by a group of hikers who organized a trip to cross the island of Gran Canarias and its natural parks. Findings This study proposes that the presence of spiritual, emotional or rational capacities can boost individual self-awareness, self-control and empathy, which can help workers in general and knowledge workers, in particular, more effectively tackle difficult situations, remain calm and collectively develop and enact appropriate responses to these situations. Therefore, results show that the concept of practical wisdom allows for the identification of both the nature of the capacities that contribute to the effective handling of difficult situations and them and the balance that needs to be developed between them. Practical implications For knowledge workers, the study provides a framework and an explanatory framework to help them understand how rational, spiritual and emotional capacities both interact and are operationalized to tackle difficult problems. Furthermore, it enables them to identify situations where success to consider such interactions, leads to develop and implement appropriate responses to such situations. Originality/value A proper balance of emotional, rational and spiritual capacities may enable people to have a more holistic vision of difficult situations, allowing the finding of appropriate solutions to complex problems (i.e. practical wisdom). This study contributes to strengthening knowledge workers' perception and understanding of the links between the knowledge stocks and knowledge flows that relate to a practical perspective of wisdom.
... It is paramount that project developers have a good understanding of these divergent views and the wide range of effects FPV could have on the interests and activities of the local community. This will allow for the development of context and user group-specific measures to mitigate social impacts, which is essential to enhance the short-term and longterm performance of renewable energy projects [47,48]. ...
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Floating photovoltaics (FPV) is emerging as a promising renewable energy concept in which solar panels are installed on floating infrastructure to enable the production of renewable energy on water. While the body of knowledge on technical, financial and environmental aspects is expanding steadily, so far the societal implications of FPV remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigate public attitudes to a FPV pilot project at the Oostvoornse lake, the Netherlands. We conducted interviews with stakeholders to explore how the local community with high interest and involvement in the lake perceives the pilot project. Thereupon, we conducted a field survey with recreational users of the lake and carried out a random forest regression analysis to examine what factors shape recreationists' support or opposition. Interview results show that the diversity of stakeholders and their diverging use of the Oostvoornse lake leads to a broad variety of concerns about how the pilot project could affect their activities and interests. Particularly the uncertainty on possible impacts due to the newness of FPV was a reason for stakeholders to take a reluctant stance toward the pilot. In contrast, our quantitative results show that recreationists were highly supportive of the project, mainly due to their positive attitudes toward local authorities and the broader societal benefits the pilot project is perceived to generate. Landscape alteration was identified to be by far the most important objection, which indicates that negative implications from a recreation perspective could be largely accommodated through appropriate siting decisions or other measures that mitigate visibility.
... Moreover, to ensure the success of a project, stakeholder engagement plays a key role in its development and implementation (Richmond et al., 2019;Bahadorestani et al., 2020). Hence, additional efforts should be made to raise the awareness of the associated stakeholders upstream, on the importance of a collaborative approach for the effective management and development of the future MPA of the TNP. ...
Article
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered as a cornerstone for the protection of the marine heritage and promotion of the integrated management approach. They are also areas conducive to the development of environmental education, scientific research and tourism activities. Underwater trails (UWTs) as ecotourism activities are very popular in MPAs, combining discovery and environmental education. The objective of this paper is to highlight and to provide a deeper understanding on how marine ecotourism activity may contribute to the implementation of an integrated management of an MPA by taking as a case study the implementation of UWTs in Taza National Park (TNP) in Algeria. For this purpose, the methodology concerns a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) based on interviews, survey and document analysis of the implementation process of the UWTs. The main results were grouped into five (5) themes: stakeholders’ engagement, management model of the UWT, capacity building, UWT as a management tool and legal framework. The obtained results have validated the hypothesis that these UWTs could contribute to the good governance of the future MPA, in particular by delegating their management to diving clubs, contributing to local stakeholders’ capacity building, and improving the communication between them. The evaluation of the participatory process, also, underlines the lack of effective stakeholder engagement and the importance of developing a strategy to assess their commitment throughout the process.
... In his book Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach, Freeman stated that "stakeholder refers to all individuals and groups that can influence the realization of organizational aims or be influenced by the process of the realization of organizational aims." Stakeholders participate in and support the operation and development of a business (Gyrd-Jones and Kornum, 2013), which in turn create value for them (Bahadorestani et al., 2020). As eWOM posters write reviews for businesses driven by certain incentives, they have an influence on the development and profitability of the company they are evaluating. ...
Article
Incentives are often used by businesses to motivate customers to post reviews of their products or services online. However, the impact of those incentives on customers who are on the receiving end of such electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) behaviors are rarely examined. This study explores the effects of incentive-driven eWOM on receivers’ trust (customer trust) utilizing norm conflict and stakeholder perspectives. The findings indicate that customers have less trust in incentive-driven eWOM than in organic eWOM, for two reasons. First, the sharing of eWOM follows social norms, whereas incentives fall under market norms. This creates a potential conflict of norms for the receivers of incentivized eWOM. Second, the offer and acceptance of incentives establish interest relevance between businesses and posters. The findings suggest that increasing the quality of eWOM and hiding interest relevance between posters and businesses by changing the incentive source can alleviate the conflict of norms and increase customer trust in those reviews. This study provides a theoretical basis and suggests practical strategies for businesses to actively manage their customers’ incentive-based eWOM behavior.
... Consistent with this thinking, Jones and Wicks (1999) classified stakeholder theory into two broad areas: the social science-based approach (instrumental and descriptive) and the ethics-based approach (normative) to differentiate materiality and value. However, scholars have questioned the practical implementation of stakeholder theory due to stakeholder conflicts, difficulty identifying stakeholders' influence for critical decisions, the incongruence of groups' bargaining power, and demonstrations of potential interests (Bahadorestani et al., 2020). Similarly, stakeholder theory ignores the interrelationships between stakeholders and society, the impact of networks and linkages between various actors and agencies, and the complexities associated with determining common goals (Key, 1999). ...
Article
This study examines the role of market orientation, privacy, and stakeholder theory in enhancing the effectiveness of current sustainability efforts for managing bushfire risks by proposing a novel conceptual framework entitled ‘Stakeholder Repositioning Strategy (SRS).’ Adopting a case study approach, we describe the SRS framework as a driving force behind shifting the Australian Indigenous community’s present position from a marginal (minimal effort) to a dominant position (key player) in bushfire mitigation. We build our framework based on the Johnson and Mendelow matrices and advocate for a sustainable solution utilizing Indigenous cultural burning practices to better manage bushfire crises, Australian ecology, communities, and the economy. The paper supports the need for Indigenous communities to proactively consult with government agencies to incorporate Indigenous knowledge into national bushfire management policies.
... Stanitsas et al. (2020) argued that future research needs to consider stakeholder involvement and participation issues in the project life cycle stages to enhance project sustainability. Bahadorestani et al. (2020) also emphasized the significance of effective stakeholder engagement during the project life cycle, especially at the earlier stages of planning and implementation. Lehtinen et al. (2019) suggested that future research studies need to develop a comprehensive understanding of project stakeholder-specific practices where firms benefit from stakeholder involvement in complex project settings. ...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between sustainable project management (SPM) and project success with the moderating effect of stakeholder engagement and team building on this relationship. A structured survey questionnaire technique was applied for data collection and 323 responses were received from project management professionals in Pakistan. The results revealed that SPM has a positive impact on project success. However, the effects of stakeholder engagement and team building were found insignificant. Accordingly, this paper contributes to SPM literature by demonstrating the relationship between SPM and project success in a developing world context. From a practical viewpoint, firms need to consider SPM from a holistic perspective by embracing and incorporating key sustainability aspects into various project life‐cycle stages. To this end, project managers not only need to promote stakeholder engagement and team‐building strategies, but also scrutinize all important project decisions from a sustainability lens to further enhance SPM outcomes and create a meaningful value proposition for each stakeholder group, which are increasingly recognized as critical issues for project success.
... However, if not done, it can put organisations in moral dilemmas for accountability. The study by Bahadorestani et al. (2020), which provided a link to using a theoretical framework based on stakeholder theory, confirms the significant role of stakeholders in assessing the project performance. However, the performance assessment lacks strategic and sustainable focus means they are more concerned with the short-term as stakeholders are not fully engaged. ...
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... "Planning is a value-laden activity" (Forester, 2013) that caters to diverse needs, capacities, and policy preferences (Sandercock, 2017). Each stakeholder involved in the planning process may have diverse policy preferences (sometimes even conflicted policy preferences) with different degrees of importance (Schwartz, 2012;Jahani and El-Gohary, 2012;Bahadorestani et al., 2020). Existing studies showed that stakeholders from IUSs had different priorities and preferences pertaining to urban development, hazard mitigation, social equity, and environmental conservation (Campbell, 1996;Taeby and Zhang, 2019). ...
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... Another tool to manage the quality of the projects is the 'Quality Function Deployment' (QFD); it is a systematic method to channel the entry of end-users in the development of products (Hernandez and Aspinwall 2007). Its objective is to develop a quality assurance method that integrates customer satisfaction into the design of a product or service before its manufacture (Bahadorestani et al. 2020). QFD generally includes four phases, and each phase is defined by a matrix in which the relationship between the components of the horizontal and vertical domains (rows and columns) is determined. ...
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A firm benefits mainly through the success of its projects; therefore, it is important to have the right project management that includes quality management measures. This work aims to examine the relationships between project management and quality management. First, the tools for project management and quality management are studied, and, second, the contents of research on quality management and project management are examined through the database Scopus. Similar features are checked in the quality and project management models. Specific variety is credited in quality research related to project management. Some gaps are found in the literature on quality management related to project management. The most important conclusions are pointed out.
... Bahadorestani, et al., (2020) have applied QFD model to design product requirements for planning and sustainable engagament of stakeholders by way of assessing their conflicts of interets. They have concluded that ultimate goal of designing customer requirements is to ensure sustainable development by creating integration between organizational requirements and stakholders' preferences (Bahadorestani, Naderpajouh, & Sadiq, 2020). It was also supported by (Haregot & Jilcha, 2019). ...
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... .Derakhshan et al. (2019) reviewed project governance literature to extract roles of stakeholders and relationships inside and outside of the organization(Derakhshan, Turner, & Mancini, 2019).Bahadorestani et al. (2019) provided a framework to elevate effectiveness of the stakeholder engagement in projects by ranking the potential conflicts of stakeholders and project management team (Bahadorestani, Naderpajouh, & Sadiq, Planning for sustainable stakeholder engagement based on the assessment of conflicting interests in projects , 2019).Yu et al. (2019) ...
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Automation and robotics has been regarded as a leading area of innovation in construction, for the betterment of the industry. Research has been spread out for decades, and new automation and robotics technologies continue to be developed for the general manufacturing industry as well as for the construction industry (Bock and Linner 2015a). In the meantime, the building sector has received increasing attention under the worldwide agenda for sustainable development, since buildings account for more than 30% of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and more than 40% of global energy consumptions (Unep 2009). Nevertheless, the development of sustainable buildings (SBs) has experienced problematic implementation on all levels [design, construction, operation, etc. (Pan and Ning 2014)]. Performance gaps, poor operation and management exist to impede the achievement of SBs, requiring advanced technologies and intelligent approaches (Goodier and Pan 2010). Construction automation and robotics has the potential to improve sustainability performance in terms of construction waste reduction, resource saving, workplace safety improvement, intelligent living environment, etc. Recently, the EU, for example, started to initiate and fund projects in which improvements in construction automation and prefabrication shall bring down cost for sustainable, highly energy-efficient components and buildings in order to foster their adoption in Europe in a large scale (BERTIM 2016; ZERO-PLUS 2016). Also, some construction companies already use advanced production technologies to reduce waste and resource consumption (Bock and Linner 2015a), and first approaches are on the way to use automation technology for controlled disassembly of buildings and urban-mining (Lee et al. 2015). However, in general, in the architecture and civil engineering filed, up to date most of the relevant research was focused on the adoption of new approaches and technologies in the operation and maintenance stages (Wood 2011) of buildings (e.g. smart grids, building automation, green building technologies, the use of information technology for maintenance automation, etc.), whilst the potential of automated/robotic technologies to achieve sustainability through the construction stage is a field that needs yet to be analyzed and developed in a comprehensive manner. Activities during the construction stage have significant impacts on SB: (e.g. on various types of pollution, construction waste and resource consumption, work conditions and public welfare, cost efficiency (Akadiri et al. 2012), reusability and flexibility of buildings, etc.) which can be controlled and influenced for better outcomes through automated/robotic technologies. The aim of this paper is to build the basis for the development of a systematic framework and assessment tool for the utilization of automated and robotic construction technologies for achieving SBs. The remainder of the paper is structured as follows. Section 8.2 reviews the state of the art of technology and approaches in construction automation and SB. Based on this, Sect. 8.3 outlines the key dimensions of the framework, and identifies relevant mechanisms and indicators summarized in a framework matrix. Section 8.4 provides a brief outlook on the future work which will detail the indicators, define quantifiable variables, and verify and validate the framework through application in case studies and real world projects.
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Companies are increasingly coming under strong global pressure to incorporate sustainability considerations into their project decision-making process. This is where project managers play a vital role. However, how project managers approach sustainability in their daily work still has to be explored. Therefore, this article seeks to determine whether and to what extent project managers take into account sustainability in project management decision making. Research was carried out in Lithuania, selecting two industries: construction and automotive. The case study revealed that project managers in Lithuania still do not give much regard to sustainability when making their decisions. Only a limited number of sustainability criteria are taken into account by project managers in their decisions. Research also showed that a project manager gives more consideration to sustainability in project management decision making than a project team member. © 2017 by author(s) and VsI Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center.
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Winner of PMI’s 2011 David I. Cleland Project Management Literature Award Detailing cutting-edge green techniques and methods, this book teaches project managers how to maximize resources and get the most out of limited budgets. It supplies proven techniques and best practices in green project management, including risk and opportunity assessments. With illustrative case studies and insights from acknowledged leaders in green project management, the text: Explains how to tap into green incentives, including grants, rebates, and tax credits Includes case studies that illustrate how to integrate green techniques and methods to generate cost savings and maximize resources Provides green techniques that take little time to implement, can benefit all types of projects, and can generate immediate savings to your project’s bottom line Praise for: A first-of-its-kind book … a must-read for senior executives as well as project managers. -Harold Kerzner, Ph.D., Senior Executive Director for Project Management at The International Institute for Learning … an impressive piece of work. -Jean Binder, PMP, MBA, award-winning author (David I. Cleland Literature Award, 2008) This important book defines the green field and sets out the steps for those who want to be ahead of the crowd… -Dr. David Hillson, PMP, FAPM, FIRM, MCMI, Director of Risk Doctor & Partners … an incredible call to arms to increase your project greenality for a better world, or a bigger pay check, if you’re still cynical on this topic. -Bas de Baar, ProjectShrink.com … an excellent job of making the reader aware of how much influence a single project manager, let alone an entire discipline, can have on improving our environment. -Professor Schwalbe, Department of Business Administration, Augsburg College.
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“Building production” technology, i.e. construction automation and robotics (CAR), is on a worldwide level increasingly recognized as stating a key element of the future of construction, although CAR up to date has never experienced large-scale real-world implementation. However, the recent significantly growing demand for sustainability has the potential to serve as the necessitated trigger for CAR's large-scale deployment. In that context, systematic guidance for the construction industry is however missing, and there have been limited attempts to thoroughly investigate the impacts of utilizing CAR with regard to the sustainability performance of construction and buildings. The research presented in this paper makes a first step to fill this research gap by reviewing and investigating the available CAR strategies and technologies and developing for the first time a consistent framework of indicators for assessing the sustainability performance of utilizing CAR for buildings. The overall goal of the research is to develop, through this framework, a robust and reliable assessment method that can be used in the industrial context to assess the sustainability of building construction projects that consider using CAR. Beyond the development of the indicator framework, the research plan adopting the V-Model approach foresees to translate the framework into an assessment method which will then in several iteration cycles be verified and validated in real world.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a collaborative framework for balancing stakeholder power and social responsibilities in construction projects. To resolve the problems of unclear responsibility that is common in construction projects, the framework is designed to help stakeholders identify their roles in various issues and to facilitate collaborative endeavours by elucidating their responsibilities. Design/methodology/approach The framework is designed using a scientific approach based on a problem-solution paradigm. It is developed as a model that would provide strategies for responding to various issues and that would also balance stakeholder responsibilities with power. A case study is conducted to validate the framework in an ongoing real estate project in China. Findings The effectiveness of the framework is validated from the case study, which found that the engagement of stakeholders is improved by adopting the framework. It is also found that use of the framework led to enhancement of communication and trust, and better collaboration through a collective form of responsibility. Originality/value The study provides valuable insights into stakeholder collaboration on social responsibility issues in construction projects. The dynamic nature of stakeholders is addressed, and an easy-to-follow framework is offered for use in construction projects.
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The aim of this research is to customize the categories and criteria points of well-known sustainability assessment tools regarding the priorities in sustainability concerns of Iran in order to develop an Iranian sustainability assessment tool suitable for residential buildings. Therefore, common sustainability indicators of LEED, BREEAM, CASBEE and SBTool will be used as benchmarks for the evaluation process by Iranian professional experts to revise the points allocated in Iranian assessment tool. For the revision of the points in accordance with Iranian sustainability needs, FAHP method (Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process) will be conducted. Afterwards, Iranian sustainability assessment tool, consisting of six levels of certification with categories and criteria points, has been designed to promote sustainability in the residential buildings. The reliability of the assessment tool has been confirmed by comparing performance sensitivity with the existing assessment tools in terms of the points given to each category. This will encourage Iranian construction practitioners to be more aware of worldwide sustainability assessment tools and of the way to implement sustainability in their residential building projects. Results can be a basis for further investigations on other indicators which are crucial for sustainability concerns of Iran and would provide a platform for inspiration of further sustainability solutions. Introduction of the priority weights of sustainability fundamentals will be a reference for further developing a more holistic assessment tool, considering more dimensions such as economic and social sustainability issues regarding Iranian residential buildings.
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Purpose Purpose: While the general trends in Green Building (GB) research are known there is not yet a detailed review of studies on Project Delivery Attributes (PDAs) influencing GB project outcomes. In this study, literature is reviewed to understand the contributions of existing research in this area and to identify the challenges, gaps and lessons for the future research relating GB project delivery. Design/methodology/approach Methodology: For the systematic review, specially developed coding based on Boolean operators is used to search for relevant studies in major databases i.e. Web of Science and Scopus. The studies from the initial search (443 nos.) are subjected to two rounds of scrutiny for shortlisting only relevant publications. Using a qualitative review of the shortlisted studies (20 nos.), the research objectives and findings of the studies are synthesized and critically analyzed. The contributions and challenges facing research in this area are identified. Future research directions are proposed. Findings Findings: Studies in the area have established association between PDAs and various GB project success criteria. In the literature, some PDAs such as Project Delivery Method (PDM) have been given greater attention than others. Challenges facing PDA research in GB include: the limited number of GB project cases and the complexity of GB project delivery process involving an overwhelmingly large number of variables, thereby limiting scientific rigor and creating some gaps in knowledge. The interaction among PDAs and their cumulative effect on various project performance outcomes/metrics have not been studied, limiting the validity of the existing studies. Scope exists to apply a combination of non-linear, dynamic, probabilistic, explicit and implicit modeling as well as inductive and deductive approaches to research in this area. Research limitations/implications Research implications: Existing research findings have limited application in practice. Non-linear, dynamic, probabilistic, deductive and inductive research techniques and approaches can substantially advance knowledge and lead to plausible findings that can be applied in practice. Originality/value Value: Considering the critical role of PDAs in the successful delivery of green buildings, the review provides clear directions for future research.
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The Green Building (GB) certification process embodies detailed requirements and specifications that lead to additional tasks for project teams, which increases complexity levels of the entire project delivery process. Previous studies show that if the GB certification credits to be fulfilled are selected without considering project team attributes, then elevated levels of time, money, and labor could get wasted while attempting to meet the additional requirements of GB certification. The aim of this study is to develop a multi-attribute decision making (MADM) support tool to be used by GB experts to select the appropriate GB certification credits based on the project team attributes. The developed framework with relative weights assigned via the Delphi method was used to perform the MADM analysis, which employs the hybrid use of the Multi Attribute Utility Technique (MAUT) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). This paper presents the developed MADM tool (i.e., GB-CS tool) and the relative weights of the attributes that were determined following expert opinions. To validate the tool, a case study was conducted at a LEED-registered residential project. The results show that the GB-CS Tool was successful in ranking the GB certification credits to be selected. This hybrid MADM tool can be used for preventing disruptions and bottlenecks in GB project delivery processes by assisting the owners/GB consultants in effectively selecting suitable GB certification credits based on the project team attributes. Thus, with the assistance of the GB-CS tool, root causes of waste can be mitigated in the GB project delivery process, decreasing associated hidden costs.
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Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. It is recognized that projects play a pivotal role in the realization of more sustainable business practices and a developing theme in project management research is the relationship between projects and sustainability. As the literature on this topic is evolving, this paper discusses the question whether the growing attention for sustainability in project management research represents a new ‘school of thought’ in project management? The study builds upon earlier work on schools of project management research, in which nine schools were identified. The question whether sustainability should be considered a new school of project management is answered by deriving the criteria for recognition as a school and performing a structured literature review on a sample of 71 articles on sustainability in project management, taken from the leading academic journals on this topic. As criteria for recognition as a school of project management, the criteria content, community and impact were found. After a content analysis of the articles in the sample, the conclusion is reached that sustainability qualifies a new, distinct and emerging school of thinking in project management. The defining characteristics of this sustainability school are: considering Projects in a societal perspective, having a Management for stakeholders approach, applying Triple bottom line criteria, and taking a Values based approach to projects and project management.
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The paper contributes to the theoretical debate on stakeholder management within project-oriented organizations. Despite acknowled