Article

Sighting and Stranding Reports of Irrawaddy Dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) and Dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Kep and Kampot, Cambodia

Authors:
  • Marine Conservation Cambodia
  • Marine Mammals Research Association, Turkey
  • Freshwater Biological Association | Marine Conservation Cambodia
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... Irrawaddy dolphins are the only confirmed cetacean species to inhabit the coastal waters of the Cambodia-Vietnam border region (Beasley and Davidson, 2007;Minton et al., 2017;Tubbs et al., 2020), which includes the Kep Archipelago, Cambodia. Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a daily threat to dolphins and the many species of coral, fish, and invertebrates that support local fisheries and tourism (Beasley and Davidson, 2007;Böhm, 2019;Tubbs et al., 2019). Despite regional conservation efforts, no Irrawaddy dolphin specific conservation plans are in place. ...
... The Cambodian Marine Mammal Conservation Project (CMMCP) was launched in 2017 by the Non-Governmental Organization Marine Conservation Cambodia (MCC) to support the conservation of Cambodian marine mammals through research and education (Tubbs et al., 2019). Boat surveys conducted by CMMCP in the Kep Archipelago between October 2017 and September 2019 revealed that Irrawaddy dolphins were present year-round, with seasonal variation in encounter rates and distribution (Tubbs et al., 2020). ...
... The waters are shallow, ranging from 2 to 30 m, and support coral, mangrove and seagrass habitats (Reid et al., 2019). The archipelago is at the heart of the Kien Giang-Kep Archipelago Important Marine Mammal Area (IMMA; IUCN-MMPATF, 2019), containing critical habitat for the survival of Irrawaddy dolphins, which are frequently sighted in the area (Vu et al., 2017;Tubbs et al., 2019). Inside this IMMA, is the Kep Marine Fisheries Management Area (MFMA), Cambodia's equivalent of a Marine Protected Area (Boon et al., 2014), which delineates conservation zones for the purposes of reducing maritime conflicts, controlling tourism activities, and protecting fish stocks, habitats and the breeding grounds of vulnerable species such as the Irrawaddy dolphin (Marine Conservation Cambodia [MCC], 2016). ...
Article
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Fishing activities continue to decimate populations of marine mammals, fish, and their habitats in the coastal waters of the Kep Archipelago, a cluster of tropical islands on the Cambodia-Vietnam border. In 2019, the area was recognized as an Important Marine Mammal Area, largely owing to the significant presence of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris). Understanding habitat preferences and distribution aids in the identification of areas to target for monitoring and conservation, which is particularly challenging in data-limited nations of Southeast Asia. Here, we test the hypothesis that accurate seasonal habitat models, relying on environmental data and species occurrences alone, can be used to describe the ecological processes governing abundance for the resident dolphin population of the Kep Archipelago, Cambodia. Leveraging two years of species and oceanographic data-depth, slope, distance to shore and rivers, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll-a concentration-we built temporally stratified models to estimate distribution and infer seasonal habitat importance. Overall, Irrawaddy dolphins of Kep displayed habitat preferences similar to other populations, and were predominately encountered in three situations: (1) water depths ranging from 3.0 to 5.3 m, (2) surface water temperatures of 27-32 • C, and (3) in close proximity to offshore islands (< 7.5 km). With respect to seasonality, statistical tests detected significant differences for all environment variables considered except seafloor slope. Four predictor sets, each with a unique combination of variables, were used to map seasonal variation in dolphin habitat suitability. Models with highest variable importance scores were water depth, pre-and during monsoon season (61-62%), and sea surface temperature, post-monsoon (71%), which suggests that greater freshwater flow during the wet season may alter primary productivity and dolphin prey abundance. Importantly, findings show the majority of areas with highest habitat suitability are not currently surveyed for dolphins and located outside Kep's Marine Fisheries Management Area. This research confirms the need to expand monitoring to new areas where high-impact fisheries and other human activities operate. Baseline knowledge on dolphin distribution can guide regional conservation efforts by taking into account the seasonality of the species and support the design of tailored management strategies that address transboundary threats to an Important Marine Mammal Area.
... However, significant deforestation has reduced the extent of these forests throughout the region (Rizvi and Singer, 2011). The coastal region of Kampot also hosts important megafauna that are threatened with extinction, including the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas; Pilcher, 2006), Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) and dugong (Dugong dugon; Tubbs et al., 2019). ...
... Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris)(Beasley and Davidson, 2007;Tubbs et al. 2019), Indo- ...
Technical Report
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Important tropical ecosystems in Kampot province are highly threatened by coastal and industrial developments as well as illegal fishing pressures, which destroy habitat and overexploit marine species. In November 2019, Wild Earth Allies (WEA; Cambodia), cooperated with the Conservation Department of the Cambodian Fisheries Administration (FiA), Fishery Administration Cantonment (FiAC), Marine Conservation Cambodia (MCC) and Prek Thnot Community Fishery to conduct baseline ecological assessments to survey an area threatened by industrial development, land reclamation and illegal fishing. Ecological surveys in the form of seagrass, coral and marine mammal assessments were conducted within a proposed Marine Fisheries Management Area (MFMA) in Kampot province. Specifically, assessments were undertaken in proposed permanent and seasonal no-take zones in Prek Thnot and Trapaing Ropov community fishery areas within the broader MFMA. The purpose of the assessments was to contribute towards forming baseline datasets on the distribution and composition of seagrass and coral reef habitats, and to formally acknowledge marine mammal presence in the province. These baselines form the foundation of preliminary ecological assessments within the area and have established a benchmark for conducting periodic biodiversity monitoring in Kampot’s proposed MFMA. Following this initial report by WEA and MCC on the state of seagrass and coral reef ecosystems in the MFMA, a conservation strategy is being developed and should be implemented soon. The strategy involves the creation of an 8,486-hectare MFMA, in combination with the deployment of artificial reef structures, the use of community management techniques and the enforcement of fisheries regulations. The overall goal of this conservation strategy is to reduce illegal fishing activities, protect and encourage the regeneration of marine life, and ensure the sustainability of local fisher livelihoods and their communities. The establishment of the MFMA, in combination with other conservation tools, is expected to create the foundations required for the recovery and regeneration of degraded marine ecosystems in Kampot. This conservation strategy provides mitigation against a multitude of threats and will effectively reduce the habitat destruction caused by illegal bottom trawling and other major anthropogenic stressors. The proposed conservation strategy has been designed to protect entire ecosystems and their services by including ecosystem-based management techniques that will provide wider environmental, social and economic benefits to the region. Subsequent monitoring and research will be conducted by MCC, WEA, FiA, and FiAC inside the Kampot MFMA in order to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts over time.
... For example, areas of highest bycatch risk in the SBTI field site provide more evidence that supports recent calls for designation of a dugong sanctuary inside the Mersing Archipelago [56]. Likewise, despite a paucity of data in KGBR, habitat suitability maps derived entirely from GIS overlays showed strong agreement with Irrawaddy dolphin sightings acquired independently of the ByRA analysis (S4 Fig in S1 Data) [58,87]. Although these analyses provide more information and insight on bycatch risk areas and management interventions that are likely to reduce risk, additional research is needed to compare modeled outputs to other modeled empirical data on bycatch rates, or strandings [88,89]. ...
Article
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Fisheries bycatch has been identified as the greatest threat to marine mammals worldwide. Characterizing the impacts of bycatch on marine mammals is challenging because it is difficult to both observe and quantify, particularly in small-scale fisheries where data on fishing effort and marine mammal abundance and distribution are often limited. The lack of risk frameworks that can integrate and visualize existing data have hindered the ability to describe and quantify bycatch risk. Here, we describe the design of a new geographic information systems tool built specifically for the analysis of bycatch in small-scale fisheries, called Bycatch Risk Assessment (ByRA). Using marine mammals in Malaysia and Vietnam as a test case, we applied ByRA to assess the risks posed to Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) and dugongs (Dugong dugon) by five small-scale fishing gear types (hook and line, nets, longlines, pots and traps, and trawls). ByRA leverages existing data on animal distributions, fisheries effort, and estimates of interaction rates by combining expert knowledge and spatial analyses of existing data to visualize and characterize bycatch risk. By identifying areas of bycatch concern while accounting for uncertainty using graphics, maps and summary tables, we demonstrate the importance of integrating available geospatial data in an accessible format that taps into local knowledge and can be corroborated by and communicated to stakeholders of data-limited fisheries. Our methodological approach aims to meet a critical need of fisheries managers: to identify emergent interaction patterns between fishing gears and marine mammals and support the development of management actions that can lead to sustainable fisheries and mitigate bycatch risk for species of conservation concern.
... In September 2017, the Non-Governmental Organisation Marine Conservation Cambodia launched The Cambodian Marine Mammal Conservation Project (CMMCP), which has identified the presence of a population of Irrawaddy dolphins in Cambodia's Kep Province (Tubbs et al., 2019). As part of CMMCP's ongoing work, the current study uses yearlong data to identify seasonal critical habitats for Irrawaddy dolphins, as well as fill knowledge gaps on the behavioural ecology of the species, in order to contribute towards effective and tailored regional conservation strategies. ...
Article
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Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are a globally Endangered cetacean species found in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters across Southeast Asia. Whilst much attention has concentrated on understanding freshwater populations of the species, marine populations have received less research attention, with the majority of marine studies focusing on determining abundance and distribution. As part of The Cambodian Marine Mammal Conservation Project, the current study utilises a combination of year-long land and boat survey techniques to identify seasonal critical habitats for the species in Cambodia's Kep Archipelago, as well as fill knowledge gaps on the species' behavioural ecology, to contribute to the design of effective and tailored regional conservation strategies. Results showed Irrawaddy dolphins to be present in the Kep Archipelago in all seasons, with the highest encounter rates in Summer Monsoon (May-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-November) seasons, and the lowest encounter rates in Pre-Monsoon season (March-April). Juveniles were present in all seasons, suggesting the region represents an important nursing ground for the population. Foraging was the most commonly observed behaviour, with significant associations found between certain behavioural states and events, group sizes and seasons, group sizes and juvenile presence, and swim styles and juvenile presence.
Article
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The Kep Archipelago in Cambodia supports a variety of ecologically important species, including the Endangered coastal Irrawaddy dolphin Orcaella brevirostris. This dolphin population has recently been subject to increased research, but faces growing threats from a variety of anthropogenic pressures, including pollution and illegal, unreported and unregulated fi shing activity. This study reports on the fatal strandings of ten Irrawaddy dolphins in Kep Province between 2017 and 2020 and documents the internal and external injuries recorded during rudimentary necropsies as well as the distribution, seasonality and demography of the stranding events. The strandings occurred throughout the archipelago in all seasons, although they were most prevalent during the post-monsoon season (October to November). Juveniles were most susceptible to stranding and no strandings of calves were recorded. The causes of death could not be accurately determined due to a lack of resources and trained personnel, although disease, chemical pollution and bycatch would appear to be the most likely causes of stranding. Observations of stomach contents confi rmed small bony fi sh, crustaceans and cephalopods as prey species. We recommend continual monitoring of Irrawaddy dolphin strandings along the Cambodian coastline, with a view to establishing a coastal-wide stranding network supported by adequate funding, resources, facilities and trained personnel such as marine mammal veterinarians. The information gathered from such a network would enhance understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of Irrawaddy dolphins and inform conservation and management strategies for the species.
Article
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Cetacean behavior has long attracted scientific attention as humans endeavor to discover what makes these mammals so emotive and engaging. To date, much of this research has focussed on abundant and widely distributed cetacean species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). As an endangered and often evasive species, research regarding Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) behavior is limited. This study uses data collected by The Cambodian Marine Mammal Conservation Project, to investigate the behavioral responses of Irrawaddy dolphins towards a dead conspecific. During a routine boat survey of Cambodia's Kep Archipelago, the carcass of an adult female Irrawaddy dolphin was recovered and attached to the stern of the research vessel and promptly towed to the research island for further examination. During this survey, there was a four-fold increase in the number of Irrawaddy dolphin groups observed compared to the seasonal average (post-monsoon), in addition to an atypically positive response towards the research vessel and an atypical increase in the number of behavioral events observed. These behavioral variations were believed to be in response to the towed dead conspecific. The authors propose future dedicated research to assess the complexity of wild Irrawaddy dolphin behavior, cognition, and awareness to robustly exemplify the species' apparent sentience and intelligence.
Article
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and current knowledge gaps, especially in developing countries. Land-based surveys are a traditional method for monitoring cetaceans which are practical when budget, time and other resources are limited. Passive acoustic monitoring has recently emerged as another technique for monitoring cetaceans and can be used to detect them without constant human presence. We analysed data collected on Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris between August 2018 and June 2019 in Kep Province to compare rates of detection by land-based surveys and passive acoustic sampling with a continuous porpoise detector (C-POD). We also investigated if the characteristics of dolphin groups sighted behavioural events, behavioural states, swim styles, group types and group sizes) affected detection rates. Data provided by each monitoring method were crossed-referenced to determine if dolphin records were detected by one or both methods and found a significant difference in their detection rates. With the exception of fluke-up behavioural events, the characteristics of sightings were not correlated with detection rates. The number of observations for fl uke-up events was also dependent on the observation method used. We consider the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and suggest that a combination of both will be most suitable for monitoring Irrawaddy dolphins.
Chapter
Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris, in the Kuching Bay, Sarawak, Malaysia have been subjected to pressure from cetacean-fisheries interactions, dolphin watching tourism and coastal development. However, very little information is known about their ecology and factors driving their habitat preferences. To obtain critical information on the distribution, habitat preference and range pattern of Irrawaddy dolphins in Kuching Bay, Sarawak, systematic boat-based surveys were conducted between June 2008 and October 2012. The results showed a statistically significant relationship between Irrawaddy dolphins’ distribution and different categories of salinity, tide levels and distance to river mouths. Kruskal-Wallis tests confirmed that the presence of Irrawaddy dolphins in Kuching Bay had statistically significant relationships to habitat parameters of salinity (chi-square = 4.694, p = 0.03). Fisher’s exact test indicated that Irrawaddy dolphins were statistically more likely to be present in waters within a 6 km radius of river mouths. The distribution of dolphins was also affected by tide levels as Mann-Whitney U-tests proved a statistically significant difference in dolphin distribution between tide levels lower than 2.0 m and tide levels higher than 2.0 m (p = 3.153 × 10−11). The representative range and core area of photo-identified Irrawaddy dolphins estimated using fixed kernel range was 246.42 km2 and 37.22 km2, respectively, with core area located in the Salak Estuary. The results obtained in this study reflect dry season distribution only, and may differ during the wet season. Nonetheless, these results highlight the importance of shallow coastal waters and the overlap of Irrawaddy dolphin critical habitat with that of human activities in Kuching Bay. Conservation efforts are required to minimise the effects of the pressures exerted on these animals and their habitats.
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