The first dedicated, boat-based marine mammal surveys in Cambodian coastal waters were con-ducted over seven discrete survey periods, span-ning February to September 2001. These surveys covered the majority of Cambodian coastal waters, in addition to the main offshore islands. As a result of these surveys, ten marine mammal species have now been confirmed to occur in Cambodian waters. Six of ... [Show full abstract] these, the false killer whale, a long-beaked form of common dolphin, pantropical spotted dolphin, dwarf spinner dol-phin, Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, constitute new country records for Cambodia. Additionally, a short-finned pilot whale was found live-stranded, constituting a further new country record. These initial results indicate that the current status of marine mammals in Cambodian waters is encouraging, both in terms of species diversity and abundance. Cambodian waters appear to support regionally, if not globally, significant populations of several of these species. The dugong is almost certainly the most highly threatened marine mammal in the region. Studies to date have provided important baseline knowledge regarding the status, distribution, and important areas of occurrence for marine mam-mals in Cambodia. It is now essential that conser-vation and management strategies are developed and implemented. Public education and awareness and community-based management programs, as well as stricter laws, regulations, and adequate enforcement will be essential to conserving the remaining marine mammal populations and ensur-ing their survival in Cambodian coastal waters.