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Sustainable agriculture options for production, greenhouse gasses and pollution alleviation, and nutrient recycling in emerging and transitional nations -An overview

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... It is therefore essential to shift agricultural practices to more sustainable ones (Adegbeye et al., 2020). Today, rice, wheat, and maize account for 50% of the calories consumed daily. ...
... Among the lesser-known crops, some are also drought tolerant. Some even have favorable amino acid composition (Adegbeye et al., 2020). Lesser-known crops are grown in limited quantities due to lower yields, water scarcity in growing areas, lack of hybrids and varieties with improved properties, poor soil fertility, and losses to pests and diseases (Gerrano et al., 2022). ...
... A cost effective biotechnological solution would be to breed hybrids that mature faster and consume fewer resources to do so. Locally adapted, specialized cultivation techniques for growing lesser-known crops would also have a global impact (Adegbeye et al., 2020). ...
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THE ECOLOGICAL MOVEMENT OF THE CITY OF NOVI SAD AN IMPORTANT DECISION OF ITS PROGRAMME COUNCIL Since 1995, the Ecological Movement of the City of Novi Sad organizes "Eco�Conference® on Environmental Protection of Urban and Suburban Areas", with international participation. Seven biennial conferences have been held so far (in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015). Their programs included the following environmental topics: Session 1: Environmental spheres: a) air, b) water, c) soil, d) biosphere Session 2: Technical and technological aspects of environmental protection Session 3: Sociological, health, cultural, educational and recreational aspects of environmental protection Session 4: Economic aspects of environmental protection Session 5: Legal aspects of environmental protection Session 6: Ecological system projecting (informatics and computer applications in the field of integrated protection) Session 7: Sustainable development of urban and suburban settlements-ecological aspects. Conference participants have commended the scientific and organizational levels of the conferences. Conference evaluations have indicated that some aspects are missing in the conference program. In addition, since a team of conference organizers was completed, each even year between the conferences started to be viewed as an unnecessary lag in activity. Eco-Conference® on Safe Food With the above deliberations in mind, a decision was made that the Ecological Movement of the City of Novi Sad should embark on another project – the organization of Eco-Conferences® on Safe Food. These Conferences were planned to take place in each even year. Preparations for the first Eco-Conferences® on safe food started after the successful completion of the Eco-Conference® '99. So far four Eco-Conferences® have been held (in 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014.) focusing this general theme. Theme of the Eco-Conference® By organizing the Eco-Conference® on Safe Food, the organizer wishes to cover all factors that affect the quality of human living. Exchange of opinions and practical experiences should help in identifying and resolving the various problems associated with the production of safe food. Since 2007 Eco-Conference gained patronship from UNESCO and became purely scientific Conference. Objectives of the Eco-Conference® – To acquaint participants with current problems in the production of safe food. – To make realistic assessments of the causes of ecological imbalance in the conventional agricultural production and the impact of various pollution sources on the current agricultural production. – Based on an exchange of opinions and available research data, to make long term strategic programs of developing an industrialized, controlled, integral, alternative and sustainable agriculture capable of supplying sufficient quantities of quality food, free of negative side effects on human health and the environment. Basic Topics of the Eco-Conference® Basic topics should cover all relevant aspects of the production of safe food. When defining the basic topics, the intention was itemize the segments of the production of safe food as well as the related factors that may affect or that already have already been identified as detrimental for food safety and quality. The topics include ecological factors of safe food production, correct choice of seed (genetic) material, status and preparation of soil as the basic substrate for the production of food and feed, use of fertilizers and pesticides in integrated plant protection, use of biologicals, food processing technology, economic aspects, marketing and packaging of safe food. To paraphrase, the envisaged topics cover the production of safe food on the whole, individual aspects of the production and their mutual relations, and impact on food quality and safety. Sessions of the Eco-Conference® 1. Climate and production of safe food. 2. Soil and water as the basis of agricultural production. 3. Genetics, genetic resources, breeding and genetic engineering in the function of producing safe food. 4. Fertilizers and fertilization practice in the function of producing safe food. 5. Integrated pest management and use of biologicals. 6. Agricultural production in view of sustainable development 7. Production of field and vegetable crops. 8. Production of fruits and grapes. 9. Lifestock husbandry form the aspect of safe food production. 10. Processing of agricultural products in the framework of safe food production. 11. Economic aspects and marketing as segments of the production of safe food. 12. Food storage, transportation and packaging. 13. Nutritional food value and quality nutrition. 14. Legal aspects of protecting brand names of safe food. 15. Ecological models and software in production of safe food. Attempts will be made to make the above conference program permanent. In this way will the conference become recognizable in form, topics and quality, which should help it find its place among similar conferences on organized elsewhere in the world. By alternately organizing conferences on environmental protection of urban and suburban areas in odd years and conferences on safe food in even years, the Ecological Movement of the City of Novi Sad is completing its contribution to a higher quality of living of the population. Already in the 19th century, Novi Sad was a regional center of social progress and broad-mindedness. Today, owing first of all to its being a university center, Novi Sad is in the vanguard of ecological thought in this part of Europe. It is our duty to work on the furtherance of the ecological programs of action and, by doing so, to make our contribution to the protection of the natural environment and spiritual heritage with the ultimate goal of helping the population attain e higher level of consciousness and a higher quality of living.
... While ensuring food security, SA enhances the environmental friendliness of various agricultural operations and performance (Nowak et al., 2019;Sharma et al., 2020). Many SA practices maximize productivity while minimizing environmental damage (Raliya et al., 2017;Adegbeye et al., 2020). SA has played a notable role in sustaining all human activities (Barrios et al., 2020). ...
... Mikhno et al. (2021) considered the effective indices and instruments of influence on the level of ecological and economic development. Adegbeye et al. (2020) proposed some methods such as the shift in management systems of crop production, implementation of integrated farming system, enabling nutrient recycling or recovery for the resource efficiency improvement. Sharma et al. (2020) conducted a systematic review of machine learning applications in sustainable agricultural supply chains and presented a machine learning applications framework for sustainable agricultural supply chains management. ...
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Sustainable agriculture is a vital part of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. While tremendous achievements in the agriculture sector in China have been made, a series of problems are challenging the sustainable development of the agriculture management and agriculture economy. In this paper, the level of sustainable agriculture development was evaluated by constructing an entropy-TOPSIS model. The sustainable agricultural development level evaluation system was subsequently established, including 4 first-level criteria (economy, society, environment and resources) and 25 second-level criteria. Corresponding data on 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, China (from 2016 to 2019) were collected. Moreover, the main obstacle factors restricting the sustainable agriculture development level were analyzed through the obstacle diagnosis model. The Tobit regression model was established for an empirical study on its influencing factors. The results showed that the agricultural sustainable development level in Jiangsu Province is going upward, and the development level gaps between various prefecture-level cities are narrowing; the output values in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services, per capita disposable income of farmers and other aspects are the main obstacle factors for agricultural sustainable development. The research objective of this paper was to improve the index system of agricultural sustainable development, analyze the influencing mechanism and obstacle factors, and explore the promotion path of agricultural sustainable development in Jiangsu by optimizing the spatial layout. The main innovation of this paper was bringing the five interrelated and interactive dimensions of “economy, society, environment, ecology, and resources” into the same analytical framework to analyze the concept and connotation of agricultural sustainable development.
... The arid climate of the Tunisian South East region and the excessive land use promotes soil degradation and exerts great pressure on the ecological environment in these regions (Selmi et Abbasi, 2013). Currently, ensuring sustainable agriculture and reducing arable land is becoming the major challenge for scientists, politicians, and farmers (Su et al., 2020;Erbaugh et al., 2019;Adegbeye et al., 2020). Conflicting intensive agriculture, sustainable agriculture is characterized by higher nutrient use efficiencies, increased nutrient recycling, improved agricultural productivity, and minimized environmental burdens (Semida et al., 2019;Adegbeye et al., 2020). ...
... Currently, ensuring sustainable agriculture and reducing arable land is becoming the major challenge for scientists, politicians, and farmers (Su et al., 2020;Erbaugh et al., 2019;Adegbeye et al., 2020). Conflicting intensive agriculture, sustainable agriculture is characterized by higher nutrient use efficiencies, increased nutrient recycling, improved agricultural productivity, and minimized environmental burdens (Semida et al., 2019;Adegbeye et al., 2020). ...
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The organic amendment of degraded soil in South East of Tunisia was used to restore the chemical, and physical properties of soil quality investigated in this study. Biochar derived from pyrolyzed green waste at 360°C was used like organic amendment. Nines randomized plots with one square meter of the area of each plot in three replicates have been installed in the Institute of Arid Area in Mednine South East of Tunisia, with two rates of biochar 20 and 40 t/ha were investigated: 20 tons/ha (B20) (2 kg/m²) and 40 tons/ha (B40) (4 kg/m²). The results showed that biochar had a positive effect on soil's physical and chemical properties compared to non-amended soil (Untreated soil). Biochar supply at rates of 20 and 40 tons/ha, causes a decrease in electrical conductivity to achieve 2.66 mS/cm for the B40 dose after 1 year of amendment, also a decrease in the bulk density at the surface layer (0-20 cm) has been registered, the total porosity which was decreased with depth. The hydraulic conductivity is favored by the incorporation of biochar in the soil which increases the volume of voids and tends to create preferential flow paths.
... It is reported that cows have high dairy productivity than small ruminants while small ruminants have high fecundity, greater prolificacy, shorter reproductive cycle, and short cycle for meat production (Sejian et al. 2021). Furthermore, small ruminants have higher dairy production carbon footprint while meat production of beef cattle has higher carbon footprint (Phiri et al. 2020;Adegbeye et al. 2020b). Therefore, raising small ruminants for meat while large ruminants for milk could be a climatesmart move. ...
... This manure proves a means of nutrient to the plant or tree. To improve the organic manure quality, vermicomposting, co-composting of manure with other organic matter could be useful (Adegbeye et al. 2020b). Similarly, biocharring of wastes could be a useful way to manage manure in a sustainable way to return valuable nutrients to the agronomic and agroforestry system (Adegbeye et al. 2020a, b). ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we explore the impacts of agricultural practices on the properties of the soil, discussing conservation tillage, crop rotation (see below), etc. This chapter further discusses the need for conservation tillage outlining benefits such as reduction of topsoil erosion and runoff, and carbon sequestration. It carefully explains how conservation tillage is a climate-smart soil management practice. In the face of a geometrically rising global population, how do we face the looming food security challenge? This chapter discusses how we can engage Sustainable Livestock farming to ensure food security meeting dietary protein requirement. In this chapter, several have been pointed out on the impact of sustainable agriculture on global warming and climate change. Such technique includes climate-smart farming, giving less human edible to animals, implementation of efficient, eco-friendly, and adaptive animal agroforestry, silvopastoral farming, less or zero tillage, sustainable crop production systems/practices, nutrient and fertilizer management, incorporation of renewable energy into farming, integrated watershed management, anaerobic digestion, and climate and weather information systems. Despite the variation of these techniques, the impact of their application centers on climate change adaptation and mitigation, carbon sequestration, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and reduction of environmental pollution caused by agriculture. This chapter shows that if these sustainable techniques are applied, more yield will be derived per unit of limited agricultural resources such as land, nutrient, and water, and less emission will be released into the atmosphere per unit of yield derived, etc.
... The authors highlighted the importance of selection and characterization of new bacterial strains capable of decomposing crushed rocks, aiming to increase soil fertility and improve crop production when they are used as inoculants. The highly sustainable use of silicate rocks, solubilized by microbial inoculants or by the natural soil microbiota, can also contribute to the reduction of climate changes and decrease the dependency of developing countries on imported chemical fertilizers (Adegbeye et al., 2020). Some subjects covered by this review were confirmed in the findings of Ding et al. ...
... Crop-livestock mixed farming systems are, however, the subject of controversy or criticism. Livestock contributes to environmental pollution; the livestock sector is responsible for emitting 14.5% of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide, methane) [5]. Animal feed rations contain ingredients that can also serve as human food; livestock consumes one-third of global cereal production and uses about 40% of global arable land; among the 2 billion hectares of grassland, about 700 million hectares could be used as cropland [6]. ...
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Mixed farming systems are still prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. In these systems, the recycling of nutrients through crop-livestock integration (CLI) practices is crucial for the sustainability of soil fertility and crop production. The objective of this study was to analyze nutrient (N, P, K) flows and balances of mixed farming systems to assess CLI contribution to the performance of those systems. We hypothesized that more intensive farms had a better nutrient balance at the farm level, and that improved biomass management methods improved their nutrient balance. Nine farms in the Madagascar highlands were selected, some corresponding to poor traditional farms with only draft cattle; some small or medium-sized, more intensive farms with a dairy herd; and some of the latter with some improvement to management methods of livestock effluents (manure composting, liquid manure collection). The nutrient balance of the farming systems was determined, and performance indicators were calculated at both farming, livestock, and CLI levels. Results showed that nutrient recycling through CLI is significant in the functioning of the systems studied, contributing primarily to circulating nutrient flows (up to 76%) and leading to greater efficiency and productivity. Nutrient flows resulting from these practices mainly concerned animal feeding (higher than 60% of nutrient flows), even if manure management was central for crop fertilization and that manure remained a desired animal product of these types of farms (up to 100% of animal products). Large negative balances of N and K (up to 80% of inputs) were observed in traditional livestock systems with draft cattle. They were smaller (39–68%) in more intensive dairy farms. Composting of manure did not decrease negative balances, whereas their magnitude was significantly reduced by the collection of liquid manure (19% for N; 42% for K). Better management of biomass at the farm level, in particular the collection of liquid manure, seemed to substantially reduce nutrient losses in MFS.
... Biochar has very great adsorption for said pollutants reducing their mobilization in wastewater (Hamid et al., 2020;Lwin et al., 2018;Palansooriya et al., 2020). Hence biochar has a huge potential in decreasing pollutants thereby mitigating environmental risk associated with toxic chemicals and their by-products (Kumar and Bhattacharya, 2021;Adegbeye et al., 2020). Pig manure-based biochar was developed by a research group to enhance the adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of raw pig manure for the remediation of carbaryl and atrazine from aqueous solutions (Lonappan et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2021;Deng et al., 2020) (Fig. 4). ...
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Pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, and dyes are the main environmental contaminants that have serious effects on both land and aquatic lives and necessitate the development of effective methods to mitigate these issues. Although some conventional methods are in use to tackle soil contamination, but biochar and biochar-based composites represent a reliable and sustainable means to deal with a spectrum of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated environments. The capacity of biochars and derived constructs to remediate inorganic dyes, pesticides, insecticides, heavy metals, and pharmaceuticals from environmental matrices is attributed to their extensive surface area, surface functional groups, pore size distribution, and high sorption capability of these pollutants in water and soil environments. Application conditions, biochar feedstock, pyrolysis conditions and precursor materials are the factors that influence the capacity and functionality of biochar to adsorb pollutants from wastewater and soil. These factors, when improved, can benefit biochar in agrochemical and heavy metal remediation from various environments. However, the processes involved in biochar production and their influence in enhancing pollutant sequestration remain unclear. Therefore, this paper throws light on the current strategies, operational conditions, and sequestration performance of biochar and biochar-based composites for agrochemical and heavy metal in soil and water environments. The main challenges associated with biochar preparation and exploitation, toxicity evaluation, research directions and future prospects for biochar in environmental remediation are also outlined.
... However, crops can use and/or withstand limited contents of different heavy metals, while a higher concentration of these compounds can critically damage the productivity of susceptible crops. This scenario would become even worse by the gradual accumulation of these heavy metals in animals' bodies and then transfer into the human body (Adegbeye et al. 2020). Among numerous heavy metals, because of the high mobility in soil and water and also high ability to form various types, cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important heavy metals involved in different ecosystems through industrial wastes, atmospheric deposition, sludge disposal, fertilizers, etc. Fadel et al. 2020). ...
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Edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) is used as a food-medicine or ornamental plant, and despite its importance, there are few reports associated with cadmium (Cd) stress. This study aimed to appraise the crosstalk between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as a source of nitric oxide (NO), and cadmium toxicity on growth and physiological traits in edible amaranth by using different multivariate statistical methods. The results showed that growth-related traits of A. tricolor were significantly reduced under Cd stress. Contrarily, Cd treatments increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total protein content. Delving on the results of SNP application showed the suitability of its medium level (100 µM) on increasing the growth-related traits and also plant tolerance to Cd stress via lowering the lipid peroxidation and radical molecules production due to the higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Increasing the amount of Cd in roots and shoots, as the result of Cd treatment, reduced the growth and production of A. tricolor plants by high rates (over 50% in 60 mg kg⁻¹ Cd level), indicating its susceptibility to high Cd toxicity. Contrarily, treating plants with SNP showed no effect on shoot Cd content, while it significantly increased Cd allocation in the root, which might be attributable to the protective effect of NO on Cd toxicity by trapping Cd in the root. Subsequently, the application of a medium level of SNP (around 100 µM) is recommendable for A. tricolor plant to overcome the negative impacts of Cd toxicity. Moreover, according to the results of heatmap and biplot, under no application of Cd, the application of 100 µM SNP showed a great association with growth-related traits indicating the effectiveness of SNP on the productivity of this species even under no stress situations.
... One of the most challenging issues affecting agriculture is global environmental change (Brilli et al. 2019). Despite the agricultural activity-related adversities such as fertilizer overdose and intensive farming, sudden environmental change (i.e., solar wind and nuclear war) may put even more significant threats to modern agriculture (Adegbeye et al. 2020). Therefore, finding alternative methods of farming becomes necessary as these threats may severely affect our society or even civilization. ...
Article
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Exploring and utilizing the agronomic potential of deep-underground is one of the ways to cope with the challenges of sudden environmental change on agriculture. Understanding the effects of environmental stresses on the morphological and physiological indicators of crop seeds after their storage deep-underground is crucial to developing and implementing strategies for agriculture in the deep-underground space. In this study, we stored canola seeds in tunnels with horizontal depths of 0, 240, 690, and 1410 m in a gold mine. Seeds in envelopes were retrieved at 42, 66, 90, and 227 days of storage, whereas seeds in sealed packages were retrieved at 66 and 227 days of storage. The germination tests were conducted to investigate the effects of storage depth, duration, and packing method on stored and non-stored seeds. Results showed that increased depth and duration reduced seed germination rate, with the germination and vigor indexes also descending to varying degrees. Increased hypocotyl length and biomass accumulation suggested that deep-underground environment had a more significant compensatory effect on seed germination. For all indicators, the performance of seeds sealed in packages was superior to those stored in envelopes. Regression analysis showed that it was difficult to obtain the optimal value of each indicator simultaneously. The successful germination experiment foreshadowed the possibilities of deep-underground agriculture in the future.
... The results for shear strength in the filter cake system, when compared with the vinasse system, agree with others in the literature on incorporation of organic fibers for the improvement of soil shear strength, as observed in Prabakar & Sridhar [48]. These authors obtained good results in the increase of soil resistance with the incorporation of up to 0.75% of sisal fibers in the soil matrix [49][50][51][52]. ...
Article
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Compressibility and shear strength in agricultural soils are associated with pressures exerted on the soil surface by the intensive use of machines. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical behavior of an Ultisol cultivated with sugarcane under the application of sugarcane residues (vinasse and filter cake) and compare it with an Atlantic Forest soil. Uniaxial compression tests were performed through the application of increasing with pressures from 12.50 to 1,600 kPa, at three water contents in undisturbed samples from the layers of 0-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m, and for shear direct test were collected in the layers of 0-0.20 m and, subjected to three water content levels and four levels of normal tensions of direct shear. The higher content of total organic carbon in the soil under native forest (2.42 g kg-1) allowed higher pre-compression stresses (101.21-143.55 kPa) due to an increase in soil cohesion from 22.58 to 61.23 kPa, with the reduction in the volumetric water content. Thus, this natural condition was significantly different from the management systems, with respect to the mean values of cohesion, by Tukey test (p<0.05). The application of filter cake and vinasse for 25 years significantly favored the dissipation of pre-compression stress in the soil, compared with the soil under native forest. The system with filter cake application showed higher shear strength from the tension of 100 kPa on, with values from 120 to 190 kPa, in comparison to the system with vinasse application.
... Nevertheless, further research on forage production and forage feeding values under environmental stresses are still needed to improve livestock production. To date, many strategies have been developed to reduce global pollution for sustainable agroecosystems and cleaner animal production, including bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, mitigation of nitrous oxide and methane emissions, breeding of new varieties, nutrient recycling or recovery, waste management and biomass recycling, and the implementation of integrated systems of crop and livestock production (Adegbeye et al., 2020;Choi et al., 2020;Koley, 2021;Mahmud et al., 2021;Min et al., 2021). ...
Article
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This study was conducted to investigate the influence of feruloyl esterase-producing Lactobacillus plantarum A1 (Lp A1) and grape pomace (GP) alone, or in combination (LG) on ensiling characteristics and bacterial community, in vitro ruminal fermentation, methane (CH4) emission, and the microbiota of ensiled alfalfa. Alfalfa at 42% dry matter (DM) was treated in a 2 × 2 factorial design: with the application of Lp A1 at 0 (control) or 1 × 10⁶ cfu/g of fresh forage, and GP at 0 or 5% of fresh forage. After 60 d of ensiling, a decrease in nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) was observed in GP treated silage. Lp A1 inoculated silage had a lower fiber content than silages without Lp A1. The lowest NPN was found in silage treated with LG, and an obvious increase in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus paracasei was detected in silages treated with Lp A1 and LG, respectively. In vitro ruminal experiments indicated that, although the application of GP deceased ruminal total gas, CH4 production, nitrogen degradation and the number of methanogenic archaea in alfalfa silage, it also reduced silage DM digestibility. In contrast, inoculation with Lp A1 not only increased DM digestibility and populations of ruminal Ruminococcus flavefaciens and fungi, but also improved ruminal total gas and CH4 production. As expected, LG treatment decreased alfalfa silage ruminal total gas and CH4 production relative to Lp A1 treatment alone, and increased silage DM digestibility compared with GP treated silage. In conclusion, the application of LG before ensiling alfalfa, balanced silage proteolysis, feed digestibility, and CH4 emission, and could be a promising strategy for using food industry by-products to produce a nutritional and environmentally-friendly legume silage that will mitigate N and greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants.
... Alfalfa is considered a species adapted to drought. Its durability gives it the ability to contribute to the sustainability of rainwater systems [8][9][10]. Alfalfa, a covering plant, limits water loss by evaporation. ...
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The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the dried aerial parts of Pelargonium graveolens L. collected from the region of Khenifra (central Middle Atlas of Morocco) was studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry which has enabled us to identified 54 constituents representing (99.99%). The major components are Geraniol (31.01%), Citronellol (29.52%), Linalool (10.50%), Citronellyl formate (9.06%), Geranyl formate (5.75%), and iso-Menthone (2.86%) with a total percentage of (88.7%). The insecticidal property was achieved against Tychius aureolus and Hypera postica. This preliminary study showed that the essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L. exhibits remarkable toxicity towards these insects. The results of the tests showed a very important activity during 24 hours of the treatments confirmed by the values of LD50 and LD90. This activity was probably due to the major constituents. The antimicrobial power was studied in vitro against agricultural bacteria extracted from Medicago sativa L. Respectively Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Corynebacterium insidiosum, Pseudomonas, savastanoi pv. phaseolicola and Pseudomonas viridiflava. The results of the tests made it possible to quantitatively evaluate the bacterial power by looking for minimum inhibitory concentrations of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations of MBC, which showed a remarkable activity and an inhibitory effect against the strains tested.
... Globally, the livestock sector has a huge environmental footprint. It is responsible for emitting 14.5% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions (Adegbeye et al., 2020), 33% of the total reactive nitrogen emissions (Mueller and Lassaletta, 2020), and is utilizing 30% of the total ice-free land area (Havlík et al., 2012). While large regional differences exist, many of the current livestock production systems in the tropics are responsible for undesirable environmental effects. ...
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Livestock are critical for incomes, livelihoods, nutrition and ecosystems management throughout the global South. Livestock production and the consumption of livestock-based foods such as meat, cheese, and milk is, however, under global scrutiny for its contribution to global warming, deforestation, biodiversity loss, water use, pollution, and land/soil degradation. This paper argues that, although the environmental footprint of livestock production presents a real threat to planetary sustainability, also in the global south, this is highly contextual. Under certain context-specific management regimes livestock can deliver multiple benefits for people and planet. We provide evidence that a move toward sustainable intensification of livestock production is possible and could mitigate negative environmental impacts and even provide critical ecosystem services, such as improved soil health, carbon sequestration, and enhanced biodiversity on farms. The use of cultivated forages, many improved through selection or breeding and including grasses, legumes and trees, in integrated crop-tree-livestock systems is proposed as a stepping stone toward agroecological transformation. We introduce cultivated forages, explain their multi-functionality and provide an overview of where and to what extent the forages have been applied and how this has benefited people and the planet alike. We then examine their potential to contribute to the 13 principles of agroecology and find that integrating cultivated forages in mixed crop-tree-livestock systems follows a wide range of agroecological principles and increases the sustainability of livestock production across the globe. More research is, however, needed at the food system scale to fully understand the role of forages in the sociological and process aspects of agroecology. We make the case for further genetic improvement of cultivated forages and strong multi-disciplinary systems research to strengthen our understanding of the multidimensional impacts of forages and for managing agro-environmental trade-offs. We finish with a call for action, for the agroecological and livestock research and development communities to improve communication and join hands for a sustainable agri-food system transformation.
... Agro-waste may have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the environment. Contribution to greenhouse effect, eutrophication of water bodies, global phosphorus or nitrogen pollution (nutrient pollution), air pollution, climate change, and contribution to ozone depletion in the stratosphere are the main detrimental effects of agro-wastes on the environment (Adegbeye et al. 2020). ...
Chapter
Agricultural activities generate a huge amount of wastes enriched with potentially valuable compounds. This opens up the possibility of recycling agro-wastes for various purposes. Bulky and perishable nature of agro-wastes always provides hindrance for its storage and transportation. Thus, it demands immediate attention not only to extract the valuable compounds but also to reduce the wastes burden and possible environmental pollution if unattended. Utilization of agro-wastes and reduction of agro-waste induced environmental hazard demands use of efficient technology-specific for an agro-waste. Among different benefits, if recycled, agro-waste provides the soil nutritional security through replacement of mineral nutrients extracted by the crops. In this chapter, we discuss the various environmental implications due to agro-wastes and the possible benefits that can be earned from agro-waste. Use of agro-wastes as industrial raw materials, more particularly for energy production is discussed. Discussion is also made on improvement of soil quality in terms of soil physico-chemical properties, nutrient, and carbon enrichment. Underutilization of agro-waste is one of the major issues in developing countries like India. The hypothesis of the chapter is that utilization of agricultural wastes for crop production can result in substantial reduction of environmental pollution. Knowledge on different application opportunities of these valuable wastes is important to uplift the country’s economy and to reduce the pollution.
... The bionetworks of microbes consisting of bacteria, ciliate protozoa, anaerobic fungi, and methanogens in the rumen influences many biological processes such as biohydrogenation and methanogenesis, among others and are also influenced by the dietary intake too [1]. Thus, livestock feed supplementation is recommended to be among other solutions to minimize ruminant greenhouse gas emission [2,3]. The use of natural additives including those of phytogenic origin may be suitable for cleaner animal production [4]. ...
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The effect and conversion of diets containing water-washed neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) fruit (WN) biomass as substantiable feed resource was determined on rumen microbial population, fermentation, and meat fatty acid profile of fattened West African dwarf rams. One-year old, individually housed rams (N = 25; 12.3 ± 2.0 kg), five per treatment, were allocated in a completely randomized design to one of the five dietary treatments. Each treatment received 0 (WN0), 2.5 (WN2.5), 5 (WN5), 7.5 (WN7.5), and 10 (WN10) % of WN (% dry matter) of complete diet offered for 90 days. Rumen liquor was collected 4 h post feeding for microbial and fermentation assay while Longissimus dorsi muscle was taken after slaughtering the animal for fatty acids (FAs) determination, post feeding trial. Inclusion of WN initially increased but subsequently reduced (P < 0.05) the population of bacteria and fungi but consistently reduced the population of protozoa. The WN decreased NH3-N in WN7.5 and WN10 compared to other treatments. Propionate was higher in WN5 compared to the control. There was increased concentration of meat linolenic, vaccenic, rumenic, oleic, and lauric FAs in WN10 than WN0. Dietary inclusion of WN increased (P < 0.05) the constituent of unsaturated fatty acids, and total desaturase index in WN5 compared to other treatments. Incorporation of water-washed neem fruit beyond 5% reduced rumen microbial population, ammonia nitrogen, and propionate with increased unsaturated fatty acids including rumenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid known for its health promoting benefits. This imply that at 5% inclusion of water-washed neem fruit biomass there was better substantiable feed resource for stimulation of microbial growth for increased microbial protein production for host’s growth, efficiency in energy use, and the consumption of functional food. Graphical abstract
... One of the most challenging issues affecting agriculture is global environmental change (Brilli et al., 2019). Despite the agricultural activity-related adversities such as fertilizer overdose, intensive farming, and etc., sudden environmental change (i.e., solar wind, and nuclear war) may put even more signi cant threats to modern agriculture (Adegbeye et al., 2020). Therefore, nding alternative methods of farming becomes necessary as these threats may severely affect our society or even civilization. ...
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Exploring and utilizing the agronomic potential of deep-underground is one of the ways to cope with the challenges of sudden environmental change on agriculture. Understanding the effects of environmental stresses on the morphological and physiological indicators of crop seeds after their storage deep-underground is crucial to developing and implementing strategies for agriculture in the deep-underground space. In this study, we stored canola seeds in envelopes or sealed packages at 0, 240, 690, and 1,410 m in a gold mine. Seeds in envelopes were retrieved at 42, 66, 90, and 227 days of storage, whereas seeds in sealed packages were retrieved at 66 and 227 days of storage. The germination tests were conducted to investigate the effects of storage depth, duration, and packing method on stored and non-stored seeds. Results showed that increased depth and duration led to decreased seed germination rate, with the germination and vigor indexes also descending to varying degrees. Increased hypocotyl length and biomass accumulation suggested that deep-underground environment had more significant compensatory effect on seed germination. For all indicators, the performance of seeds sealed in packages was superior to those stored in envelopes. Regression analysis showed that it was difficult to obtain the optimal value of each indicator simultaneously. The successful germination experiment foreshadowed the possibilities of deep-underground agriculture in the future.
... Initially, this matter is the natural process of the earth to balance the temperature in the atmosphere. In the atmosphere there are several types of gases known as greenhouse gases for example nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) (M.J. Adegbeye et al, 2020). The processes of heating, reflection, heat absorption and release of geothermal into space will balance the temperature in the atmosphere. ...
Conference Paper
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Tropical forests contribute to the extensive amount of above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon stocks for the whole world. Over the past few centuries, the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) including greenhouse gases to the atmosphere has become increased due to anthropogenic activities and natural consequences, which has an enormous influence on the impact of climate change. Therefore, forests play an important role in human life in supplying oxygen (O2) and absorbing carbon dioxide (CO2) to stabilize the earth's ecosystem. In protecting forests that have a variety of trees, many researchers have developed a variety of methods and ways to estimate the above-ground biomass and carbon stock. In general, AGB was an estimate based on the structure and volume of the trees, which is the trees height and diameter at breast height (DBH) consider as major parameters. In the absence of species-specific biomass equation of the tree, many equations will be used to estimate for individual tree species in tropical forest type which had been developed by world global researchers. The aim of this study was to measure the estimation of AGB and carbon stock using regression model. Hence, the objective of this study: (1) to estimate AGB and carbon stock in a tropical forest using allometric equation, and (2) to investigate the relationship between Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) with AGB and carbon stock estimation. Based on the result, there was a relationship between DBH with AGB and carbon stock estimation by using different equation.
... Thirdly, practices carried out in agricultural production are generally known as contributing to environmental pollution, which is further affecting food security, human health, and climate, thus imposing the need to shift from 'unclean' practices to sustainable ones [92]. They are integrated into our environmental dimension of sustainability with focus on production specificity, disease, weed and pest control, used plastics, usage of mulch foil, manure storage platform, and organic and inorganic waste. ...
Article
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Considering that sustainability is a relative concept, but also that this limitation could be avoided through continuous adaptation of the evaluation tools by taking into account the directions of change (such as time, space, application domain), the goal of the present study is to elaborate a matrix for measuring the level of sustainability for small vegetable farms. Thus, looking at what sustainability could represent under such circumstances, we divided its characteristics into four main dimensions (economic, social, environmental, cultural), while adding the private dimension. Inclusion of the private dimension may provide potential added value to this study, and thus enrich the general perspective of producers’ capacity to meet the sustainability goals in their entrepreneurial activity. To quantify these five dimensions of the sustainability matrix, a questionnaire was built up and used as support for face-to-face interviews conducted at the level of the North-East Development Region of Romania. Our results showed associations between diverse components of the dimensions considered, revealing their synergy in farm activity, along with the occurrence of some differences in the levels of sustainability dimensions and sub-dimensions, which differ as a function of the specific types of vegetable production (conventional, ecologic, natural, mixed).
... Models can be used to evaluate the potential benefits and tradeoffs of combining new genotypes and new management approaches in the target production environments by accounting for interactions of genotype, environment, and management (G Â E Â M) (Chenu et al., 2013;Kholová et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2014). Sorghum (S. bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most droughtresilient crops grown worldwide for grain, forage, and biomass (Adegbeye et al., 2020). The crop originated in the warm semiarid tropics of Africa (Doggett & Majisu, 1968) and diffused widely, including to semiarid and subhumid temperate regions of the world (Smith & Frederiksen, 2000). ...
Article
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Many crop species, particularly those of tropical origin, are chilling sensitive, so improved chilling tolerance can enhance production of these crops in temperate regions. For the cereal crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), early planting and chilling tolerance have been investigated for >50 years, but the potential value or tradeoffs of this genotype × management change have not been formally evaluated with modeling. To assess the potential of early planted chilling-tolerant grain sorghum in the central US sorghum belt, we conducted CERES-Sorghum simulations and characterized scenarios under which this change would be expected to enhance (or diminish) drought escape, water capture, and yield. We conducted crop growth modeling for full- and short-season hybrids under rainfed systems that were simulated to be planted in very early (April), early (May 15), and normal (June 15) planting dates over 1986–2015 in four locations in Kansas representative of the central US sorghum belt. Simulations indicated that very early planting will generally lead to lower initial soil moisture, longer growing periods, and higher evapotranspiration. Very early planting is expected to extend the growing period by 20% for short- or full-season hybrids, reduce evaporation during fallow periods, and increase plant transpiration in the two-thirds of years with the highest precipitation (mean > 428 mm), leading to 11% and 7% increase grain yield for short- and full-season hybrids, respectively. Thus, in this major sorghum growing region, very early and early planting could reduce risks of terminal droughts, extend seasons, and increase rotation options, suggesting that further development of chilling-tolerant hybrids is warranted.
... However, crops can use and/or withstand limited contents of different heavy metals, while a higher concentration of these compounds can critically damage the productivity of susceptible crops. This scenario would become even worse by the gradual accumulation of these heavy metals in animals' bodies and then transfer into the human body (Adegbeye et al. 2020). Among numerous heavy metals, because of the high mobility in soil and water and also high ability to form various types, cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important heavy metals involved in different ecosystems through industrial wastes, atmospheric deposition, sludge disposal, fertilizers, etc., (Assaad et al. 2020;Fadel et al. 2020). ...
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This study aimed to appraise the crosstalk between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as a source of nitric oxide (NO), and cadmium (Cd) toxicity on growth and physiological traits in Amaranth tricolor L. by using different multivariate statistical methods. The results showed that growth-related traits of A. tricolor were significantly reduced (p<0.05) under Cd stress. Contrarily, Cd treatments increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total protein content. Delving on the results of SNP application showed the suitability of its medium level (100 µM) on increasing the growth-related traits and also plant tolerance to Cd stress via lowering the lipid peroxidation and radical molecules production due to the higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Increasing the amount of Cd in roots and shoots, as the results of Cd treatment, reduced the growth and production of A. tricolor plants by high rates (over 50% in 60 mg kg ⁻¹ Cd level) indicating its susceptibility to high Cd toxicity. Contrarily, treating plants with NO showed no effect on shoot Cd content, while it significantly increased Cd allocation in the root, which might be attributable to the protective effect of NO on Cd toxicity by trapping Cd in the root. Subsequently, the application of a medium level of SNP (around 100 µM) is recommendable for A. tricolor plant to overcome the negative impacts of Cd toxicity.
... At a rate that exceeds the ability of the Earth to replenish, resources such as raw materials, fuels, biomass, and water are being continuously drawn. Pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, waste generation, and land degradation are the major effects of this increased resource use, as is also supported by studies [27,28]. The consumption of energy in activities building like transport, construction, and construction is a significant contributor to the global emissions of CO2. ...
Article
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Energy computations in commercial and residential buildings have been studied over the past few years by various researchers. The studies have revealed an interesting relation between the materials used in the building, the manufacturing process, the construction process, and its overall impact on the environment. However, limited studies have been conducted on the computation of the embodied energy (EE) and the operational energy (OE) of residential buildings. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to compute these two factors (EE and OE) for a residential building situated in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. The case study chosen here is an exciting example of a reinforced cement concrete framed structure with ground + three floors. Based on the conducted studies, the EE computations show that a huge amount of energy is used for materials such as cement, steel, and bricks. The use of alternative building materials to these and technologies can help in reducing EE. OE can be reduced during the lifetime of the building by implementing different methods of energy conservation. The energy consumption in a typical residential building depends on the types of appliances, usage hours, the consumption of the devices, etc. Changes in any one of these could alter the annual energy consumption, and thus, the OE. The EE content is experienced once separately from maintenance and renovation, whereas OE gathers over time and can be prejudiced throughout the life of the structure.
... The curve line stated the connections and the size of the plots comprised by the density of appearances of sustainable agriculture hold most of the research's attention as it holds a significant concern to effectively allocate the environmental transitions that can lead to fewer detritions and more productivity. A clear viewpoint in research activities on current agro-ecological systems will be recommended for ecological enhancement, although SA practices the strengthen the social viability and economic solvency, which is supported by Adegbeye et al. (2020), El Chami et al. (2020, Semida et al. (2019) and Rose et al. (2019). To minimize or prevent adverse effects of chemical controlling indicates an increasing value for sustainable growth metrics, the formation of strict legislation and credential schemes for availing long-term effects, and increases the awareness level of general farmers. ...
Article
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The global trends of sustainable agriculture (SA) have expanded dramatically through many scholarly studies in this area. Many literary works have focused on several aspects of sustainable agriculture (SA), such as the effectiveness of pesticide management, impacts on cultivation and enhancement, quantifying with soil, water, and air, agro-ecological activities, ecological aspects, and other areas of focus. The review offers a structured bibliometric and network evaluation that will profoundly observe the recent trends of SA, which other studies in this field have not comprehensively analyzed before. The study’s prime objectives are to investigate the progress, trends and themes, and provide a comprehensive mapping of the field of sustainable agriculture. The study utilizes the Web of Science core collection database to search, filter, and extract the published article from 1992–2020. The review commences by exploring over 3000 journal articles, those then filtered into some well-recognized matrix of impacts and published by impactful journals, institutions, and authors. The results indicate a stable growth in publications since 2006, with a sharp improvement from 2010. Thematic assessment of key concepts by exploring the abstract discovered a robust emphasis on quantitative resource associations within a strong subjective focus with farm capacities and inner-sectorial dominations. We reveal how the outcome may assist the sectors to facilitate better understandings and comprehend the challenging transitions based on brainstorming to action formulation.
... Besides, the depletion of natural resources, low use of direct inputs, and dependence on rainfall for the agricultural sector as well as limited use of practice of innovative technologies and practices have contributed to reduced productivity (Tesso, 2019;Gashaw et al., 2014;Villena and Greve, 2018;Daley, 2015;Adegbeye et al., 2020). To this end, studies indicate that environmental challenges and climate change problems constitute deep-rooted economic, social, and environmental obstacles in Ethiopia (Gashaw et al., 2014;Zikargae, 2021;Wassie, 2020;Daley, 2015). ...
Article
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This study examined non-formal Environmental Education (EE) is employed in interventions aimed at empowering rural society in Ethiopia. The study focused on a relatively less explored area of how non-formal EE in the form of project-based learning and how it was used to equip the community with skills and knowledge. Using qualitative data collection methods and thematic analysis was employed as an analytical strategy, the study produced evidence of the importance of community programs to out-of-school youths and adults in the acquisition of fundamental skills and knowledge. Greening campaigns were found to be essential in sustaining the lives of the rural communities. As demonstrated in the study, community projects aimed at enhancing learning are in sync with theory of project-based learning. Assisted by relevant conceptualization, the organization which motivated this study, develops insights for knowledge management for further implementation strategies. Its major focus is on empowering poor communities and their institutions by ensuring environmental security and livelihoods. As crucial stakeholders, communities received knowledge and technical skills through experience sharing, training, and workshops. Findings further indicated that most of the project community members were illiterate prior to their engagement in the project activities, which demonstrated that they needed to acquire basic knowledge and skills enact agency. Many community members became part of the project because of the mobilization and awareness creation campaign by the local development organization. However, there have been several roadblocks to the implementation of the community projects. But most importantly the study shows, skills and knowledge imparted through EE were important to implement community projects, helping to enhance community participation in raising environmental quality, thereby improving environmental performance, farming methods, and livelihood situations. We suggest project-based learning be used as a tool for community empowerment initiatives aimed at responding to environmental problems.
... Consequently, problems such as unknown input and output, low circulation efficiency, and lack of comprehensive evaluation occurred, increasing challenges for efficient circulation of the systems. This might lead to the imbalance between demand and supply in some links, resulting in dissipation and blockage of substances as well as inadequate circulation or probable pollution, thus affecting the sustainable development of the modern circular agriculture system [7]. In addition, as the actual operators of the systems were mostly enterprise entities, driven by the one-sided pursuit of economic benefits, they tended to ignore the efficient utilization of local agricultural waste resources and failed to achieve the initial design intention "closed cycle" of circular systems, making the application and promotion of modern circular agriculture systems face difficulties [8]. ...
Article
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Developing modern circular agriculture is one of the important ways to promote agricultural sustainable development, facilitating the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations. However, when agricultural production operators constructed particular systems, they often lacked accurate data support and parameter matching. Consequently, problems such as unknown input and output, low circulation efficiency, and lack of comprehensive evaluation occurred, increasing challenges for efficient circulation of the systems. Therefore, based on sufficient data collection and field investigation, this research integrated emergy analysis and life cycle assessment to conduct sustainability evaluation on the modern Straw–Sheep–Cropland agro-pastoral circular system. Then the system was optimized by means of coupling parameter adjustment and key technology regulation. The results showed that the whole system required lower total emergy input after optimization. And the total weighted value of potential environmental impacts of the optimized system was 47.12% of that of the original system. Meanwhile, annual environmental service emergy in air, water, and soil was reduced significantly compared with the original one. In general, the optimized system had good performance in reduction, reuse, and controllability, so its sustainability was also high. This research formed a systematic method suitable for evaluating and optimizing the modern agro-pastoral circular system, which provided accurate guidance for the scientific construction and sustainable development of circular agriculture systems.
... However, in-forest planting may have negative effects on the forest, and several researches reported that agroforestry leads to decreasing biodiversity and threatens forest health [8]. For example, fertilization during herb cultivation can lead to soil eutrophication, lower ground water quality [9], and reduced soil microbial community diversity [10], and nutrient competition between crop and keystone trees might diminish the dominance of keystone plants and deteriorate the health of the ecosystem and agroforestry sustainability [11]. Hence, nearly all countries across the world are trying to find sustainable in-forest planting systems that are both economically and ecologically compatible with their local backgrounds. ...
Article
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Sarcandra glabra in-forest planting, an anthropogenic activity that may introduce a variety of disturbances into the forest, is being popularly promoted in southern China, while its consequential influences on soil nutrients, as well as the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) community of key forest keystone plants, are still unelucidated, which hampers the assessment of ecological safety and the improvement of agronomic measurements. In this research, topsoil from a 3-year-old Sarcandra glabra planted forest and a nearby control forest were sampled, and the annual variation in the soil nutrients and AMF community of the keystone tree Cunninghamia lanceolata were investigated. Our result showed that the total amount of soil organic carbon of the Sarcandra glabra cultivation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), which indicated that Sarcandra glabra cultivation significantly enhanced the topsoil carbon storage. Yet, there were only insignificant differences in the Shannon index and Chao index of the AMF community between the two groups (p > 0.05). PCoA analysis found that the compositional differences between two groups were also insignificant. This indicated that Sarcandra glabra cultivation had no significant influence on the diversity and composition of the Cunninghamia lanceolata AMF community. However, we found that the differences in the total amounts of nitrogen and total phosphorus between the two groups were relatively lower in April and September, which indicated the higher nutrient demands and consumption of Sarcandra glabra in these two periods and suggested that a sufficient fertilizer application in these two stages would reduce the potential competition for nutrients between Sarcandra glabra and Cunninghamia lanceolata in order to ensure Sarcandra glabra production and forest health. Lastly, our results reported a total extra income ranging from of CNY 127,700 hm−2 (7 years of cultivation) to CNY 215,300 hm−2 (10 years cultivation) provided by Sarcandra glabra in-forest planting, which indicated its powerful potential for mitigating poverty. Our research systematically investigated the annual variation in the soil nutrient content and keystone tree AMF community caused by Sarcandra glabra cultivation and offers constructive guidance for Sarcandra glabra cultivation and fertilization management and ecological safety assessment.
... Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be ensured to reverse the trend of soil quality decline [4]. Fertilization with organically derived fertilizer represents an alternative for sustainable agriculture that can provide sufficient nutritious food for all while reducing environmental risk [6]. Manure is the most popular organic fertilizer used in crop production which contains complex molecules as nutrients and diverse microorganisms with the ability to decompose OM. ...
Article
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The implementation of sustainable agro-energy systems that integrate crop, livestock, and bioenergy production is attracting increasing interest from farmers. Livestock produces large amounts of animal manure which can serve as organic fertilizer for crops and pasture growth. However , the nutrients contained in manure can adversely affect air, water, and soil quality and pose a public health risk if not handled properly. Existing manure management practices vary widely on a global scale. Researchers are striving to identify appropriate manure management practices with the aim of environmental protection. Anaerobic digestion of manure and subsequent digestate (DG) processing technologies have been proposed to stabilize manure so that it can be safely used for land applications. DG, which represents digested substrate removed from the anaerobic reactor after recovery of biogas, is a rich source of N, P, K, and S, various micronutrients, and organic matter, the addition of which to the soil can stimulate soil microbial biomass metabolic activities thus improving soil ecosystem function. However, the optimal fertilization properties of DG can be lost if it is neither fully stabilized nor contains biodegradable materials. To overcome these problems, various processing technologies can be used to convert DG into value-added by-products. Composting has been proposed as one such preferred post-treatment that can convert DG into mature, stable, safe, humus-and nutrient-rich compost. Other processing technologies such as thermal drying, gasification , hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis, membrane filtration, struvite precipitation, ammonia stripping, and evaporation have also been proposed for DG processing and nutrient recovery from DG. The objective of this review paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art in DG management regulations and practices and to provide an update on the various processes that have been developed to meet DG stabilization requirements, with a focus on composting as one of the preferred solutions.
... Green production and pollution reduction in agriculture have been a global topic of broad and current interest [12,13]. Social behaviorists believe that individual will is the forerunner of behavior, and the two have a high degree of consistency [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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The green transformation of production modes plays an essential role in the sustainable development of China’s agriculture and the modernization process, but there is often a deviation between farmers’ behavior and their willingness regarding green production. This paper analyzed the factors influencing the deviation of farmers’ green production behaviors from their willingness, along with their hierarchical logic structure, using the ordered logit model and ISM model with field survey data of 436 households in Hainan Province. The results show that: (1) there are deviations between farmers’ green production behavior and willingness; (2) age, number of dependents, peer influence, and social networks aggravate farmers’ green production behavior–willingness deviation, while ethnicity, education, land fragmentation, agricultural expenditure, land transfer, neighborhood learning, and green production cognition mitigate the deviation; (3) among the significant influencing factors, farmers’ perceptions of green production, peer influence, land transfer, and agricultural expenditure are the direct surface factors, while neighborhood learning, land fragmentation, and number of dependents are the middle indirect factors, and farmers’ education, social networks, age, and ethnicity are the deep-rooted factors. This study sheds more light and detail on the understanding of the factors influencing farmers’ green production behavior–willingness deviation, and provides more practical and relevant guidance for the agricultural green development in tropical China.
... Agricultural soils are an important resource for food security and the environment and play important roles in water storage, nutrient cycling, and crop production [1]. Currently, mechanized agricultural production has been extensively employed across China, not only to conserve water and improve land utilization but also to reduce the physical labor required of farmers and decrease production costs [2]. ...
Article
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Winter wheat and summer maize rotation is the main cropping pattern in the North China Plain (NCP). There are still problems with farmers’ production modes, including shallow tillage layers, single application of chemical fertilizer causing plow bottom layer thickening and soil pH decrease. A two-factor location experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different tillage and fertilization patterns on the soil physical properties, soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen-use efficiency, and crop yield of wheat–maize rotation systems during the years 2018–2020. The different treatments were deep tillage + organic fertilizer (DTF), shallow tillage + organic fertilizer (STF), no tillage + organic fertilizer (NTF), deep tillage + nitrogen fertilizer (DT), shallow tillage + nitrogen fertilizer (ST), and no tillage + nitrogen fertilizer (NT). The results showed that STF treatment could effectively improve the physical properties of soil and, SOC content, and increase both the crop yield and revenue of farmers. In the STF treatment, soil water content was highest in the 0–20 cm layer (2018), which was 4.89–11.31% higher than that of the other treatments; additional organic fertilizer application reduced soil bulk and increased the proportion of <0.25 mm aggregates; SOC and soil total nitrogen (TN) content were highest in the 20–40 cm layer, (15.82–32.63% and 28.57–42.86%, respectively). The total yield of wheat–maize rotation for both years was the highest under STF treatment. The annual economic benefits under this treatment were 42,182.26 and 42,254.54 CNY ha−1, which were 1.02–12.94% and 2.29–9.87% higher than those of the other treatments. Therefore, the suggested planting method in the NCP is tillage of over 20 cm and additional organic fertilizer.
... The current farming practices also contributed to this climate emergency due to the continuous application of fertilisers, pollution of surface and underground water, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions (emission of methane (CH 4 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O)), mostly from cattle production. To mitigate these climate change effects, sustainable agri-food activities must be practised and adopted globally [26]. ...
Article
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Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) territories are highly relevant to achieving sustainable lifestyles with human subsistence in balance with the ecosystem. The Barroso agro-sylvo-pastoral system is a clear example of this alignment between existing society, nature and natural resources, the environment, landscapes, and contextual heritage. Moreover, the sustainable use of existing natural resources, excellent environmental conditions, and breath-taking untouched landscapes represent a truly relevant factor towards the development of a region economy that is still greatly influenced by an engraved cultural, patrimonial, and agricultural heritage. Given the GIAHS classification attributed to that territory, the need arises to guarantee the existing environmental conditions. This context will allow the maintenance of the GIAHS classification, ensuring the quality of life in the region and stimulating its socio-economic development and overall sustainability. The present article describes a proposal for a digital ecosystem model aimed at the Barroso GIAHS, composed of four main functional hubs that actively interact with each other: smart environment, smart government, smart economy, and smart people. Based on wireless sensor networks, IoT, artificial intelligence, data analytics, and other technological solutions, this solution will allow real-time control of the territory’s environmental conditions and develop more efficient and well-supported management and governance.
... Moreover, the four countries mentioned above possess a significant buffalo population, holding an imperative role in the socioeconomic development of their rural sections. Besides, effective utilization of locally available nonconventional feedstuffs is necessary for sustainable livestock production (Adegbeye et al. 2020). ...
Article
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Palm kernel cake, the main by-product of the palm kernel oil extraction process, is a highly available and low-priced agro-industrial by-product. However, several concerns exist to arriving at a safe inclusion level, especially for buffaloes. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding de-oiled palm kernel cake (DPKC) to tropical buffaloes. In trial I, four fistulated Murrah buffaloes arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design were fed diets containing DPKC inclusions at 0, 15, 30, and 45% levels of compound feed to study their effects on rumen fermentation parameters. Trial II involves feeding twelve lactating buffaloes with DPKC inclusion levels at 0 or 15% of the compound feed to evaluate the effect of DPKC on the nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical constituents, rumen fermentation patterns, and lactation profile. The DPKC diets did not affect rumen pH, TCA-ppt nitrogen, and TVFA proportion; nevertheless, the NH3-N data revealed a decreased trend (P = 0.076). The acetate fraction decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increased DPKC diets. Replacing the conventional protein sources with DPKC at a 15% level did not influence the nutrient intake and digestibility coefficients. No significant effects were observed for serum biochemical and mineral profiles of the lactating buffaloes fed the DPKC diet. Neither milk yield nor milk constituents (SNF, total solids, density, lactose, protein) were altered with the diets fed, except for milk fat%, which tended to increase (P = 0.092) on feeding DPKC diets. All the lactation parameters varied with time of collection, and diet × time interactions were noticed for fat, density, protein, 6% FCM yield, and butterfat yield. The feed efficiency tended to increase (P = 0.070) in the buffaloes fed DPKC diets. The profit margins were ₹6.07 and ₹1.63 for the DPKC included diets and feed cost per Kg 6% FCMY, respectively. In conclusion, the inclusion of DPKC in the diet decreases feed cost without affecting the nutrient intakes, digestibility coefficients, serum biochemical and mineral profile, and lactation parameters.
... They are better adapted to arid and semi-arid tropics with marginal and sub-marginal lands. They are perhaps the most suitable small ruminants to utilize the sparse vegetation available in dryland areas through rangeland management and reseeded pastures (Adegbeye et al., 2020). Sheep farming is important source of livelihood in various parts of underdeveloped or developing world viz. ...
Article
Sheep, with multi-facet utility (for meat, wool, skin, dung, and to some extent milk) plays a significant part in the Indian agricultural economy. India is having the second greatest number of sheep & goat in the world after China and has indigenous breeds with good productivity. Sheep are better adapted to India’s arid and semi-arid tropical zones with marginal and sub-marginal lands. Sheep are possibly the most ideal small ruminants to exploit the scant vegetation available in dryland environments through rangeland management and reseeded pastures. The sheep farming sector in India needs marketing infrastructure facilities for value addition such as meat processing, warehousing, cold storage, and refrigerated trucks and there is a notable shortage of public-private partnerships. However, being advanced in veterinary infrastructure at ground level, and the expanding demand for sheep-sourced products generates an untapped opportunity for the export & value-added products. The current paradigm change in government policies is enabling farmers to move to scientific sheep farming which can assist and boost the productivity and farmer's revenue in India.
... Aspergillaceae family from the Ascomycota phylum have been used as feed additives in animal nutrition (Adegbeye et al., 2020) because they decrease methane emissions by reducing the growth and activity of methanogenic bacteria (Wolin & Miller, 2006). The abundance of Aspergillus in the starter phase might indicate a decrease in methane emissions. ...
Article
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Improved understanding of the microbial populations during intensive feeding of feedlot cattle holds potential for optimizing production efficiency. Ionophores are used to increase the production and efficiency of ruminants and are commonly used in South African feedlots. Bonsmara bull calves (n=24) were subject to a four-phase feedlot diet in a growth trial commencing with backgrounding, followed by starter, grower and finisher diets. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: control and a group provided the in-feed ionophore monensin. Four animals from each group were randomly selected for rumen content collection using an oesophageal tube during the phases in the trial. Samples were analysed using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacers amplicon sequencing. Totals of 42 008 and 35 442 amplicon sequence variants were identified from 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacers amplicon sequencing. The rumen microbiome composition and alpha diversity differed significantly between the phases, whereas no significant difference was observed between the control and monensin groups. Backgrounding had the highest bacterial richness, whereas the grower phase had the highest fungal richness. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla, with Bacteroidetes being most abundant in the backgrounding and starter phases, whereas Proteobacteria was the most abundant in the grower and finisher phases. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Neocallistigomycota were the most abundant fungal phyla. Improved knowledge of the shift in microbiome population during the growth period could assist in adapting feeding strategies to improve the efficiency of beef production.
... For instance, the proportion of rural households with both crop planting and livestock has declined from 71% in 1986 to 12% in 2017 (Jin et al. 2021), inducing the decoupling of livestock and crop production. This transition was criticized for lack of effective utilization on livestock waste and crop residues and exacerbating environmental impacts (van Eeden et al. 2018;Clark and Tilman 2017;Adegbeye et al. 2020;Herrero et al. 2016;Tasho and Cho 2016;Tullo et al. 2019;Pozzer et al. 2017). Rebuilding the links between livestock and croplands to promote waste exchanges has been suggested to address the related environmental issues (IPCC 2022, Jin et al. 2021. ...
Article
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The rapid specialization of livestock production contributes to spatially decoupled crop and livestock production. Relinking croplands and livestock to promote wastes and by-products exchange has been suggested to provide opportunities for sustainable intensification of agriculture systems. However, the environmental and economic performances of such crop–livestock systems remain highly context specific and unclear. This study proposed an emergy-LCA-based framework to study the GHG mitigation and ecological and economic benefits of the integrated crop planting and livestock feeding systems, by taking wheat maize rotation-swine systems (WMRS), tea-swine systems (TS) and citrus alfalfa intercropping-swine systems (CAIS) as the empirical cases. The results showed the three case modes can generally promote GHG mitigation and ecological and economic benefits. CAIS had the lowest carbon footprint per kcal product (0.12 g CO2-eq kcal⁻¹), followed by TS (0.61 g CO2-eq kcal⁻¹) and MWRS (0.66 g CO2-eq kcal⁻¹). The significant difference in this indicator can be attributed to their different upstream input and manure management. Due to the lower dependence on purchased resources, CAIS also had the best performance on emergy-based sustainability and economic benefits. Based on our results, the policy implications, including promoting wastes and by-products exchange, choosing reasonable manure treatment mode and conducting systematic planning have been suggested to provide opportunities for GHG mitigation and sustainable intensification of agro-systems.
... Selection of a Brassicaceae crop has been especially attractive to favor pollinator habitat (Eberle et al. 2015;Holzschuh et al. 2013). In the southeastern United States, the underutilized winter season and the market opportunity for oilseeds have stimulated interest in this crop (Adegbeye et al. 2020;Hagos et al. 2020). However, due to the limited number of registered herbicides in carinata, weed management will need to be well-timed to meet the expected yields (Leon et al. 2017;Ethridge et al. 2021). ...
Article
Adoption of the new biofuel crop carinata ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) in the southeastern United States will largely hinge on sound agronomic recommendations that can be economically incorporated into and are compatible with existing rotations. Timing of weed control is crucial for yield protection and long term weed seed bank management, but predictive weed emergence models have not been as widely studied in winter crops for this purpose. In this work, we use observed and predicted emergence of a winter annual weed community to create recommendations for timing weed control according to weed and crop phenology progression. Observed emergence timings for four winter annual weed species in North Carolina were used to validate previously published models developed for winter annual weeds in Florida by accounting for temperature and daylength differences, and this approach explained over 70% of the variability in observed emergence. Emergence of stinking chamomile ( Anthemis cotula L.) and cutleaf evening primrose ( Oenothera laciniata Hill.) followed biphasic patterns comparable to wild radish ( Raphanus raphanistrum L.), which were predicted with previously published models accounting for 82 and 84% of the variation, respectively. Using the predictive models for weed emergence and carinata growth, critical control windows (CCW) were estimated for Clayton, NC and Jay, FL, according to different planting dates. The results demonstrated how early planting coincided with the emergence of three competitive winter weeds, but early control could also remove a large proportion of the predicted emergence of these species. The framework for how planting timing will affect winter weed emergence and crop growth will be an instructive decision-making tool to help prepare farmers to manage weeds in carinata, but it could also be useful for weed management planning for other winter crops.
... Emission of nitrous oxide in the air and leaching of nitrate in the water cause contamination in the environment (Ramírez-Rodríguez et al., 2020). Agricultural production is enhanced by adopting sustainable agricultural practices that ultimately mitigate the risk of shortage of food (Adegbeye et al., 2020;Sharma et al., 2020;Rajput et al., 2021). Now days, 6 billion people are continuously feed by sustainable agricultural practices without harming the environment. ...
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Climate change has worsened the existing scenario by increasing temperature, severity of extreme droughts, elevating evapotranspiration and severe water shortage. Furthermore, excessive and unwisely application of fertilizers ultimate produce degraded agricultural land. All these consequences reduced the yield and quality of agricultural commodities to feed the increasing population of the world. Innovative products of trending technology in the field of agriculture, nanotechnology, contribute a significant boost for food production. The shortage of fresh water can be managed by adopting different efficient irrigation methods, also promote the quality and quantity of agricultural crops. By keeping in view, the above all, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nano nitrogen (nN) under different water regimes and assessed the growth attribute and other essential nutrient uptake by lettuce plant in different combination of bulk and nano nitrogen forms with surface and drip irrigation method. In this experiment, for the comparison of different irrigation methods, two control treatments were chosen, such as 100% bulk size nitrogen (bN) in surface irrigation and 100% bN application by drip irrigation. While nN was applied with bN in different combinations through drip irrigation and foliar application. Among all the combinations of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, application of 75% nN through drip irrigation and 25% of nN in foliar application significantly affect the growth and biochemical parameters such as plant biomass, leaf area, absolute growth rate, net assimilation rate, β-carotene, crude protein and yield. Similarly, N uptake, N use efficiency and apparent N recovery were increased by this combination as compared to lower N rates. The results indicated that the combined application of nN as a soil and foliar treatment was more efficient than that of soil application of bN. Furthermore; it could minimize the required N fertilization rate to reduce environmental pollution without any yield loss.
... By contrast, a more numerous, richer, and urbanized global population will also generate increasing amounts of waste material that will require new management approaches [6]. Thus, the challenge of securing a high-quality protein supply at the global level, while curbing the deleterious effects of resource-intensive agricultural food production [1,7], interlinks directly with the necessity to establish a more sustainable circular management of waste and residual resources [8,9]. In view of the above, a circular bioeconomy approach (see Glossary) using waste as renewable and locally sourced energy, carbon, and nutrient feedstocks to support the production of a wide range of biobased products, including protein [10], is being advocated as a promising solution. ...
Article
Securing a sustainable protein supply at the global level is among the greatest challenges currently faced by humanity. Alternative protein sources, such as second-generation microbial protein (MP), could give rise to innovative circular bioeconomy practices, synthesizing high-value bioproducts through the recovery and upcycling of resources from overabundant biowastes and residues. Within such a multi-feedstock biorefinery scenario, the wide range of microbial pathways and networks that characterize mixed microbial cultures, offers interesting and not yet fully explored advantages over conventional monoculture-based processes. In this review, we combine a comprehensive analysis of waste recovery platforms for second-generation MP production with a critical evaluation of the research gaps and potentials offered by mixed culture-based MP fermentation processes.
... The Krishna and Godavari zones of Andhra Pradesh, India, contributes to 67% of the total country's oil palm farming and produces 136.2 mt palm kernel cake per annum (Raju et al., 2017). Designing location-specific feeding strategies using locally available non-conventional feed resources aids in sustainable and profitable livestock farming (Adegbeye et al., 2020). Besides, the rapid hike in feed prices and shortage of feed grains and traditional protein supplements necessitate exploring unconventional feed resources. ...
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Background: Palm kernel cake is a high-fibre and medium-grade protein feed available at a cheaper price. Determining the optimum quantity of palm kernel cake inclusion levels could help in designing sustainable livestock-feeding systems. The studies related to its use in buffaloes are scarce. Considering the indispensable role of buffaloes in enhancing the Indian economy, the current study is aimed at finding the optimum level of palm kernel cake inclusion in rations of buffaloes. Methods: In a 44 LSD, four graded Murrah buffalo bulls (4 yrs; 329±10.4 kg) were fed maintenance rations comprising Super Napier and concentrate mixture. A concentrate mixture with 20% CP was prepared using conventional feed ingredients and is used as control. De-oiled palm kernel cake (DPKC) is incorporated at 0, 15, 30 and 45 per cent level to study the effect of feeding DPKC on nutrient utilization, mineral (calcium, phosphorus and nitrogen) balance and rumen fluid parameters (TVFA and nitrogen dynamics). Result: The DPKC diets did not affect nutrient intakes; however, decreased the nutrient digestibility coefficients. The nitrogen outgo was higher and the N retention and per cent absorbed was lower for DPKC-included diets. No effects were observed on the calcium and phosphorus balance of diets. A linearly decreased pattern of TVFA and total nitrogen was observed with increased levels of DPKC. Further, the diets did not affect food and protozoal N and residual N of rumen liquor.
... Most waste is dumped into landfills, producing hazardous GHGs, mainly methane, that create health issues and affect the environment (Reddy et al., 2020). In India, massive amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) are created, resulting in environmental issues. ...
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Out of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) created by the global organization in 2015, the 7th and 9th are SDG which includes targets no. 5 and 8; these are affordable and clean energy and industry, innovation, and infrastructure. SDGs aim to “protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and biodiversity loss, clean and green energy for one and all, reduced inequality, good health, and well-being.” Several observations have found earthworms and microbes’ symbiotic actions influence the fossilized amount, debris breakdown amount, natural resources incorporated into clusters, and concentrations including nitrogen and carbon in the soil structure. Earthworms make up a major amount of the biomass of soil invertebrates and affect soil texture and organic dynamics, agro-waste breakdown, lowering greenhouse gases, vermistabilization of industrial waste such as petrochemical industry, vermicast as partial replacement of cement, and microrobot. In this review, we study the role of earthworms in achieving SDGs 7 and 9.
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Cattle are one of the most important livestock species in Nigeria because they provide multiple services to farmers and contributes to the national economy. In order to advance the benefits of cattle production, there are several breeding and genetic improvement programmes which have been implemented to enhance productivity of the indigenous cattle and pastoral livelihoods. However, after about 100 years of breeding and genetic improvement programmes, Nigeria still struggles to derive expected benefits from cattle production. Hence, this study was carried out to analyse previous cattle breeding and genetic improvement programmes in Nigeria to identify their successes and pitfalls as well as potential roles of post genomics technologies for advancing cattle production. The study identified optimization of indigenous cattle for meat and milk production as the main objective of the previous breeding and genetic improvement programmes; unfortunately, major pitfalls of the programmes are unrealistic breeding objectives and inadequate relevant stakeholder involvement. Furthermore, during their heydays, some of the programmes were successful, popular, and exemplary; but the shortcomings in planning and execution contributed to their failures. After analysis of 9 regional and national cattle breeding and genetic improvement programmes implemented in Nigeria, for cattle breeding and genetic improvement programmes in Nigeria to be among the league of successful similar programmes around the world, there is a need to consider genomic selection of cattle for genetic improvement. Also, the study suggested the need for collaborative networks among scientists, ranchers, breeders associations, smallholder farmers, institutions, biotechnology companies, government ministries, departments, agencies; and non-governmental organizations operating in the domain of cattle breeding, genetics, reproduction and production for advancement of cattle breeding and genetic improvement programmes in Nigeria.
Book
Soils provide the foundation for food production, soil water and nutrient cycling, and soil biological activities. With land use and land cover changes over the last century, soil fertility depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, irrigational water scarcity, and water pollution have threatened agricultural productivity and sustainability. An improved understanding of biochemical pathways of soil organic matter and nutrient cycling, and microbial communities involved in regulating soil health and soil processes associated with water flow and retention in soil profile helps design better agricultural systems and ultimately support plant growth and productivity. This book, Agroecological Approaches in Soil and Water Management, presents a collection of original research and review papers studying physical, chemical, and biological processes in soils and discusses multiple ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration, nutrients and water cycling, greenhouse gas emissions, and agro-environmental sustainability. The 15 chapters in this book cover various topics related to soil organic matter and nutrient cycling, soil water dynamics, and related hydrological processes across multiple soils, climate, and management. Several chapters highlight the impacts of land use, landscape position, and land-cover change on soil health and plant productivity. It also has chapters on greenhouse gas emissions as affected by agricultural management, and the roles of soil amendments like biochar and micronutrients. Novel water management strategies, including the use of coalbed methane co-produced water, biodegradable hydrogels, and livestock-integrated cropping to improve soil health are also discussed. The book further incorporates modeling studies on yield and greenhouse gas emissions and presents a review of sustainable agricultural and water management practices.
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Organic farming is regarded as the most effective and environmentally friendly solution to the growing pressure on land resources as a result of population growth and urban demand for goods and services. In Romania, little research has been conducted on the geographical distribution of organic farming at regional level and no research at local level. Using both secondary and primary data for two years (2014 and 2018), the paper examines the spatial distribution and changes of organic farming in Romania. By using several indicators computed at the Local Administrative Unit (LAU) level, an overall picture of organic farming in Romania is provided. The results suggest regional disparities in the dynamics of the organic area, as well as several major concentrations of organic producers: one livestock-dominated located in the mountain-plateau-hilly region in the central, north and north-east of Romania and another crop-dominated found in the plain regions of the west, south and south-east. Apart from this spatial clustering, the pattern of organic farming is quite random, strongly depending on the local environmental conditions. Moreover, the authors identified a tight relationship between the development and spatial distribution of organic farming and policies support and European subsidies through Common Agricultural Policy.
Chapter
The aim of the chapter is to show the possible impact of policulture farming on some determinants of sustainable agricultural development, especially from the point of view of economic viability, biodiversity, and land degradation. Increasing the area under polyculture is one of the main solutions to the present environmental problems. The key constraints are economic pressures due to the question of the cost-effectiveness of such a mode of production and the need to provide sufficient food for a growing population, especially in developing countries. The results of the research show that policulture (organic agriculture) should be favored, while monoculture farming must be adequately directed and put in the function of achieving ecological goals of sustainable development as much as possible. In addition, on the example of European countries, it was assessed that there are good conditions for further “greening” of agriculture, bearing in mind the movement of the analyzed indicators.
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Japan aims to be carbon-neutral by 2050 by targeting various sectors including agriculture. One of the main strategies in this sector to mitigate climate change effects is environmental conservation agriculture (ECA); however, ECA utilization remains low in most of Japan’s prefectures to this date. To address this problem and to know what factors influence ECA adoption, we collected data from Fujioka city, Gunma prefecture, which has low ECA utilization but has high biodiversity conservation efforts. Using factor analysis and binary logistic regression, two major themes emerged by which ECA continuation can be increased, namely: farmers’ intent to improve their local/global environment and to enhance their production. The study highlighted the importance of ECA information dissemination as evidenced by the presence of a knowledge gap on how ECA translates into climate change advocacies. The promotion of farmer–consumer market channels and extension of ECA products in local industries by government and non-government institutions are also recommended to strengthen rural–urban linkages in the area. Increasing the ECA uptake of farmers would also have a positive impact on the ongoing preservation of endangered yaritanago fish species in Fujioka. Lastly, the results from this study highlight the heterogeneity of factors that affect any given farming community with respect to the strategies that can effectively drive ECA adoption.
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Sustainable agricultural development is a topic of global concern aiming at satisfying food demand of the growing population while reducing impact on environment. Circular agriculture has become a promising development pattern with the advantages of complementing environmental resources, replacing feedback from outside system, and processing waste of bottom of system, etc. This study combined economic analysis, life cycle assessment and emergy accounting to evaluate sustainability of an integrated maize-pig system (IS) driven by indigenous microbes in Northeast China, compared with separated maize and pig system (SS). IS reduced input of concentrate feed, coal, vaccines, disinfectants, fertilizer and labor by 14.35%, 100%, 46.11%, 100%, 60.1% and 60.8% driven by indigenous microbes. Economic analysis results showed that IS has 82.88% higher profit than that of SS. The sum of potential environmental impacts of IS was lower than SS for 80.65% according to lifecycle assessment. The emergy results revealed that IS performed better sustainability. Internal feedback emergy for fertilizer and local resources for maize straw increasing of IS significantly improved emergy efficiency. The reduction resulted in nonrenewable resources decreased 33.01% than that of SS, and increased renewable resources by 67.81%, which reduced environmental load ratio of IS by 60.08% of IS. Meanwhile, these factors were the primary factors generating higher sustainability of IS. Overall, the integrated maize-pig system driven by indigenous microbes in this study can effectively alleviate the problems caused by agricultural waste and promote sustainable agricultural development.
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The adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) has been recommended by many experts and international institutions to address food security and climate change problems. Global support for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has focused attention on efforts to up-scale the adoption of SAPs in developing countries where growth in populations and incomes compromises the resilience of natural resources. This study investigates the factors affecting smallholder farmers’ decisions to adopt SAPs (improved seed, fertilizer, and soil and water conservation) and the impacts of the adoption on farm income and food security, using data collected from Ghana. Food security is captured by the number of food shortage months, reduced coping strategy index (rCSI), and household dietary diversity. The multinomial endogenous switching regression model is utilized to address selection bias issues. Results show that farmers’ decisions to adopt SAPs are influenced by the social demographics of the households, plot-level characteristics, extension services and locations. We find that adopting all three SAPs has larger positive impacts on farm income and food security than adopting single or two SAPs. Our findings advocate for policies that enhance the quality of extension service and strengthen farmer-based organizations for the wider dissemination of adequate SAP information. Farmers should be encouraged to adopt SAPs as a comprehensive package for increasing farm income and ensuring food security.
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The article assesses the European Union's Farm to Fork (F2F) strategy from the perspective of innovation systems, focusing on digital technologies in agriculture. It employs the Technical Innovation Systems framework to analyze how the policies proposed in the F2F strategy affect essential functions of the innovation system. The analysis shows that the F2F strategy significantly contributes to innovation system performance by providing a clear and coherent agenda and various concrete measures designed to support innovation, knowledge and skill development. However, the strategy falls short in creating favorable market conditions for innovative technologies and building legitimacy with farmers as the most important user group.
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In the European Mediterranean region, rural fires are a widely known problem that cause serious socio-economic losses and undesirable environmental consequences, including the loss of lives, infrastructures, cultural heritage, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and the provisioning of raw materials. In the last decades, the collapse of the traditional rural socioeconomic systems that once characterized the Mediterranean region, along with land-use changes, have created conflicts and additional driving factors for rural fires. Within Europe, Portugal is the most affected country by rural fires. This work intends to demonstrate the importance of recovering and valorizing residual agroforestry biomass to reduce rural fire risk in Portugal, and thus contributing to a fire resilient landscape. From the results of the known causes of fires in Portugal, it becomes very clear that it is crucial to educate people to end risky behaviors, such as the burning of agroforestry leftovers that causes 27% of fires in Portugal each year. The valorization of the existing energy potential in the lignocellulosic biomass of agroforestry residues favors the reduction of the probability of rural fires, this being the focus of the project BioAgroFloRes—Sustainable Supply Chain Model for Residual Agroforestry Biomass supported in a Web Platform—introduced and explained here.
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The current study uses a hybrid optimization technique (ANN and DEA) to estimate smart energy input packages to reduce the environmental emissions of fish farms. In 2021, enumerators visited polyculture fish farms in Pakistan and interviewed 216 farmers using a well-structured questionnaire. The results showed that energy consumption and production were 1,11,493 and 54,62,643 MJ per farm, respectively. ANN determined that the emitted 8,323.57 tons of CO2eq per farm could be reduced to 6,403.39 tons of CO2eq. At a given level of farm output, nitrogen, diesel fuel, and electricity consumption were reduced by 31 %, 22 %, and 13 %, respectively. Using the smart energy input packages, the fish farm achieved a 23 % drop in environmental emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy use efficiency. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the energy production of fish farming increased significantly by 2.22, 0.83, 0.26, 0.09 and 1.14 units, respectively, with an increase of one-unit labor, juvenile fish, diesel fuel, electricity and green grass. While the energy output of carp was significantly decreased by 0.43, 1.64, and 0.13 units, with a 1 unit increase in the energy from mixed powder, animal manure, and nitrogen, respectively. Therefore, this study recommends using targeted energy inputs and substituting diesel fuel with green energy to reduce the environmental emissions of fish farms.
Chapter
The association or interaction of species is a phenomenon that occurs in all species on the planet, from bacteria interacting with higher organisms to humans interacting with microbes. There is also interaction with various microorganisms in the plant kingdom. This diversity of plant-microorganism interactions has been widely reported and researched; such interactions could have a substantial impact on the plant. Positive interactions between plants and microorganisms benefit both species; for example, microorganisms obtain a niche for growth as well as prefabricated nutrients to maintain their metabolism. On the other hand, resistance to biotic and abiotic factors improves. Furthermore, bacterial metabolites allow for the plant's efficient development and growth. Plants that grow and develop in low-temperature environments must overcome several challenges, and microorganisms play an important role in this process. Researchers are interested in microorganisms associated with plants that live in cold environments because they have interesting properties. As a result, this chapter aims to understand the potential applications and environmental services of cryotolerant microorganisms associated with cold-adapted plants.
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The production of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of residual agro-food biomasses represents an opportunity for alternative production of energy from renewable sources, according to the European Union legislation on renewable energy. This review provides an overview of the various aspects involved in this process with a focus on the best process conditions to be used for AD-based biogas production from residual agro-food biomasses. After a schematic description of the AD phases, the biogas plants with advanced technologies were described, pointing out the strengths and the weaknesses of the different digester technologies and indicating the main parameters and operating conditions to be monitored. Subsequently, a brief analysis of the factors affecting methane yield from manure AD was conducted and the AD of fruit and vegetables waste was examined. Particular attention was given to studies on co-digestion and pre-treatments as strategies to improve biogas yield. Finally, the selection of specific microorganisms and the genetic manipulation of anaerobic bacteria to speed up the AD process was illustrated. The open challenges concern the achievement of the highest renewable energy yields reusing agro-food waste with the lowest environmental impact and an increment of competitiveness of the agricultural sector in the perspective of a circular economy.
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Pyrolysis is an option for enhancing the sustainable management of broiler manure surpluses by producing a concentrated, hygienic char product with a fertilizer and soil conditioner value. In this study, the impacts of pyrolysis conducted at 350, 400 and 450 °C on total nutrient and harmful element concentrations in biochars derived from peat-bedded broiler manure were examined. Emphasis was placed on the availability of phosphorus (P). In addition, the pore structures of these biochars were explored using X-ray microtomography and image analysis. During pyrolysis, 35–50%, 40–55% and 35–45% of the original carbon, nitrogen and sulfur contents, respectively, of the feedstock biomass were lost as volatiles. Mineral elements, including P, were concentrated in the biochar. Although water-extractable P was found to be converted to less labile forms due to charring, the concentration effect and notable increase in sodium bicarbonate-extractable P rendered broiler manure biochars richer in total labile P in comparison with feedstock manure (7.1, 10.0, 11.1 and 14.8 g labile P kg⁻¹ in feedstock and biochars produced at 350, 400 and 450 °C, respectively). The pore volume of the micrometer-scale porosity of the broiler manure biochar was comparable to that found earlier in wood-based biochars. In comparison with wood-based biochars, the pore structure of broiler manure biochars was more versatile, and the pore size distribution was wider. Consequently, part of the porosity was too large to store plant-available water, which may reduce the potential of broiler manure biochars to improve soil water storage capacity.
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The contemporary environmental-stewardship programmes primarily aimed at curbing the global warming potential by adopting a multidisciplinary approach. Manipulating the feeding strategies has great potential in reducing the environmental footprints of livestock production. This study intends to assess the effect of soybean meal (SBM) replacement with varying levels of coated urea (SRU) on both zoo-technical (nutrient digestibility, heat increment, and physio-biochemical parameters) and environmental attributes. The coated urea was used to replace the SBM at 0, 25, 50, and 75 percent levels. Eight adult rams (43.02 ± 0.76) maintained in a conventional shed were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. Not all the physiological parameters viz. rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were affected (P>0.05)f by varying levels of SRU incorporation. The SRU fed animals had higher (P
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Research Highlights: We find that biochar plus fertilizer has synergistic and positive effects on seedling growth and robustness, but slightly lowers early seedling survival. Biochar plus fertilizer has the potential to greatly decrease costs associated with afforestation as compared to traditional fertilization and gives better results. Background and Objectives: Biochar can improve soil fertility and plant yield in crops. However, there is little information regarding the effects of biochar on trees, even though reforestation/afforestation projects are increasing and are often unsuccessful due to soil fertility limitations. This study aims to increase knowledge of biochar use as a reforestation tool. Materials and Methods: We measured survival and growth in an early ((Guazuma crinita Mart. [n = 240])) and a late (Terminalia amazonia (J.F. Gmel.) Exell. [n = 240]) successional species under 6 different biochar treatments in a 6-month nursery experiment. Results: (i) Survival was highest in the 1 t/ha biochar treatment, while treatments containing fertilizers or biochar at 5 t/ha lowered the survival rate of both species compared to the control; (ii) simultaneous addition of biochar and fertilizer lead to significant increases in height, diameter, total number of leaves, and aboveground and belowground biomass of both species as compared to other treatments; (iii) biochar treatment containing 1 t/ha with and without fertilizer showed significantly better results than applications of 5 t/ha; and (iv) Guazuma crinita responded more strongly to treatments containing biochar and fertilizers compared to Terminalia amazonia, which is suggestive of greater synergetic effects of biochar and fertilizer addition on early successional tree species. Conclusions: Applying biochar and fertilizer is synergistic and outperforms any single treatment, as well as the control, in terms of plant performance. This case study suggests that biochar can greatly improve reforestation/afforestation projects by increasing plant performance while substantially reducing fertilizer and labor maintenance costs. Field experiments and testing of additional species is needed to generalize the findings.
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Methane, one of the important greenhouse gas, has a higher global warming potential than that of carbon dioxide. Agriculture, especially livestock, is considered as the biggest sector in producing anthropogenic methane. Among livestock, ruminants are the highest emitters of enteric methane. Methanogenesis, a continuous process in the rumen, carried out by archaea either with a hydrogenotrophic pathway that converts hydrogen and carbon dioxide to methane or with methylotrophic pathway, which the substrate for methanogenesis is methyl groups. For accurate estimation of methane from ruminants, three methods have been successfully used in various experiments under different environmental conditions such as respiration chamber, sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, and the automated head-chamber or GreenFeed system. Methane production and emission from ruminants are increasing day by day with an increase of ruminants which help to meet up the nutrient demands of the increasing human population throughout the world. Several mitigation strategies have been taken separately for methane abatement from ruminant productions such as animal intervention, diet selection, dietary feed additives, probiotics, defaunation, supplementation of fats, oils, organic acids, plant secondary metabolites, etc. However, sustainable mitigation strategies are not established yet. A cumulative approach of accurate enteric methane measurement and existing mitigation strategies with more focusing on the biological reduction of methane emission by direct-fed microbials could be the sustainable methane mitigation approaches.
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Nitrogen pollution and global eutrophication are predicted to increase nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from freshwater ecosystems. Surface waters within agricultural landscapes experience the full impact of these pressures and can contribute substantially to total landscape N 2 O emissions. However, N 2 O measurements to date have focused on flowing waters. Small artificial waterbodies remain greatly understudied in the context of agricultural N 2 O emissions. This study provides a regional analysis of N 2 O measurements in small (<0.01 km 2) artificial reservoirs, of which an estimated 16 million exist globally. We show that 67% of reservoirs were N 2 O sinks (−12 to −2 μmol N 2 O·m −2 ·d −1) in Canada's largest agricultural area, despite their highly eutrophic status [99 ± 289 μg·L −1 chlorophyll-a (Chl-a)]. Generalized additive models indicated that in situ N 2 O concentrations were strongly and nonlinearly related to stratification strength and dissolved inorganic nitrogen content, with the lowest N 2 O levels under conditions of strong water column stability and high algal biomass. Predicted fluxes from previously published models based on lakes, reservoirs, and agricultural waters overestimated measured fluxes on average by 7-to 33-fold, challenging the widely held view that eutrophic N-enriched waters are sources of N 2 O. nitrous oxide | agriculture | farm reservoirs | impoundments | greenhouse gases
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In 2018, the industrial compound feed production throughout the world was 1103 metric billion tons, which was an increase of 3% compared to 2017. In order to meet the needs of the increasing population, a further increment in compound feed production is necessary. Conventional protein sources are no longer suitable to completely satisfy the increment of feed production in a sustainable way. Insects are one of the most promising options, due to their valuable nutritional features. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of research on the use of insect meals and oils in aquatic, avian and other animal species diets, focusing mainly on the effects on digestibility, performance and product quality. In general, insect-derived product digestibility is affected by the insect species, the inclusion levels and by the process. Sometimes, the presence of chitin can lead to a decrease in nutrient digestibility. The same considerations are true for animal performance. As far as product quality is concerned, a dramatic effect of insect products has been recorded for the fatty acid profile, with a decrease in valuable n3 fatty acids. Sensory analyses have reported no or slight differences. Insect-derived products seem to be a good alternative to conventional feed sources and can make an important contribution to the sustainable development of the livestock industry.
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The agricultural environment continues to be used for inappropriate technology, reduced agricultural land, insufficient inputs (chemical fertilizers and inorganic pesticides), and air. Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia because almost all residents use rice as a staple food. Rice straw is a source of organic material that is available after harvesting rice with a large enough amounts but the use of rice straw has only been used in paddy fields. This research is a field experiment followed by laboratory research with the following stages: (a) analysis of soil samples before the research was conducted at the Soil Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University, (b) field experiments by planting Inpari 30 variety rice, biochar treatment and straw compost treated according to the combination of each plot treatment, and soil sample analysis at the end of the study to re-test the soil chemical properties after conducting research with biochar and straw compost. This research method uses factorial randomized block design (RBD) consisting of two factors, namely: Biochar and Straw Compost. The results of this study indicate that biochar space has an influence on plant growth, namely plant height and number of paddy tillers. Observations on rice growth were 28 day after planting (DAP), 35(DAP) and (DAP) to find out the effects of giving biochar and straw compost, it is necessary to conduct further research on the next planting season so that it can be recognized and applied to save the use of chemical fertilizers. The administration of biochar and straw compost affects plant growth, namely plant height and the number of tillers in each rice with higher yields. It would be even better by giving biochar and straw compost together with higher yields. Thus, it is hoped that further research will be carried out in the next rice planting season to see how much residue is giving biochar and straw compost to improve rice yields. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height 28 HST was significantly affected by biochar treatment with a significance value of 0.033. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height 35 HST was significantly affected by the treatment of straw compost with a significance value of 0.018. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height of 45 DAP was significantly affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value of 0.019 while the treatment of straw compost had a very significant effect on plant height 45 DAP with a significance value of 0.001. The results of the variance analysis showed that the numbers of tillers 28 DAP were significantly affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value of 0.013. The results of the variance analysis showed that the number of tillers 35 DAP and 45 DAP all had no significant effect by the treatment of biochar, straw compost, and interaction of biochar and straw compost because at plant age 35 DAP and 45 DAP the significance values were above 0.05.
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Agricultural practices need to change to meet the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. How to achieve the SDGs is heavily contested. Here we propose a policy framework that triggers the required transition. Organic agriculture, although not a silver bullet, is a useful component in such strategy.
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that is emitted from wastewater treatment plants. To reduce emissions of N2O from swine wastewater treatment plants, we constructed an experimental aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibres (ca. 1 m3 bioreactor) as an alternative to conventional activated sludge treatment. The N2O emission factor for the aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibres (CF) was 0.002 g N2O-N/g TN-load and the value for the typical activated sludge (AS) reactor was 0.013 g N2O-N/g TN-load. The CF treatment method achieved more than 80% reduction of N2O emissions, compared with the AS treatment method. The experimental introduction of a CF carrier into an actual wastewater treatment plant also resulted in a large reduction in N2O generation. Specifically, the N2O emission factors decreased from 0.040 to 0.005 g N2O-N/g TN-load following application of the carrier. This shows that it is possible to reduce N2O generation by more than 80% by using a CF carrier during the operation of an actual wastewater treatment plant. Some bacteria from the phylum Chloroflexi, which are capable of reducing N2O emissions, were detected at a higher frequency in the biofilm on the CF carrier than in the biofilm formed on the AS reactor.
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Purpose Crop wastes are underused organic resources due to low heating value and slow decomposition rates. However, conversion to biochar through pyrolysis could offer agronomic and environmental benefits. The study compared the pyrolysis of biochar from crop wastes, assessed their physicochemical properties for the purposeful use to improve soil fertility, crop productivity and their carbon sequestration potential. Methods Biochar was produced from crop wastes such as cassava residues, corncobs, rice husk, sawdust, coffee husk, and peanut using an Elsa barrel pyrolyser. Standard laboratory procedures were used to analyze pH, CEC, total carbon and nitrogen and exchangeable cations. Results The biochars were high in nutrients containing 4.17–18.15 g kg⁻¹ N, 22.26–42.51 mg kg⁻¹ P, 2.48–4.18 cmol kg⁻¹ K and pH 7.78–10.81 units. It is evident that adding biochar to acidic soil containing 0.79 g kg⁻¹ N, 7.41 mg kg⁻¹ P, 1.42 cmol kg⁻¹ K and pH of 5.68 could increase soil fertility and plant productivity. Carbon dioxide reduction potential ranged from 94.46 to 313.42 CO2 eq kg⁻¹. This implies that the concept and technique of producing biochar could be a valuable way of reducing carbon emissions into the atmosphere thereby mitigating climate change. Conclusion Crop wastes and by-products which constitute a nuisance could be used to produce a very useful by-product, biochar whose quality depends on the substrate from which it is produced. Recycling crop wastes to biochar is strongly recommended to smallholder farmers for use in agriculture to improve fertility and crop productivity due to their high nutrient content and soil fertility attributes.