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Leadership Traits from Islamic Perspective

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Abstract

Traits of leaders are very essential for the effectiveness of leadership and without having required traits there would be no influence on the followers and without proper influence leaders cannot attain the predetermined goals. Although the effectiveness of leadership depends not only on the traits of leader but also on the situational factors (external factors, follower readiness); numerous studies show that the traits of leaders can overcome those situational factors in many cases. If leader holds the necessary traits he can achieve the goals controlling the situation. Since the followers imitate the leader it is easy for a good leader to create good followers. For instance, the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) transformed the worst people of Arab into the best people of all times with the help of his leadership traits. So, this study is conducted to identify the traits of leadership from Islamic point of view. After going through the Holy Qur'Én, ×adÊth, and the life of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) and KhulafÉ' (Successors), the researchers have developed thirty leadership traits such as faith on Allah, missionary zeal, vision, mutual consultation for decision making, knowledge, persuasiveness, justice, patience, enterprise and initiative, leniency, humility, self-sacrifice, God-fearing, honesty and truthfulness, keeping promise, physical soundness, moral character, no greed for position, sense of responsibility, accountability, optimism, good behavior, generosity, guardianship, striving for improvement, perseverance, inviting to good deeds and forbidding bad deeds, rendering service to the followers, economical, and neat and cleanliness. It is expected that holding these traits Muslim can increase the influencing power which will ultimately helps in achieving goals efficiently.
Leadership Traits from Islamic Perspective
Nazamul Hoque,*Abdullahil Mamun**
and Mohammed Jonayed Kabir***
Abstract
Traits of leaders are very essential for the effectiveness of leadership and
without having required traits there would be no influence on the
followers and without proper influence leaders cannot attain the
predetermined goals. Although the effectiveness of leadership depends not
only on the traits of leader but also on the situational factors (external
factors, follower readiness); numerous studies show that the traits of
leaders can overcome those situational factors in many cases. If leader
holds the necessary traits he can achieve the goals controlling the
situation. Since the followers imitate the leader it is easy for a good leader
to create good followers. For instance, the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.)
transformed the worst people of Arab into the best people of all times with
the help of his leadership traits. So, this study is conducted to identify the
traits of leadership from Islamic point of view. After going through the
Holy Qur’Én, ×adÊth, and the life of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.)
and KhulafÉ’ (Successors), the researchers have developed thirty
leadership traits such as faith on Allah, missionary zeal, vision, mutual
consultation for decision making, knowledge, persuasiveness, justice,
patience, enterprise and initiative, leniency, humility, self-sacrifice, God-
fearing, honesty and truthfulness, keeping promise, physical soundness,
moral character, no greed for position, sense of responsibility,
accountability, optimism, good behavior, generosity, guardianship,
striving for improvement, perseverance, inviting to good deeds and
forbidding bad deeds, rendering service to the followers, economical, and
neat and cleanliness. It is expected that holding these traits Muslim can
increase the influencing power which will ultimately helps in achieving
goals efficiently.
Keywords: Leadership, Quality, Islam, and Ummah.
1. Introduction
Islam is a complete code of life (Al-Qur’Én: SËrah al-MÉ’Êdah: 5:3)
because Allah (s.w.t.) and His Messenger Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.)
gave us guidelines regarding every aspect of human life to be dealt with
(Al-Qur’Én, 16:89).Allah (s.w.t.) said, “This day, I have perfected your
*Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, International Islamic
University Chittagong, Bangladesh. e-mail: nazam_iiuc@yahoo.com.
** Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, International Islamic University
Chittagong. Bangladesh.
*** Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, International Islamic University
Chittagong. Bangladesh
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religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for
Islam as your religion…..”(Al-Qur’Én, SËrah al-MÉ’idah: 5:3). Ather
and Ullah (2009) stated that Islam is not only a religion like other
religions based on belief but it is an integrated way of life combining all
spheres of life such as individual, social, economic, political, cultural,
religious, etc. So, a Muslim can not think of any thing without the
guidelines of Islam. Islam extended very quickly around the globe
because of leadership traits of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) and his
successors (khulafÉ’). Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) transformed the
character of the then people with his beautiful traits of leadership. After
his departure, the successors also continued to attract people by their
superb traits of leadership. But today, around the world the Muslim
leaders hardly posses such beautiful traits of leadership and this may be
one of the major reasons for which the Muslims are now being oppressed
almost all over the world. Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani said Muslims are
weak because they are not really Muslim (Hourani, 1983). Therefore,
this research is an attempt to identify the leadership traits in the light of
Al-Qur’Én, ×adÊth, and practices of KhulÉfÉ’ (successors) of Islam in
order to renovate and recharge the Muslim leaders of today. It is
expected that Muslim leaders as well as all leaders will get an idea in
building their leadership traits and thereby can increase their leadership
capacity that will ultimately lead to achievement of the goals of whole
Muslim Ummah.
2. Objectives of the Study
In this article, the authors took interest to highlight the various aspects of
leadership traits from Islamic perspective. The rationale of the study lies
in the fact that no comprehensive research regarding leadership traits
from Islam perspective has been undertaken. There are few studies in
this line but these are not fully and analytically written from the Islamic
point of view.
The main objectives of the study are:
a) To focus on the concept of trait theory of leadership;
b) To focus on the concept of Islamic leadership traits; and
c) To develop leadership traits of Muslim leaders from Islamic
perspective.
3. Methodology
This study is a desk-based and library-oriented research. To find out the
development in leadership traits and related Islamic issues, the authors
consulted available published literatures, research monograms, journals
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and magazines in this field. The study has been structured in the light of
the research objectives.
4. Concept of Leadership Traits
4.1 Traditional Concept of Leadership Traits
Leadership traits are the characteristics that might be used to differentiate
leaders from non-leaders (Robbins & Coulter, 2004). There are six traits
associated with effective leadership such as drive, the desire to lead,
honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, and job-relevant
knowledge (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). Traits alone are not sufficient
for explaining effective leadership because of situational factors, but
possessing the appropriate traits can make it more likely that an
individual would be an effective leader (Robbins & Coulter, 2004).
4.2 Islamic Concept of Leadership Traits
Leadership traits are the characteristics that a leader should have in order
to be a true Muslim as well as to differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
Abdul Ghani Barrie (1997) listed twenty five traits necessary for
leadership using extracts from the traditions of Prophet Muhammad
(p.b.u.h.) and from the holy Qur’Én. These characteristics are: ability,
bravery, calmness, dependability, exemplariness, fairness, genuineness,
honesty, initiative, judgment, knowledge, liberalism, modesty, nobility,
organization, personality, quality, responsibility, sacrifice, teamwork,
understanding, versatility, wisdom, youth, and zeal. Ather (2007)
identified fourteen traits of a Muslim leader such as faith, practicing
Muslim, taqwÉ,iÍsÉn, justice, trust, righteousness, striving for self-
improvement, keeping promise, honesty, patience, inspiration &
initiative, competence, consulting nature, and humility. Hawi (1982)
attempted to synthesize the most desired traits and qualities of leaders in
Islamic thinking. He relied on history and the early years of the Islamic
state to come up with an all- encompassing list. He described the
attributes of an Islamic leader as having the ability to reason or act
rationally, to be knowledgeable, mentally stable, courageous, in control
of desires, generous, wise, in control of his temper, forgiving, caring,
flexible, relying on evidence, abiding by promises, honest, able to keep
secrets, acting decisively, being cunning, humble, free from hatred and
envy, patient, thankful, diplomatic, not listening to slanderers and
backbiters, not appointing the non-faithful as deputies, following up and
processing work, receptive and willing to give advice, attentive, a good
organizer, rewarding and recognizing achievers and respectable in their
appearance.
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In the context of business, Asaf (1987) provided two categories of
traits and qualities that a leader must have: moral discipline which
includes eight attributes identified under moral categories- goodness,
patience, forgiveness, an ability to make peace among conflicting parties,
selflessness, cooperative, a sense of responsibility, and tenderness-and
kindness in conversation. These attributes must be accompanied by the
avoidance of lies, arrogance, enviousness, anger and suspicion and
spying. In addition, the traits of a leader deemed to be essential for
effective conduct in business are: experience and knowledge, justice,
caring, exemplary behavior, willingness to consult, trust in God and
persuasiveness through goodness.
In a review of the Islamic literature, the researchers identified
thirty of the most essential traits of Muslim leaders such as: faith on
Allah, missionary zeal, uision, mutual consultation for decision making,
knowledge, persuasiveness, justice, patience, leniency, humility, self-
sacrifice, God-fearing, honesty and truthfulness, keeping promise,
physical soundness, moral character, no greed for position, sense of
responsibility, accountability, optimism, good behavior, generosity,
guardianship, striving for improvement, enterprise and initiative,
perseverance, inviting to good deeds and forbidding bad deeds, rendering
service to the followers, economical, and neat and cleanliness
5. Justifications and Referential Discussions on the Islamic
Leadership Traits
5.1 Missionary Zeal
There should have a mission of each and every Muslim leader but this
mission is not like the mission of non-Muslim leaders. The mission of
Muslim leader is to bring people under the single umbrella of Islam as a
faith and a way of life. The Holy Qur’Én declares, Who is better in
speech than one who calls men to God, work righteousness, and says I
am of those who vow in Islam?” (SËrah al-Sajdah: 32:33). The Holy
Qur’Én reveals in another verse “Invite (all) to the Way of your lord with
wisdom, good advices and beautiful preaching with the best approaches
(and scientific arguments)(SËrah al-NaÍl: 16:125). The Holy Qur’Én
also declares, “Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all
that is good, enjoying what is right (ma’ruf) and forbidding what is
wrong (munkar). And it is they who are successful” (3:104). The Holy
Qur’Én declares in another verse, and call to your collaborations
whomsoever you can except Allah, if you speak the truth” (SËrah
LuqmÉn: 31:32). In another verse the Holy Qur’Én says, Say, this is my
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91
way, I call to Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me
(SËrah Yusuf: 12:108). Every Muslim by virtue of his faith is a
missionary of Islam (Irshad, 1986).So, having a missionary zeal a
Muslim leader can sincerely and dynamically involve in calling the
people to the beauty of Islam and can win the heart of people
.Missionary zeal drives a person to work more and more intimately
which ultimately helps in increasing the number of dedicated followers
and thereby strengthening the leader’s power.
5.2 Vision
All leaders are visionary men but Muslim leaders are not like the non-
Muslims. The vision of Muslim leader is to protect the Muslims from the
tyranny and oppression of their enemies. The Holy Qur’Én says We do
not change the circumstances of people until they do not change what is
within themselves(SËrah al-Ra‘ad: 13:11). Islam has no problems with
creative and innovative ideas. In fact, there is no place for a lazy and idle
brain in this religion and an empty brain is said to be a devil’s house by
Islam. According to Islamic teachings, A man can have nothing but
what he strives for” (Al-Qur'an, SËrah al-Najm: 53:39) and in such a
scenario the role of an Islamic leader becomes very crucial. In addition to
basic leadership qualities, vision makes a leader self-triggered, confident
and determined to do something extra-ordinary (Mohtsham, 2007). As
per Islamic teachings, a leader is the one who follows his own light
(Rumi) and sees what others can’t see. He doesn’t rely on what is in
existence already; he is a dynamic open-minded person with a very keen
perception. Using his visionary mind, he creates the world of his own
(Iqbal, 2006). This creative thinking together with a strong will power
within himself takes him to the heights of excellence. A leader cannot
take his organization to the heights of excellence until he has extra-
ordinary future anticipation or risk taking skills by which he takes bold
but wise and timely decisions. A beautiful verse from the poetry of
Allama Iqbal (a great Muslim philosopher) guides us as to what makes a
visionary leader. “Re-read the lessons of Truthfulness, Judgment and
Bravery, and you will be chosen to lead the world”.The vision of Hazrat
Umar ® was to ensure that every one in his kingdom should sleep on a
full stomach. This vision energized him to take pragmatic initiatives to
materialize it.
5.3 Faith on Allah
This is an important leadership trait that lies at the root of all other traits
such as resolution, perseverance, knowledge, wisdom, enterprise,
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eloquence, leniency, and forbearance (Safi, 1995). A Muslim leader must
have faith in Allah (s.w.t.) as there is none except Allah who has created
the universe. He is the supreme power to manage and control it. Every
person is accountable to Him for his or her each and every action .He
will prize and punish each man and woman for his or her good and bad
deeds respectively on the Day of Judgment. Thus a deep conviction in
and a strong commitment to a set of principles or values are essential for
a leader who wants to reform the accepted patterns of behavior. By
making administrative responsibility the function of one’s religious
conviction, the Islamic approach provides a strong internal motivation
for administrators to behave faithfully (Abdel-Rahman, 1996). In the
same way, following MaxWeber, many Western scholars recognize the
significance of faith and conviction for reformist leadership, and they use
the term charisma to mystify its spiritual origin (Safi, 1995). Conviction
is connected with trust in Allah and His creation, so leaders must be
faithful and trustworthy. “Truly the best of men for thee to employ is the
man who is strong and trustworthy(Al-Qur’Én, SËrah al-QaÎaÎ: 28:
26). The leaders in Islam must depend on Almighty Allah (s.w.t.) for the
outcome of any action. It is known in Islam as Tawakkul. Allah asked
His believers to depend on Him. Allah says, “….when you have made a
decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put
their trust (in Him)” (SËrah Ól ‘ImrÉn: 3:159). However, dependence on
Him without any endeavors is not supported by Islam. The managers
must prepare managerial plans and policies in order to achieve the
rational (ÍalÉl) objectives. But he must depend on Allah (s.w.t.) for the
success of his plan (Ather and Sobhani, 2007).
5.4 Mutual Consultation for Decision Making
It is another trait of Islamic leadership (Altalib, 1991). The Qur’Én has
made it clear that Muslim leaders are obligated to consult those who
have knowledge or those who can provide sound advice. “And those who
answer the call of their Lord and establish prayer, and who conduct their
affairs by consultation and spend out of what We bestow on them for
sustenance” (SËrah al-ShËrÉ: 42:38). The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.)
regularly consulted his companions on all important matters. The
Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was ordered to take counsel from and consult with his
companions to find out their opinions in all affairs before making any
final decisions (Jabnoun, 1994; Trad, 1998; Syed, 2002). The most
outstanding example of the Prophet’s (p.b.u.h.) Shura occurred on the
eve of the battle of Uhud. While the Prophet was thinking that the city
should be defended from within, the majority wanted to go out to fight.
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The Prophet accepted this and did not impose his own opinion on his
companions (Ghazali, 1999; Bangash, 2000; Sweedan, 2000). A leader’s
consultative character with the followers reflects his trust and confidence
in them; as a result, the leader is not misunderstood rather more
confidently followed. This consultative character of Muslim leaders
uprooted the seed of egoism which is prohibited in Islam (Ather, 2007).
5.5 Knowledge
Leaders are expected to be knowledgeable and well- informed (Safi,
1995; Bangash, 2000; Mustapha, 2000; Ahmad, 2001). Knowledge of the
Al-Qur’Én and the Hadith are two criteria for selecting the Muslim
leaders (Chowdhury, 2001). As regards knowledge of the leader Allah
says: “Allah has chosen (Talut) above you (as king) as He gifted him
abundantly with knowledge and physical strength. And Allah gives
power whoever he likes” (Al-Qur’Én, SËrah al-Baqarah: 2:247). The
Holy Qur’Én also declares, “pursue not that of which thou hast no
knowledge.” (SËrah al-FurqÉn: 25:67). Imam Ali (1989) stated that a
person “who acts according to knowledge is like one whose road is
clear”. Excellence in knowledge increases humbleness and convinces a
person how much more one needs to explore in the new areas of
knowledge. The Al-Qur’Én refers to it in a unique manner: “Those truly
fear Allah, among His servants, who have knowledge, for Allah is
exalted in Might, Oft-forgiving.” (SËrah FÉÏir: 35:28).
In Islam a leader should have also situational knowledge,
otherwise, the goals may not be attained efficiently. Leaders need to
evaluate the prevailing situation accurately and devise appropriate
strategies for dealing with it. For example, in Makkah, Prophet
Muhammed (p.b.u.h.) rejected the unjust prevailing order, and he called
people to the worship of One God and to be truthful and honest in their
dealings with each other. Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) appointed
different leaders in different situations. He provided the most excellent
example of leadership. He adjusted his leadership style depending on the
situation he was in. For example, he was directing at the battle of Uhd. In
this battle, the Prophet asked 50 men to keep the cavalry away from
Muslims and not to let the enemy approach the Muslim army from the
rear. Then the Prophet proceeded to arrange the vanguard, giving the
order that fighting should not begin without his permission. The Muslim
army was defeated in this battle because the archers did not comply with
the Prophet’s strict orders to stay in their places to protect the rear
(Ghazali, 1999).
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Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) also used a supportive style with
Salman Al Farisi in the battle of Al-Khandaq (trench). The Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) knew that if he fought against a large army on an open plain he
had little chance of victory. Therefore, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) resorted to
his strategy. He consulted his companions, and Salman Al Farisi
suggested digging a ditch. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) supported Salman’s
idea, and with his men, the Prophet dug the ditch, and the Muslim army
won the battle (Ghazali, 1999).
Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) used a coaching style with his
followers. The objective of coaching in Islam as a Tarbiyyah (moral
training) is to focus on the self-development of the individual as a
Muslim. Anas Ibn Malik reported that the Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.)
once said, “Facilitate things for people (concerning religious issues), and
do not make it hard for them, and give them good tidings and do not
make them run away from Islam.” (Alim, 2000; ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ,
×adÊth no. 69).
Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) used a delegating style with his
companions, and he was aware of the importance of matching the
demands of an assignment to the level of development of the
companions. For example, during the time of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.),
Bedouins tended to be uneducated people living a very simple way of
life. The following Hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah demonstrates the
Prophet’s ability to transmit Islam according to his audience’s frame of
reference. Al-BukhÉrÊ reported and Talha Ibn Ubaidullah (r.t.a.) narrated
that a Bedouin came to the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and said, “Tell me of such a
deed as will make me enter Paradise if I do it.” The Prophet (p.b.u.h.)
said, “Worship Allah, and worship none along with Him, offer the five
prescribed compulsory prayers perfectly, pay the compulsory zakÉt, and
fast in the month of RamaÌÉn.” The Bedouin said, “By Him, in whose
hands my life is, I will not do more than this.” When the Bedouin left,
the Prophet said, “Whoever likes to see a man of Paradise, then he may
look at this man.” (Al-NawawÊ, 1993, p. 587) .On the other hand, when
the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) dealt with companions who had higher
responsibilities and deeper understanding of Islam, he would ask more
from them. For example, at the time of Hijrah (immigration to Madinah),
the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) asked ‘AlÊ (r.t.a.) to stay behind in order to repay
some things entrusted to and deposited with the Prophet. Ali (r.t.a.) slept
in the Prophet’s bed while killers and assassins surrounded his house. In
addition, whenever the Prophet left Madinah, he would appoint someone
as a leader in his absence (Haykal, 1976). Those who assume leadership
responsibilities in political, economic, legal, educational, or military
Leadership Traits Fromislamic Perspective
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fields must acquire the necessary specialized knowledge and expertise.
Prophet Yusuf (p.b.u.h.) asked Pharaoh “Set me over the storehouses of
the land, I will indeed guard them, as one that knows.” (SËrah Yusuf: 12:
55). Knowledge is compared with light. So if a person does not have
sufficient knowledge of Islam he will not be able to lead the followers to
the light, rather he may lead the follower to the darkness.
Moreover a Muslim leader must have Islamic knowledge as well
as the knowledge of contemporary world, otherwise he will not be able
to lead the followers in this competitive world as per Islamic guidelines.
A Muslim leader must be knowledgeable and competent enough to guide
the followers through adversaries and crisis, otherwise the follower will
lose their confidence and trust in him (Ather, 2007). Mohtsham (2007)
stated that an Islamic leader should know the art of keeping a balance
between idealism and realism, target and resources, core competencies
and weaknesses, opportunities and risks etc.
5.6 Good Behavior
Good behavior is considered as a very essential personal trait of a
Muslim leader. The Holy Qur’Én states, The noblest of you in the sight
of Allah is the best of you in conduct(SËrah al-×ujurÉt: 49:13). The
Holy Qur’Én states in another verse, “…Speak good words to people…”
(SËrah al-Baqarah: 2:83). Good behavior can convert the enemy into
friend. People like those who are well-behaved. Good behavior costs
nothing but brings everything. In spite of having many qualities in a
person his leadership quality is destroyed if his behavior is not good to
the followers.
5.7 Justice
It is another of the essential characteristics that leaders must possess
(Jabnoun, 1994; Safi, 1995). The leader should deal with people fairly
regardless of their race, color, national origin, or religion. The Al-Qur’Én
commands Muslims to be fair even when dealing with those opposed to
them: And when you judge between man and man that you judge with
justice.” (SËrah al-NisÉ’: 4: 58). The Qur’Én also commands Muslims to
be fair and just in any circumstances even if the verdict goes against their
parents or themselves. Allah says: “O you, who believe! Stand out firmly
for justice, as witness to Allah, even as against yourselves or your
parents or your kin and whether it be against rich or poor, for Allah
protects both”. (SËrah al-NisÉ’: 4:135). As reported by Muslim and
narrated by Jabir Ibn Abdullah, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said, “Injustice is
darkness in the hereafter” (Al-NawawÊ, 1993, p.143). The Prophet
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(p.b.u.h.) was just in implementing the injunctions of Allah even with his
relatives. For example, in Madinah the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) ordered the
hand of a thief to be cut off. Some of the companions thought the
punishment would not be carried out, because the person was a distant
relative of the Prophet. When the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) heard this, he said,
“If my daughter Fatimah had been guilty, she would not be spared” (Al-
Bukhari, 1997, p. 409). Injustice invariably leads to turmoil and conflict,
but at the same time, justice must be tempered with compassion. A
Muslim leader must have the ability to maintain justice, otherwise the
followers will lose confidence in him which will ultimately lead to the
destruction of leadership quality. (Ather, 2007).
5.8 Patience
In Islam, no virtue has more affinity with leadership than patience (Safi,
1995; Bangash, 2000). And We made, from among them leaders, giving
guidance under Our command, so long as they displayed patience, and
continued to demonstrate faith in our signs (Al-Qur’Én, SËrah al-
Sajdah: 32: 23). In the Holy Qur’Én there are many indications about
patience(3:186, 11:49, 11:115, 10:109, 16:127, 46:35, 6: 34, 37:102,
2:249, 8:65, 3: 186, 68:48, 70:5). There is nothing superior and valuable
than patience gifted to someone (Al-BukhÉrÊ). The Prophet and the
Muslim leaders at the early stage of Islam showed utmost patience and
endurance against the oppressions and tyranny of the unbelievers (Ather,
2007) .There may have thousands of obstacles on the way of achieving
the goals but patience can help the leaders to achieve the goals.
5.9 God-fearing
Muslim leaders should have this trait because the power and authority
they acquire can make them arrogant. TaqwÉ (God-fearing) is the inner
consciousness and awareness of accountability of a person’s duty
towards Almighty Allah. This quality motivates leader to act according
to Islam (Ather, 2007). The Al-Qur’Én says Verily, the most honorable
person to Allah among you is he who fears Him most.” (SËrah al-
×ujurÉt: 49:13). He shall be modest in his behavior with the creator as
well as the creatures and be balanced in his dealings with them (Bhuiyan,
2007). In the first speech as KhalÊfah of the Muslims, AbÊ Bakr ØiddÊq
proved himself an ideal of TaqwÉ. He said, I have been appointed as a
ruler over you although I am not the best among you. I have never sought
this position nor has there ever been a desire in my heart to have this in
preference to anyone else…If I do right, you must help and obey me; if I
go astray, set me aright…Obey me so long as I obey Allah and His
Messenger. If I disobey them, then you have no obligation to follow me.
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(Al-ÙabrÊ, 1987). A Muslim leader without having this quality may
misuse the power which will finally foil the leadership quality.
5.10 Leniency
Self-confidence, boldness, and courage do not produce effective
leadership if they are not balanced with kindness, courtesy, compassion,
and leniency (Leen) (Safi, 1995; Bangash, 2000). Leniency is a result of
the leaders’ concern for the well-being of the followers, and it reflects an
attitude of compassion and humility towards the followers. Leniency
implies charity, recognition of the interests and needs of others, and is
associated with doing well to others (Abdel-Rahman, 1995). It was the
Prophet’s (p.b.u.h.) kindness and good manner that kept the believers
attracted to him. The Holy Qur’Én says ‘It is by the mercy of Allah that
you have been soft with them. Were you severe or harsh hearted, they
would have broken away from you: so pass over their faults, and ask for
Allah’s forgiveness for them, and consult them in public affairs” (3:159)
Anas Ibn Malik (r.t.a.) narrated, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be
upon him) said, “Show leniency; do not be hard; give solace and do not
create aversion.” (ØaÍÊÍ Muslim).
5.11 Humility
Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h.) stated that, “The best of people are those
who benefit others”. This is very special quality of Muslim leaders and
all the Muslim leaders’ traits were featured by their utmost humility.
With this trait the Muslim leader can become very close to followers
(Ather, 2007). Basically a Muslim leader should be humble since he
considers himself as the servant of Allah.
5.12 Self-sacrifice
This is another leadership trait that a Muslim leader should possess
(Bangash, 2000; Sweedan, 2000; Ameenah, 2001). If the leader is seen to
be making personal sacrifices, then the followers will make even greater
sacrifices. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) never did anything to benefit himself or
his family. The second Caliph, ‘Umar Ibn al-KhaÏÏÉb, saw marks on the
Prophet’s body because the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had been lying on a coarse
mat on the floor. ‘Umar asked why the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) denied himself
even the small comforts of life. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) replied that such
comforts are for people who wish to cling to the worldly life (Ghazali,
1999; Bangash, 2000). Another example is the third Caliph, ‘UthmÉn Ibn
‘AffÉn, who did not take any remuneration. He only used his wealth,
which he had accumulated through trade prior to his KhulafÉ’, and he
gave salaries to his governors out of his own wealth and did not touch
Bangladesh Journal of Islamic Thought 6: 8
98
one DirhÉm (currency unit in ‘Arabia) out of the treasury for that
purpose (Trad, 1998).Self-sacrifice quality develops loyalty in the
followers towards the leader which ultimately helps the leader in
achieving the goals more smoothly.
5.13 Sense of Responsibility
Sense of responsibility is very unique quality of a Muslim leader. Saeed
M. Mohtsham (2007) cites:
"‘Umar (r.t.a.) used to monitor very closely the public policy and
had kept the needs of the public central to his leadership approach.
As second Caliph of Islam, he refused to chop off the hands of the
thieves, because he felt he had fallen short of his responsibility to
provide meaningful employment to all his subjects. As the ruler of
a vast kingdom, his vision was to ensure that every one in his
kingdom should sleep on a full stomach. If a dog dies hungry on
the banks of the River Euphrates, Umar will be responsible for
dereliction of duty. He also knew that just having a vision is not
enough unless it is supported by effective strategies. He didn’t
only have a vision; he truly transformed his vision into actions. For
example, to ensure that nobody sleeps hungry in his empire, he
used to walk through the streets almost every night to see if there
is any one needy or ill. One night as usual he went in disguise,
with one of his assistants. While patrolling, he heard crying in a
house. Knocking at the door, he went in. There was an old woman
with her little kids. A pan was boiling on the fire and the children
were crying. When Umar asked about what was going on, the
woman explained that the children were hungry and there was
nothing at home to eat. In order to keep them quiet until they fall
asleep, she was boiling water in the pan. ‘Umar asked her (without
letting her know about himself) why they did not inform the caliph
Umar of their condition. The woman replied ''May God take
Umar's soul! he undertook the management of people but does not
concern himself with their hardships.'. ‘Umar astonishingly asked
''how can. The Caliph know of your hardships if you do not inform
him''. The woman replied calmly, a ruler should know himself,
should he not walk round and see what is going on in the city?
Hearing this Umar immediately left the house with his helper. He
went straight to the state treasury. Umar lifted a sack of flour and
some other food-stuff on his back and rushed towards her house.
Although the subordinate insisted to carry the sack but Umar did
not let him saying that it was he who was responsible for the
wellbeing of the people. They arrived at home and went in. The
children were still crying. Umar cooked food with his own hands
and offered bread and food to the children. After the children went
to sleep, he left the house. Such is the responsibility of a state and
Leadership Traits Fromislamic Perspective
99
head of state under Islamic law. Where it carries the lessons of
bravery, justice and a sense of responsibility in fulfilling the needs
of the society, it also highlights the significance of being visionary
in leadership and having an ability to convert one’s vision into
reality”.
5.14 Honesty and Truthfulness
A Muslim leader must be out and out honest and truthful, since honest
and truthful people are trusted by the followers (Ather, 2007). Truth has
a self-reinforcing effect. In a Hadith reported in Sahih al Bukhari, the
Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said, Truthfulness leads to righteousness, and
righteousness leads to Paradise. A man continues to tell the truth until he
becomes a truthful person. Falsehood leads to wickedness, and
wickedness leads to the Hell, and a man may continue to tell lies till he is
written before Allah, a liar. (Al-BukhÉrÊ, 1996, p. 961). Prophet
Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) also said, “Tell me, O men of Quraish, if I were to
inform you that I see a cavalry on the other side of the mountain, would
you believe me”? They answered: Indeed, for we trust you and we have
never known you to tell a lie. Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said: “Know then
that I am a warner, and that I warn you of a severe punishment.” (Alim,
2000). The quality of honesty and truthfulness of Muslim leaders make
them reliable and acceptable to the followers. This quality ameliorates
the charismatic power of the leader. The Holy Qur’Én declares:
“It …is righteousness to believe in Allah (SWAT) and the
last day and the angels and the book and the Messengers; to
spend from your wealth, out of love for him, for your kin, for
orphans, for the needy, for the way farer, for those who
ask….; to fulfill the contracts that you have entered into;
and to be firm and patient in pain (or sufferings) and
adversity….” (SËrah al-Baqarah: 2:177).
5.15 Keeping Promise
A Muslim leader must keep his all promises. By fulfilling his promises
the leader enhances the confidence of the follower in him (Ather, 2007).
But a Islamic leader should avoid all un-Islamic promises. Al-Qur’Én
says: “O! You who believe! Fulfill (all) obligations” (5:1). The
Holy Qur’Én also declares “Fulfillment of a commitment is
considered as one of the characteristics of Prophethood”
(SËrah Maryam:19: 54).
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100
The Prophet of Islam says: “ A person has no Iman (belief) if he
cannot keep his trust(amanah) and a person has no religion if he can not
keep his promise”(Musnad Ahmad).
5.16 Physical Soundness
Physical soundness is another very important quality of Muslim leader.
The Al-Qur’Én says: “Truly the best of men for you to employ is the man
who is strong and trustworthy” (28:26). There is another indication about
physical quality in the Holy Qur’Én (2:247). Regarding physical fitness
the Messenger of Allah says: “A strong believer is better than the
believer who is weak in physical strength” (Sunan An Nasai). The
physical fitness is very essential because sound mind lies in a sound
body. Moreover, without physical fitness the leader will not be able to
perform his responsibilities. So while selecting Muslim leaders physical
fitness should be tested sincerely and rightly.
5.17 Morality
Moral Character is another important quality of Muslim leader without
which the leadership cannot be thought of. The sole function of the
mission of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was to perfect the character of the
people (Bhuiyan, 2007). Anas® reported that the Messenger of Allah
said: “Indeed I have been sent to complete the perfecting of good
character” (Sunan An-Nasai).Almighty Allah declares about the
character of His Prophet: “And you are on an exalted standard of
character” (Al-Qur’Én, SËrah al-Qalam: 68:4). Amar Ibn Al-‘Ós (r.t.a.)
says, “The Messenger of Allah neither spoke indecently nor he listens to
any indecent talking. He used to say that “the best among you are those
whose character is good” (ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ). Muslim leaders are treated
as model of the followers from all dimensions especially from the view
point of character and morality. So in spite of having a lot of knowledge
a person can not be a leader in Islam unless and until his character is
good. The wise says, “When money is lost nothing is lost, when health is
lost something is lost, but when character is lost everything is lost”.
Allah declares:
Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example
to follow for him who hopes for (the meeting with) Allah and
the Last Day, and remembers Allah much” (Al-Qur’Én, SËrah
al-AÍzÉb:33: 21).
5.18 No Greed for Position
No greed for position is another very important quality of Muslim leader.
In Islam, leadership is nothing but heavy responsibility and
Leadership Traits Fromislamic Perspective
101
accountability to the board of directors, followers, and Allah. Therefore,
a greedy man cannot offer himself for that accountability knowingly
(Bhuiyan, 2007). AbË MËsÉ al-Ash‘arÊ (r.t.a.) reported that, I and two
other persons from the family of my uncle told the messenger of Allah
that “O Prophet! Allah favored you with heavy power and responsibility;
therefore, appoint me in one of such responsibility.” The Prophet replied,
“By Allah, I do not appoint some one in these positions who asks and
desires for it” (ØaÍÊÍ Muslim). In another ÍadÊth reported by Abd al-
RaÍmÉn Ibn Samara (r.t.a.), the Messenger of Allah told him: Do not
ask for the position of leadership. Because, if you get it by asking, then
you will hand over to it (for accountability) .If you get it without asking
of it, then the assistance of Allah will come for you” (ØaÍÊÍ Muslim). If
he is selected or elected by the people for the said post then he will be
given assistance by the people in his responsibility. But a leader should
have the desire that if he is selected or elected as a leader he will perform
his duty sincerely and with commitment and all the time he should be
prepared for being a leader.
5.19 Accountability
Virtue of accountability is another personal trait of a Muslim leader. An
organization is unhealthy unless it periodically holds its leaders
accountable for their actions (Altalib, 1991; Trad, 1998). Any follower
has the right to ask any question on any matter to the leader and the
leader should answer the questions of followers without any hesitation.
This accountability is not related only with the Day of Judgment but also
in the present life. This trait is seen among the Muslim leaders.
According to Islam, each and every human being will be made
responsible for his good or bad deeds and accordingly he will be
rewarded or punished. Allah says: “…whosoever does good equal to the
weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it. And whosoever does evil
equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall see it.” (SËrah al-
ZilzÉlah: 99:7-8). The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said, “Surely, all of
you are responsible and will be questioned about their responsibilities”
(ØaÍÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ). The first caliph AbË Bakr (r.t.a.) following his
election to the post of the head of state of Medina said, “Obey me as long
as I obey Allah and His Messenger, when I disobey Him and His
Messenger, then obey me not” (ÙabarÊ, Abu Ja’far Ibn Jarir). The second
Caliph ‘Umar Ibn KhaÏÏÉb (r.t.a.) said, “Obey me if I obey Shariah.
Correct me if I am deviated from the right path” (Ibn Sa‘ad, Muhammad,
1944). Once while addressing to the public, a young man from the
congregation stood up and asked ‘Umar (r.t.a.) “We will not listen to
Bangladesh Journal of Islamic Thought 6: 8
102
you, until you give us the explanation that you owe us.” The people were
shocked at this audacious interference. Umar paused for a moment, and
then turning to the young man asked, “Explanation for what.” The young
man said, “The other day each one of us obtained a piece of cloth from
the Baitul Mal. Today I find such two pieces of cloth on you. I want to
know what right had the Caliph to get a share double than the share of an
ordinary Muslim.” Before Umar could explain anything, Abdullah (the
son of Hazrat Omar) stood up and said, “Friends, the truth of the matter
is that like every other person me and my father obtained a piece of cloth
each from the Baitul Mal. My father is so tall that the piece of cloth that
he got from the Baitul Mal did not suffice him. So I gave him my piece
of the cloth.” This explanation satisfied every one. The young man who
had interrupted the Caliph said, “We are satisfied. You can now proceed
with your address. We will listen to you and obey your commands.”
5.20 Striving for Improvement
A Muslim leader has another trait i,e he has a continuous inner striving
for self-improvement. Prophet (p.b.u.h.) says: “Whose today is not better
than yesterday, he will be backdated.” In Islam, there is always a room
for improvement, Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) always prays to
Almighty Allah to increase him in knowledge (al-Qur’Én, SËrah Ùaha:
20-114), no matter how knowledgeable or skillful he is. If leader’s
improvement does not occur then followers’ improvement will also not
occur, because, followers will follow the leader. So, in Islam, leader
should try his level best for improvement from the stand point of
knowledge, quality of work, quality of life, relationship with Allah, and
relationship with followers.
5.21 Optimism
A Muslim leader is always hopeful regarding the success of his work.
Believers do not feel insecure at any stage of life. Due to their trust on
Almighty, they are made immune from disappointment. No doubt, ups
and downs come in the life of almost everybody, but hope for success
helps not to be frustrated. Then they do not look at life or world with
gloomy and aimless eyes. They know that they have been asked to
despair not of the mercy of Allah (Al-Qur’Én, SËrah al-Zumar: 39.53) in
any circumstances. They firmly believe that nothing is impossible and
with greater enthusiasm and ambitiousness all the hurdles coming in the
way become easy automatically.
5.22 Persuasiveness
It is the ability to articulate ideas and views with clarity .The Holy
Qur’Én emphasizes the importance of persuasiveness through the
Leadership Traits Fromislamic Perspective
103
example of Prophet Moses who pleaded for the inclusion of his brother
Aaron in his mission. Moses said, “My brother Aaron is more persuasive
in speech than I. So send him with me as a helper, to confirm me. For I
fear that they may accuse me of falsehood.” (Al-Qur’Én, SËrah al-
QaÎaÎ: 28:34). In addition, leaders need to be pragmatic in controversial
matters (Khan, 1998). During the writing of the Hudaibiyyah treaty, the
Prophet dictated the following words: “This is from Mohammad, the
messenger of God.” The Quraishi delegate raised objections over these
words. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) promptly changed the word and ordered
that Mohammad, the son of Abdullah be written. This shows the
Prophet’s persuasiveness as he was looking to have a peace treaty with
the Quraish to win much time to talk and preach to the people about
Allah’s message to them. Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) used to deliver
short, clear and meaningful speech. Even, the last sermon of Prophet
Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) was short but very meaningful and impressive .In
fact, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) succeeded more with the Quraish to convince
people to accepted Islam so quickly and largely than any other time
because of his persuasiveness.
5.23 Generosity
Generosity is a virtue in Islam. Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) stated that
“there is nothing worse than avariciousness”. He declared, “The
generous person is closest to God, heaven, people and far from hell” and
“He who removes a distress, God blesses in this world and the
hereafter”. A man is created for nothing but to feel the needs of other
humans. If that was not the case, angels were more than sufficient to God
for worship. (Iqbal, 2006)
5.24 Guardianship
Guardianship is another very unique personal trait of Muslim leader.
Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said, “who has not any guardian, I am his
guardian” (Musnad AÍmed). He also said, “I am guardian of the orphan,
who left wealth behind him is for his successors; but who left debt, I am
responsible to pay it” (ØaÍÊÍ Al-BukhÉrÊ). There should have due pain in
the heart of a leader like an authentic guardian for the followers and this
guardianship trait can develop a very good relationship between leader
the and the followers which ultimately helps in developing mutual
cooperation between the leader and the followers which may lead to the
achievement of goal more spontaneously.
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104
5.25 Enterprise and Initiative
Enterprise is a leadership quality that distinguishes leaders from
followers (Safi, 1995; Bangash, 2000). This trait is manifested by self-
confidence, boldness, diligence, hardwork, initiation, and taking risks. A
Muslim leader should possess enough zeal, initiative and inspiration to
enkindle the heart of the followers (Ather, 2007).He should take
initiative from his own to uplift the position of followers. Leading is
taking the responsibility to work diligently with little compensation.
Leaders should be confronted with true challenges and asked to improve
their performance. Leadership is not domination. Leadership is to fulfill
the responsibilities, the way that Allah wants us to live (Jabnoun, 1994;
Siddiqi, 1997). This trait is revealed in the self-confidence shown by
Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) when he stood on the mount of Al Safaa
and called his people to the way of God (Haykal, 1976).
5.26 Perseverance
It is that quality of a leader by which he tries again and again to achieve
the goals in spite of difficulties. This trait is seen among all the Prophets
from Adam to Mohammad (p.b.u.h.).Muslim leader works for the
satisfaction of Allah (s.w.t.).The worldly goal of a Muslim leader is to
establish Islamic rules and regulation for ensuring social, political,
cultural, economic and overall salvation which ultimately unchains
humanity from human slavery. But in achieving the worldly goal Muslim
leader needs to work continuously. He may not attain worldly goal but he
would not be accountable for his success or failure rather he would be
accountable for his effort.
5.27 Inviting to Good Deeds and Forbidding Bad Deeds
A leader should have the ability to encourage the people for doing good
deeds and at the same time he must forbid the bad deeds. In Islam, a
leader can not take middle position regarding good deeds and bad deeds.
There would have a group among you who will invite people to good
deeds and forbid in doing bad deeds and they would be successful” (Al-
Qur’Én, SËrah Ól ‘ImrÉn: 3:104). Both good deeds and bad deeds can not
be practiced altogether in a welfare society. Since Islam would like to
establish a welfare society, a Muslim leader should work for stopping
bad deeds and cultivating good deeds.
5.28 Rendering Service to the Followers
A leader can achieve the goals if the followers cooperate with the leader
sincerely and dedicatedly. A good leader can create dedicated and
committed followers by rendering proper and timely service to the
Leadership Traits Fromislamic Perspective
105
followers. A leader should understand the needs of the followers for
meeting those needs. The door of the leader should be open for the
followers for all time. Moreover, a leader should be proactive in
rendering service to the followers and thereby he can buy loyalty of
followers. A leader can easily win the heart of followers by rendering
service to the followers, side by side a leader may lose the popularity if
he cannot render proper service to the followers. Prophet Mohammad
(p.b.u.h.) says “All creations are the family of Allah and who behaves
well with the family of Allah is most likeable to Allah”(Bukhari). The
Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) also says, “Allah shows no mercy to them
who are not merciful to the people.”(ØaÍÊÍ Muslim).
5.29 Economical
A miser can not create followers because people do not like him. A
Muslim leader would not be an extravagant also. The Holy Qur’Én
declares:
Give the kinsman his due, and the needy, and the wayfarer,
and waste not (your wealth) in wantonness. Lo! the
squanderers were ever brothers of the devils, and the devil
was ever an ingrate to his Lord” (SËrah al-IsrÉ’: 17: 26-27).
The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said, “Every day two angels come down
from heaven, one of them says, ‘O Allah ! Compensate every person
who spends in your cause; and the other (angel) says, ‘O Allah ! destroy
every miser” (ØaÍÊÍ BukhÉrÊ). The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) also said, “There
are two habits which are never present together in a believer; miserliness
and bad manners” (TirmidhÊ).
5. 30 Neat and Cleanliness
A leader is regarded as a model of followers. His life style should be
homely but neat and clean. Being physically clean and well-groomed a
Muslim leader can satisfy Allah (s.w.t.). The Holy Qur’Én says, “Purify
your cloths, Shun all filth” (SËrah al-Muddathir: 74: 4-5). The Holy
Qur’Én also says, “….wear fine clothing…..” (Sura al Araf: 31).Prophet
Mohammad (p.b.u.h.) says “cleanliness is half of faith” (ØaÍÊÍ Muslim).
The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) also said, “All of Allah’s affairs are
beautiful, and He likes beauty” (ØaÍÊÍ Muslim).This trait of leadership
helps in attracting the aristocrat followers.
6. Conclusion
Nowadays, leadership is being considered as a key factor for the success
of a nation. This leadership can be meaningful and effective only when
Bangladesh Journal of Islamic Thought 6: 8
106
the leader will has some essential traits. It is not possible by a leader to
influence the followers without holding those essential traits. Moreover,
the traits of a leader vary from culture to culture. In Islam, a leader holds
some mandatory traits such as: faith on Allah, missionary zeal, vision,
mutual consultation on decision-making, knowledge, persuasiveness,
justice, patience, leniency, humility, self-sacrifice, God-fearing, honesty
and truthfulness, keeping promise, physical soundness, moral character,
no greed for position, sense of responsibility, accountability, optimism,
good behavior, generosity, guardianship, striving for improvement,
enterprise and initiative, perseverance, inviting to good deeds and
forbidding bad deeds, rendering service to the followers, economical,
and neat and cleanliness . There is no doubt that if a leader can possess
those traits it would be very much easy to attain the goals and there
should have continuous efforts to acquire those traits which will not only
help the leader to be successful in this world but also in the hereafter.
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... The objective of these items is to determine the effect IEAP of Imamship on Masjid performance in the Lagos State of Nigeria. Hoque, Mamun and Kabir (2010) stated that "if a leader holds the necessary traits of IEAP, he can achieve the goals controlling the situation. Since the Jama'ah (followers) imitate the leader, it is easy for a good leader to create good membership. ...
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S The main objective of this paper is to examine the effects of Islamic Ethical Administrative Practice (IEAP) on Masjid Performance (MP) among Muslims Community in Lagos State, Nigeria. This study utilized a quantitative approach where it employs a cross-sectional survey and 296 questionnaires returned from Chief Imams of Masaajid (Mosques) in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study used statistical package for social science (SPSS V23) to analyze the data collected. The finding of this study showed that empirical data demonstrates a significant contribution to how IEAP affect Masjid performance. Regression results of the constructs of IEAP indicated that there were positive and significant relationships between IEAP and MP because, the IEAP contained seventeen items which include four constructs model (dimensions): competition, effort, morally responsible conduct, and transparency. Likewise, the Masjid performance is measured by using nine items which include three dimensions: attendance of Masjid, activities of Masjid, and funds of Masjid. In addition, the data on the performance of Masjid demonstrates that the Jama'ah (the congregation of Masjid) would emulate their Imams and consequently increase the performance of the Masjid. The novelty of this method considers the useful implementation of the idea of domains of IEAP sources in order to carry the Jama'ah along in the decision-making process of the Masjid in Lagos State particularly, and Nigeria in general.
... This should make our leaders careful and be true to their duty of promoting the welfare for all (Ather, khan & Hoque, 2011). They would not only be cruel, self-centered and avaricious for denying labor the payment of wages, they would be criminally deserving of God's punishment on the Day of Reckoning (Hoque, Mamun& Kabir, 2010). By the definition of Islam, wages just should be such that would, in the least, enable an employee to get an adequate quantity of reasonably good food and clothing for himself and his family without overburdening himself (Hoque, 2012). ...
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... This should make our leaders careful and be true to their duty of promoting the welfare for all (Ather, khan & Hoque, 2011). They would not only be cruel, self-centered and avaricious for denying labor the payment of wages, they would be criminally deserving of God's punishment on the Day of Reckoning (Hoque, Mamun& Kabir, 2010). By the definition of Islam, wages just should be such that would, in the least, enable an employee to get an adequate quantity of reasonably good food and clothing for himself and his family without overburdening himself (Hoque, 2012). ...
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... There should have a mission of each and every Muslim but this mission is not like the mission of non-Muslims (Hoque et al., 2010). The sole function of the mission of the prophet (SAWS) was to perfect the character of the people (Bhuiyan, 2007). ...
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to develop the features as well as model of organisational culture from Islamic point of view. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The study is descriptive, in so far as its goal is to describe a method, and the nature of the paper is conceptual. The study draws on secondary materials through library research. Findings ‐ In this paper both the features as well as model of organisational culture are developed from Islamic perspective. The salient features are trust on Allah, missionary zeal, justice, accountability, mutual respects, mutual trust, absolute sincerity, hard working, cooperation, excellence, brotherly treatment, honesty and truthfulness, morality, consultative decision making, knowledge, good behaviour, sacrifice, neat and cleanliness. Research limitations/implications ‐ The paper has some implications for Islamic managers and employees who have to deal with ethical dilemmas between traditional and Islamic organisational culture in Muslim countries representing one fourth of the world population. It is also hoped that the study will reinforce managers' Islamic behaviour and make them more aware of the code of conduct based on Quran and Sunna in a modern organisational set up. Practical implications ‐ The findings of this research can be used as a guide to Islamic organisational culture in Muslim countries. The study could have practical implications falling within the purview of social sciences such as political science, management and organizational studies, education, international law, and human resource management. Originality/value ‐ While many studies, partially, have focused on traditional organisational culture sparing the demand of Muslim world, in this paper, the authors open a new avenue contributing to the literature on organisational culture from Islamic perspective. The proposed model will be of genuine interest and benefits to Islamic as well as non-Islamic managers, employees, and academicians.
... There should have a mission of each and every Muslim but this mission is not like the mission of non-Muslims (Hoque et al., 2010). The sole function of the mission of the prophet (SAWS) was to perfect the character of the people (Bhuiyan, 2007). ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop the features as well as model of organisational culture from Islamic point of view. Design/methodology/approach – The study is descriptive, in so far as its goal is to describe a method, and the nature of the paper is conceptual. The study draws on secondary materials through library research. Findings – In this paper both the features as well as model of organisational culture are developed from Islamic perspective. The salient features are trust on Allah, missionary zeal, justice, accountability, mutual respects, mutual trust, absolute sincerity, hard working, cooperation, excellence, brotherly treatment, honesty and truthfulness, morality, consultative decision making, knowledge, good behaviour, sacrifice, neat and cleanliness. Research limitations/implications – The paper has some implications for Islamic managers and employees who have to deal with ethical dilemmas between traditional and Islamic organisational culture in Muslim countries representing one fourth of the world population. It is also hoped that the study will reinforce managers' Islamic behaviour and make them more aware of the code of conduct based on Quran and Sunna in a modern organisational set up. Practical implications – The findings of this research can be used as a guide to Islamic organisational culture in Muslim countries. The study could have practical implications falling within the purview of social sciences such as political science, management and organizational studies, education, international law, and human resource management. Originality/value – While many studies, partially, have focused on traditional organisational culture sparing the demand of Muslim world, in this paper, the authors open a new avenue contributing to the literature on organisational culture from Islamic perspective. The proposed model will be of genuine interest and benefits to Islamic as well as non-Islamic managers, employees, and academicians.
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Abu Ja'far al Man~ur, the founder of the 'Abbasid state, once posed aquestion to some of his confidants:Who is the hawk of Quraysh? They replied: The Commander ofthe Faithful (Amir al Mu'minin) who established the reign, quietedupheavals, and extinguished ordeals. He said: You havenot answered my question. They said: Is it Mu'awiyah? He said:No. They said: Is it 'Abd al Malik ibn Marwan? He said: No.They said: Who else, Commander of the Faithful? He said:'Abd al Ra}:iman ibn Mu'awiyah, who escaped by his cunningthe spearheads of the lances and the blades of the swords, travellingthe desert, and sailing the seas, until he entered an alienterritory. [There] he organized cities, mobilized armies, andreestablished his reign after it was completely lost, by goodmanagement and strong resolve. Mu'awiyah rose to his staturethrough the support of 'Umar and 'Uthman, whose backingallowed him to overcome difficulties; 'Abd al Malik, because ofprevious appointment; and the Commander of the Faithfulthrough the struggle of his kin and the solidarity of his partisans.But' Abd al Rab man did it alone, with the support of noneother than his own judgement, depending on no one but his ownresolve. (Ibn al Athir, 5: 182)Identifying leadership and determining its qualities and contributionsto collective life is an ancient concern of people. Abu Ja'far al Mansur, aneminent Muslim leader in his own right, raised the question in a peculiar ...
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Public bureaucracies, a general term including government agencies and departments in the areas of public utilities, social services, regulatory services, security, and law enforcement, are indispensable to our welfare; we need them for the provision of these basic services. To provide these services, bureaucracies need such resources as power and money. The power of bureaucracies is compounded by their virtual monopoly of technical expertise, which puts bureaucrats at the forefront of public policy making. Indispensable to our welfare though they are, public bureaucracies also pose a potential threat. In view of the technical knowledge they have and their consequent important role in policy making, they may dominate public life. In other words, they may develop into a power elite and, as a result, act as masters of the public rather than as its servants. More disturbingly, they may not use the public trust to serve the public or respond to its needs. Still more disturbingly, they may breach the public trust or abuse the power entrusted to them. All of these possibilities have given rise to a widespread fear of bureaucracy. In some societies, this fear has reached pandemic levels. Fear of bureaucracy is not unwarranted; there is a consensus and concern in administrative and academic circles that the degree of bureaucratic accountability has declined in both developed and developing countries. A central issue with public bureaucracy has always been how to make it behave responsibly or in the public interest. Despite a plethora of mechanisms for ensuring administrative responsibility or bureaucratic responsiveness, many public bureaucracies may still be unresponsive and unaccountable ...
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Organizations are an indispensable part of our lives, for they provide services for satisfying our basic needs. Central to any organization's performance is the motivation of its members. Indeed, organizational motivation is related closely to some fundamental questions in organization theory in particular and to public administration in general. Such questions focus on how organizations can be made efficient and responsive or accountable to their clients. Since organizations are simply human collectivities, in essence these questions apply to organizational members and, in particular, to what motivates them to be efficient and responsive. Although various models of organization have addressed, either implicitly or explicitly, the question of motivation in organizations, they have yet to come up with satisfactory answers. The significance of organizational motivation does not consist of its close relationship to the fundamental questions of organizational efficiency and responsiveness alone, but also of its relevance to how organizations are structured. As this latter consideration may affect such concepts as human dignity, freedom, respect, brotherhood, and justice, this is tantamount to saying that organizational structures are not morally or spiritually neutral, inasmuch as these values have moral and spiritual roots. Organizational structures are founded on certain underlying assumptions about human nature and motivation that underpin several principal organization models. One common characteristic of these models is the assumption that the individual has certain self-centered needs that govern his/her behavior and that the organization can, by satisfying these needs, motivate the individual to contribute towards the ...
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Islam is the guide to eradicate all problems in our social life. Allah (Swt) has addressed the believers as Ummah, which implies the necessity of leadership in Islam. Allah says to his Prophet Mohammad (Sm) "...I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion" (Surah Al-Maidah). Mohammad (Sm) says "Every one of you is a shepherd and every one of you is responsible for what he is shepherd of" (Sahih Al Bukhari). Islam as a complete code of life has a set of principles, guidelines for managers to lead the human resources in an organization. This study is an attempt to find out the basic guidelines laid down in Islam for managerial leadership. It has pointed out the operational principles of managerial leadership, managerial grid theory, leadership continuum, team building- team spirit and qualities of a managerial leader from the Islam perspective. doi: 10.3329/iiucs.v4i0.2688 IIUC STUDIES Vol. - 4, December 2007 (p 7-24)
Islamic Perspectives on Management and Organization
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AlÊ, A. (2005), Islamic Perspectives on Management and Organization. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Islamic Leadership for the 21st Century
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Ahmad, A. (2001). Islamic Leadership for the 21st Century. Paper Presented at the IGSICOJ
The Translation of the Meanings of ØaÍÊÍ Al-BukhÉrÊ
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Al-BukhÉrÊ, (1997). The Translation of the Meanings of ØaÍÊÍ Al-BukhÉrÊ.