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Processing and Potential Health Benefits of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L.)

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Abstract

The Piper betle is a woody, perennial and climbing vine belonging to the family Piperaceae. The fresh leaves of betel vine, generally known as Paan in India, is cultivated at altitudes of 02–1400 m in high land, moist, tropical as well as subtropical region with an annual production worth about Rs. 9000 million. Betel leaves have a great importance on cultural, medicinal and economic aspects. Having a high nutritive and medicinal value, betel leaves prevent indigestion, constipation, bronchitis, congestion, coughs, asthma, etc. Due to perishable nature and quick spoilage, various preservation techniques are adopted to minimize the post-harvest losses of betel leaves. This chapter provides valuable information on biochemistry, processing, preservation and health benefits, and also focuses on various mechanisms that occur through several scientific research activities.

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... [50][51][52][53] The use of betel leaf alone and with a combination of other plants or medicines for better therapeutic effects is mentioned in the Ayurvedic literature, which was almost 1400 BC ago. 54 Atharved, the ancient Vedic literature, mentioned the usefulness of the betel plant against numerous diseases at about 3000-2500 BC before. 55 Saptasira, the Vedic name of the leaves of betel, is mentioned in the Kamasutra of Vatsyayan as having aphrodisiac properties. ...
Article
Piper betle L. (synonym: Piper betel Blanco), or betel vine, an economically and medicinally important cash crop, belongs to the family Piperaceae, often known as the green gold. The plant can be found all over the world and is cultivated primarily in South East Asian countries for its beautiful glossy heart-shaped leaves, which are chewed or consumed as betel quid and widely used in Chinese and Indian folk medicine, as carminative, stimulant, astringent, against parasitic worms, conjunctivitis, rheumatism, wound, etc., and is also used for religious purposes. Hydroxychavicol is the most important bioactive compound among the wide range of phytoconstituents found in essential oil and extracts. The pharmacological attributes of P. betle are antiproliferation, anticancer, neuropharmacological, analgesic, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, antifertility, antibacterial, antifungal and many more. Immense attention has been paid to nanoformulations and their applications. The application of P. betle did not show cytotoxicity in preclinical experiments, suggesting that it could serve as a promising therapeutic candidate for different diseases. The present review comprehensively summarizes the botanical description, geographical distribution, economic value and cultivation, ethnobotanical uses, preclinical pharmacological properties with insights of toxicological, clinical efficacy, and safety of P. betle. The findings suggest that P. betle represents an orally active and safe natural agent that exhibits great therapeutic potential for managing various human medical conditions. However, further research is needed to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms of action, clinical aspects, structure–activity relationships, bioavailability and synergistic interactions with other drugs.
... [50][51][52][53] The use of betel leaf alone and with a combination of other plants or medicines for better therapeutic effects is mentioned in the Ayurvedic literature, which was almost 1400 BC ago. 54 Atharved, the ancient Vedic literature, mentioned the usefulness of the betel plant against numerous diseases at about 3000-2500 BC before. 55 Saptasira, the Vedic name of the leaves of betel, is mentioned in the Kamasutra of Vatsyayan as having aphrodisiac properties. ...
Article
Piper betleL. (synonym: Piper betel Blanco), or betel vine, an economically and medicinally important cash crop, belongs to the family Piperaceae, often known as the green gold. The plant can be found all over the world and is cultivatedprimarily in South East Asian countries for its beautiful glossy heart-shaped leaves, which are chewed or consumed as betelquidand widely used in Chinese and Indian folk medicine, as carminative, stimulant,astringent, against parasitic worms, conjunctivitis, rheumatism,
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Due to highly perishable nature, betel leaves undergo quick spoilage due to fungal infections and discoloration during storage and transportation. Post-harvest losses of betel leaves can be prevented if proper preservation techniques are followed. Right from the ancient techniques of solar drying and depetiolation to the modern methods of preservation including modern drying technologies, modifying surrounding atmosphere, advanced packaging technologies, etc., can prove to be beneficial in reducing post-harvest losses of betel leaves. Such wastage may also be reduced by extracting essential oils from the leaves which remains unsold in the market. This essential oil has reported of remarkable medicinal and aromatic properties which indicate a promising industrial future. If a well-coordinated effort by the farmers, traders, scientists, technologists and policy makers are made, it will not only help reduce the post-harvest losses of betel leaves but also boost the national economy and also generate huge employment opportunities for the people.
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Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF HAE AND CEE PROVIDED MARKED DOSE DEPENDENT (HAE: r (2) = 0.97; CEE: r (2) = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.
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The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats.
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The fresh leaves of betel vine are popularly known as Paan in India, which are consumed by about 15-20 million people in the country. It is cultivated following the traditional methods in India on about 55,000 ha with an annual production worth about Rs 9000 million. On an average about 66% of such production is contributed by the state of West Bengal where it is cultivated on about 20,000 ha encompassing about 4-5 lakh Boroj employing about the same number of agricultural families. There is a menacing wastage of the leaves during storage, transportation and the glut season. Moreover, the surplus leaves, if not disposed off properly may cause environmental pollution and health hazards. Such wastage may be minimized by various ways and means including extraction of essential oil from the surplus betel leaves. This oil may be used as an industrial raw material for manufacturing medicines, perfumes, mouth fresheners, tonics, food additives etc. The leaves are nutritive and contain anticarcinogens showing promise for manufacturing of a blood cancer drug. Some disputed reports also claim that chewing betel leaves excessively may cause oral cancer. The agricultural, industrial, economic, medicinal and allied potentialities of the crop are discussed.
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Stable silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions with a Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The reaction process was simple and convenient to handle, and was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Absorbance of Ag-nanoparticles increases with the concentrations of Paan leaf extract, acts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. The polyphenolic groups of petiole extract are responsible to the rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions into metallic Ag(0). The results indicated that the shape of the spectra, number of peaks and its position strongly depend on the concentration of CTAB, which played a shape-controlling role during the formation of silver nanoparticles in the solutions, whereas SDS has no significant effect. The morphology (spherical, truncated triangular polyhedral plate and some irregular nanoparticles) and crystalline phase of the particles were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED).
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Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved.
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An in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Piper betel leaves.Liver damage was induced in male Wistar rats weighed 150-200 gm by administering CCl4 (2ml/kg i.p) regularly for 10days and tissue damage was noted by various biochemical parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase(SGOT), serum glutamate Pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Acid Phosphatase (ACP), Lipidperoxidation, Level of antioxidant enzyme like catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH) in liver.Ethanolic extract of piper betel 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg i.p administered regularly for 10 days and compared with acontrol group silymarin (25 mg/kg i.p.). A significant reduction in serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP, lipid peroxidation andimprovement in CAT, SOD, GSH, MDA level in the liver were observed when compared with CCl4 administered rats.Piper betel leaves extract (PBLE) was able to protect the liver against the oxidative damage produced by CCl4.
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Piper betle L. (Piperaceae) leaves which are traditionally used in India and China in the prevention of oral malodor was examined by bioassay-guided fractionation to yield allylpyrocatechol (APC) as the major active principle which showed promising activity against obligate oral anaerobes responsible for halitosis. The biological studies with APC indicated that the potential to reduce methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide was mainly due to the anti-microbial activity as established using dynamic in vitro models.
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Leaf extracts of Piper betle (most effective), Ocimum sanctum, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis and Citrus limon were effective in reducing radial growth of Pyricularia oryzae, Cochliobolus miyabeanus and Rhizotonia solani. -from Authors
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Piper betel L. belongs to family Piperaceae commonly known as Paan. It is extensively grown in Srilanka, India, Thailand, Taiwan and other Southeast Asian countries. The leaves are pungent, bitter, sweetish, acrid in nature. It has got large number of biomolecules which show diverse pharmacological activity along with carminative, stomachic, antihelminthic, tonic, aphrodisiac, laxative activities. The leaves are used for treating cough, foul smelling in mouth, ozoena, bronchitis, clears throat, vulnery and styptic. In the present experiment four different extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether) of Piper betel leaves were tested against four different pathogenic bacteria namely Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. Further few known and unknown metabolites were isolated from these extracts. Structural elucidations of new metabolites were done by different analytical techniques like NMR, Mass and IR spectroscopy. Later on antioxidative and anti-haemolytic activities were determined. Anti-oxidative studies were done by TBARS and DPPH method. Anti-haemolytic activity was determined using erythrocytes model and the extent of lipid peroxidation of the same was also determined.
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Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, phenol content, and α-amylase inhibitory effects of a local variety of betel leaves were evaluated. The effects of various solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) on phenols and antioxidant activities were also studied. Methanol and ethanol (90%) extracts showed maximum phenolic contents (205.2 and 202.9 mg GAE/g, respectively). Maximum flavonoid contents were determined using 90% acetone (82.5 mg CE/g), and the highest inhibition percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was exhibited by 90% ethanol (percent inhibition, 94%). α-Amylase activity assay showed that α-amylase inhibitory activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic content of ethanol and methanol. Considering antimicrobial activities, we found that all of the Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were inhibited by betel leaf extract except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results could provide a basis of future studies on betel leaves used in food and pharmaceutical applications.
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Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the common causes for the warts and most people will experience with this infection at some point in their life. In Ayurveda, warts can be compared with Charmakeela. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and usually straight forward by visual inspection. The treatment of warts has to be done with endurance and careful selection of procedure according to the type and site of the disease; otherwise, it may lead to cosmetic derangement or recurrence of the ailment. Indications for treatment include pain, interference with function, cosmetic embarrassment, and risk of malignancy. Regarding the management of this disease, different types of treatment procedures are explained in contemporary science. In Ayurveda also, various treatment principles explained like administration of drugs internally, external application of drugs and parasurgical procedures [i.e. Raktamokshana (blood letting), Ksharakarma (chemical cauterization) and Agnikarma (thermal cauterization)]. These indigenous treatment methods are minimal invasive procedures which do not cause the scar formation, no recurrence and found to be more beneficial in the treatment of warts.
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Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used by the Malays to treat headaches, toothaches, coughs, asthma and fever. In order to establish the pharmacological properties of the leaf of this plant, studies were performed on anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. The aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (AEPS) was prepared in the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. Anti-nociceptive activity of AEPS was evaluated by abdominal constriction and hot-plate tests. AEPS was also pre-challenged with 5mg/kg naloxone to determine the involvement of opioid receptors. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. Subcutaneous administration of AEPS exhibited anti-nociceptive activity (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in the abdominal constriction and hot-plate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone completely (P<0.05) diminished the extract anti-nociceptive activity in both tests. The AEPS, at all doses used, exerted significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in a dose-dependent manner. The AEPS exhibits opioid-mediated anti-nociceptive activity at the peripheral and central levels, as well as anti-inflammatory activity, which confirmed the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of pain- and inflammatory-related ailments.
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The effect of betel leaf extract and some of its constituents, eugenol, hydroxychavicol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, on benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in male Swiss mice was examined. Betel leaf and its constituents decreased the number of papillomas per animal with the maximum protection, considering molar dosage, exhibited by beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. Except for beta-carotene, eugenol, hydroxychavicol and alpha-tocopherol increased the levels of reduced glutathione in the liver while glutathione S-transferase activity was enhanced by all except eugenol. Of seven sources, Banarasi betel leaves showed the maximum amounts of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol.
Article
Effects of topically applied betel leaf extract (BLE) and its constituents. beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, eugenol and hydroxychavicol on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin tumors were evaluated in two strains of mice. BLE, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, significantly inhibited the tumor formation by 83, 86, 86% in Swiss mice and 92, 94 and 89% in male Swiss bare mice respectively. Hydroxychavicol showed 90% inhibition in Swiss bare mice at 24 weeks of treatment. Eugenol showed minimal protection in both strains of mice. The mean latency period and survivors in BLE, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and hydroxychavicol treated groups were remarkably high as compared to DMBA alone treated group. Intraperitoneal injection of betal leaf constituents showed a significant effect on both glutathione and glutathione S-transferase levels in the Swiss mouse skin.
Article
The phenolic compound, hydroxychavicol (HC), present in betel leaf, was synthesised and tested for its antimutagenic effect against the mutagenicity of the 2 tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in 2 different test systems, viz. the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test using Swiss male mice. We are reporting the synthesis of HC of a high degree of purity. We observed that HC suppressed the mutagenic effects of NNN and NNK in both test systems used. These results indicate that HC may have a role to play in reducing the risk of oral cancer in betel quid with tobacco chewers.
Article
The anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic dental medicaments were evaluated by mouse ear edema assay. p-Chlorophenol (PCP) inhibited edema when applied topically in dosages of 0.2 and 0.5 mg per site at 15 min before or 1.0 and 2.0 mg per site at 60 min after the application of croton oil. The inhibitory effects were also noted with eugenol, guaiacol, o-cresol, phenol and orally administered indomethacin (10 mg/kg). The involvement of the effects on prostaglandin biosynthesis in the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds is discussed.
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The radioprotective activity of Piper betel ethanolic extract (PE) has been studied using rat liver mitochondria and pBR 322 plasmid DNA as two model in vitro systems. The extract effectively prevented gamma-ray induced lipid peroxidation as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene. Likewise, it prevented radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner. The radioprotective activity of PE could be attributed to its hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging property along with its lymphoproliferative activity. The radical scavenging capacity of PE was primarily due to its constituent phenolics, which were isolated and identified as chevibetol and allyl pyrocatechol.
Article
Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper betle leaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE). In normoglycaemic rats, both HWE and CEE significantly lowered the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. In glucose tolerance test, both extracts markedly reduced the external glucose load. The antidiabetic activity of HWE is comparable to that of CEE. Moreover, HWE failed to inhibit the glucose absorption from the small intestine of rats. Both extracts were found to be non-toxic and well tolerated after following chronic oral administration (no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity). However, the weight of the spleen had increased in treated groups possibly indicating lymphoproliferative activity. It is concluded that HWE and CEE of Piper betle leaves possess safe and strong antidiabetic activity.
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