Here we summarize the current knowledge on the trout and char of central and southern Europe, including Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, the Mediterranean Islands, and northwestern Africa (Morocco and Algeria). We focus on the only two widely recognized native species: Brown Trout Salmo trutta, which is common and widespread throughout the region, and Alpine Char Salvelinus umbla, which occurs in high alpine lakes. We also discuss four named relatives of Brown Trout endemic to Italy, Salmo fibreni, S. carpio, S. cettii, and S. marmoratus, and a taxonomically complex group of Brown Trout relatives from North Africa. We provide information on three nonnative species from North America that have established naturalized populations in the region: Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Lake Trout S. namaycush. For each species, we discuss the distribution, status, socioeconomic value, and management context. We organize our discussion using hydrological and political boundaries in order to accommodate the natural biogeography of the species and the disparate availability of relevant data across the region.