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How nostalgic feelings impact Pokémon Go players – integrating childhood brand nostalgia into the technology acceptance theory

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Abstract

The augmented reality smartphone game Pokémon Go is one of the biggest commercial successes in the last years, posing the question concerning the factors contributing to the game’s success. An apparent distinction to other games is the strong brand Pokémon. We derive a research model based on the established theory of technology acceptance, which includes an established construct for nostalgic feelings – childhood brand nostalgia – and theorise on how it is related to beliefs about technology characteristics and the intention to play the game. For this purpose, we adapt one of the most prominent technology acceptance models for the consumer context and for hedonic information systems, the UTAUT2 model. Based on our model, we conduct a study with 418 active German players aged between 18 and 35. Our results indicate that the effect of childhood brand nostalgia on behavioural intention is fully mediated by the belief constructs. Thus, nostalgic feelings about Pokémon influence the intention of users through altering beliefs concerning Pokémon. We include nostalgic feelings in a technology acceptance model for the first time, therefore contributing to the theoretical advance in the IS domain. The results can be used to enhance the technology acceptance of newly designed products.

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... In restaurants, where customers are more drawn to nostalgic-themed establishments, nostalgia marketing techniques have proven to be effective (Wen et al., 2019). With the debut of Pokémon Go, several studies have shown that nostalgic emotion is an important factor in recruiting players in the gaming industry (Ghazali et al., 2019;Harborth & Pape, 2019). As a result, nostalgia marketing can be a great way to bring in new customers in the automobile industry. ...
... Nostalgia plays an important role in luring gamers to games like Pokémon Go. The presence of nostalgia influenced the way the players behaved (Ghazali et al., 2019;Harborth & Pape, 2019). Instead of being a clear idea, ambivalent nostalgia has remained a fuzzy one. ...
... Studies have shown that people's nostalgic feelings about the past cause them to get emotionally attached to a product. Their key reason is that nostalgia makes them remember happy times from the past (Ghazali et al., 2019;Harborth & Pape, 2019;Kessous, 2015). The desire to own an automobile is being fueled by people's favorable attitudes and emotional attachments to them. ...
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Emotions are considered as the real inner perception of a person. Emotions can never be ignored or completely eliminated from one’s life. The point of emotion like nostalgia has immense importance in our social life and the concept of nostalgia has a great shift from organizational environment to expanding marketing world. This research aimed to determine the purchase intention as outcome of nostalgic emotions of customers. This study finds the mediating effect of attachment and attitude in between nostalgic emotions and purchase intention. The data for this research was collected from the customers of Toyota and Honda motors located in two metropolitan cities of Pakistan (i.e Karachi and Lahore). The research has used non-probability sampling technique and cross-sectional research design was adopted. Furthermore, the adopted and modified questionnaire was used as survey instrument. The statistical outcomes were drawn from robust statistical technique, covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM). The results show that nostalgic emotion has positive and significant effect on purchase intention of customers. Moreover, mediating effect of attitude and attachment was confirmed in between nostalgic emotion and purchase intention. Consequently, this study confirmed that organizations should work on customer attitude and attachment which are the possible causes of nostalgic emotion, it may sufficiently increases customers’ purchase intention.
... Imagination can help ponder meaning-of-life questions by enabling exploration of the purpose of living through the playing experience, resulting in eudaimonic gratification (Oliver et al., 2016;Weise, 2004). Imagination is also connected to social processes and allows individuals to effortlessly cooperate with even those unfamiliar to them through shared fiction (Harari, 2014). To capture these aspects in AR games, in this study, we investigate how the games can create meaning for players. ...
... The ability to imagine shared fictional worlds is unique to our species (Harari, 2014). We can discuss, defend and criticise a fictional universe that only exists in stories and our shared imagination. ...
... Together, these studies speak of social networking's complexity in LARGs, being a mix of technology-assisted face-to-face synchronous communication and online asynchronous communication. In this complex field of research, one aspect that has yet to receive attention is the concept of intersubjective beliefs and the construction of the socially shared game world (Harari, 2014). One measure for holistically understanding social involvement in this context is community identification (Kordyaka et al., 2020;Mael & Ashforth, 1992). ...
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Augmented reality (AR) games such as location-based games add virtual content on top of the real world. We investigate why playing these games feels meaningful to players by focusing on the dimensions of imagination and sociality. We theorise a structural model that we test with data collected from a global sample of players of the popular AR game Pokémon GO (N=515). Our findings show that nostalgic feelings about Pokémon increased imagining AR content in the real world. Surprisingly, using imagination in this way was a much stronger predictor of affection towards the fictional pokémon creatures than nostalgia. The affection towards the fictional creatures, in turn, increased the meaningfulness of playing. Regarding the social factors, community identification and social self-efficacy increased players' sense of meaningfulness of playing. As our study's main design implications, we highlight the importance of socially shared narratives and harnessing the players' imagination to support a sense of meaningfulness of playing.
... The aforementioned benefits to some extent help us understand how Pokémon GO motivates players to continually engage in the game. Similar to other games, fun or enjoyment is a common incentive for continuously playing Pokémon GO (25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30). Game motivation could also be explained by the perception that individual wellbeing may result from game experiences via satisfying psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, according to the self-determination theory (31,32). ...
... Actually, Pokémon GO provides a platform for players to perceive these needs and thus to improve enjoyment through customized avatars, collection and reward system, as well as social feedback from both online and offline interactions with other players (22,23,28,33). A nostalgic feeling from Pokémon fans who love Pokémon movies/serials or previous Pokémon games may also motivate them to try Pokémon GO (34-36) and sustain the engagement in the game (25,26). To attract players' active interaction and involvement, the game developer has been introducing new Pokémon and developing new functions continually such as the Raid Hours, monthly Community Day, the Trading System and the Buddy System, as well as the Go Battle League, during which players earn attractive or exclusive rewards from the game like rare Pokémon (e.g., shiny Pokémon) appearing more frequently on the map or being caught from doing raids. ...
... Werster) [12], it seems that the Pokémon world keeps engaging adults as well. Previous work on why people engage with the pokémon products have found nostalgia to indeed play a role [5,13], but also many other reasons have been given, such as Pokémon being perceived by consumers as a cool brand [14]. These findings invite a more careful analysis into the fictional and thematic elements of the Pokémon franchise. ...
... A surprising finding from Butcher et al., [39] was that the alignment of Pokémon GO with the rest of the Pokémon franchise was not significant for the players in their sample, and even more surprisingly, a higher level of nostalgia negatively influenced attitudes towards Pokémon GO [39]. In the light of other studies [5,13], the findings seem out of place. However, Butcher et al., themselves argue that the explanation might be that Pokémon GO does not align with brand quality expectations [40] of long term players [39]. ...
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Pokémon has become the most profitable cross-media franchise since its creation 25 years ago. In this conceptual work, we go through the current eight generations of Pokémon games, movies and anime episodes to understand why the franchise appeals to humans. We focus on the following four core themes: (1) relationship with the Pokémon creatures; (2) exploration and adventure; (3) social connectedness and acceptance; and (4) green technologies and living in symbiosis with the environment. We discuss how these themes resonate with human primal desires and what aspects of Pokémon transcend into the real world. Our findings indicate that the Pokémon world is able to offer humans aspects of the hunter-gatherer era that are missing from the current urban way of living. The franchise appeals to human primal desires by being about exploring the world, understanding it and finding harmony with other living creatures. Our findings support previous work on the appeal of specific Pokémon games, and contributes to our understanding of what has made the franchise popular.
... Typically, field researchers have used the attitude-behavior models to explore players' intention to continue to play games, such as the theory of planned behavior (Lee & Tsai, 2010), and the technology acceptance model (Harborth & Pape, 2020). However, the extant literature has not fully considered the antecedents or internal mechanisms of players' intention to continue playing Pokémon Go in most situations of collective activities from the perspective of social and media influences, such as social interaction and media richness. ...
... Some important constructs have been identified for mobile game use (e.g., enjoyment, fantasy, and flow). In addition to the factors attributed to the adoption of traditional mobile games, psychological and social motivational factors are emphasized in the studies, including nostalgic feelings (Harborth & Pape, 2020), social interaction and conversation with friends and strangers (Bueno et al., 2020;Vella et al., 2019), social needs (Alha, Koskinen, Paavilainen, & Hamari, 2019;Hsiao, Chang, & Tang, 2016), and community involvement (Ghazali, Mutum, & Woon, 2019). ...
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Since its launch in 2016, Pokémon Go has attracted huge numbers of players, causing a boom in this game market. Although it is not as popular as before, from time to time we still find crowds of players gathered in some spots where Pokémon appear. Numerous reports have explored this Pokémon phenomenon; however, the exact reasons for its popularity remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to explore the post-adoption behavior of Pokémon Go players and its influential factors in the gaming and tourism industries. The theoretical model of stimulus-organism-response was drawn on to examine the impact of the environmental stimuli (social influence and media influence) on players’ internal organisms, which in turn affect their post-experience responses. Moreover, gender differences were also examined in the hypothetical relationships. A total of 342 valid questionnaires from actual gamers were collected in this study, and data analysis was performed using a structural equation model. The results show that stimulus effects, such as social stimuli (critical mass and social interaction) and media stimuli (content timeliness and media richness), have significant impacts on the players’ internal gamified experience (attachment and conformity), which in turn affect their visit intention to catch creatures at certain attractions and to continue playing Pokémon Go. Further, we have also found that players’ intention to visit Pokémon spots is significantly correlated with their intention to continue playing the game. Findings provide links between gamification and tourism literature. Further theoretical and managerial implications are provided.
... Ingress, on the other hand, is a newer franchise; players with immersive affinities may be players of other games or experiences which overlap with existing preferences. Studies of the impact of nostalgia on Pokémon GO suggest that childhood brand nostalgia has a significant impact on player habit [25]. While not directly immersion, habit represents an analog of the immersion trait, particularly how well a game embeds a player into its story. ...
... This distinction may be because Harry Potter: Wizards Unite has a tight coupling to the Harry Potter franchise, meaning players may be more gratified by feelings of nostalgia or appreciation of the franchise in general. This distinction appears to partially support the finding that childhood brand nostalgia is positively associated with hedonic motivation, an analog for enjoyment in behavioral intention, however, Pokémon GO's lack of difference is unexplained and warrants further study [25]. ...
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Location-based games (LBG) impose virtual spaces on top of physical locations. Studies have explored LBG from various perspectives. However, a comprehensive study of who these players are, their traits, their gratifications, and the links between them is conspicuously absent from the literature. In this paper, we aim to address this lacuna through a series of surveys with 2390 active LBG players utilizing Tondello's Player Traits Model and Scale of Game playing Preferences, and Hamari's scale of LBG gratifications. Our findings (1) illustrate an association between player satisfaction and social aspects of the studied games, (2) explicate how the core-loops of the studied games impact the expressed gratifications and the affine traits of players, and (3) indicate a strong distinction between hardcore and casual players based on both traits and gratifications. Overall our findings shed light into the players of LBG, their traits, and gratifications they derive from playing LBGs.
... Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the most promising emerging technologies and has found its way into the research field of education, entertainment, games, daily life, and marketing, etc. [1][2][3][4]. Today, AR technology has gradually matured and become a research hotspot and trend in the field of education [5,6]. In a study on the application of AR technology in higher education during the period 2005-2019, it was found that computer science was prominent in the education field. ...
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The Basic Design course can help students understand design principles and visual art elements It is a compulsory basic course for the department of art and design in many universities. In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has found its way into the field of design education and has become a popular textbook tool in teaching courses. There are not many pieces of research on the application of AR in design courses. Therefore, this study attempts to explore the factors that affect students’ acceptance of AR textbooks in Basic Design course and their continuance intention for AR textbooks. This study first focused on students with experience in using AR textbooks. Open-ended questions were used to collect factors that allow AR textbooks to be used in the design curriculum; then questionnaire surveys and factor analysis were conducted and the research hypotheses are presented. Then, the research hypotheses were verified through reliability and validity as well as structural equation modeling. Three factors and 15 items for students to accept AR textbooks in the Basic Design course were summarized in the research results, including the three factors named “Visual Attraction”, “Knowledge-ability”, and “Situational Experience”. The analysis of differences showed significant differences in gender among these three factors and no significant differences between grades and departments. Also, it was found from the analysis results of the structural equation model that the factors of “Visual Attraction” and “Knowledge-ability” both had a positive effect on the continuance intention, of which “Knowledge-ability” was the most important influencing factor. The results of this study can help the application and development of AR textbooks in the Basic Design course.
... Empirical studies indicate that consumers respond positively to known brands [3] because individuals' earliest experiences have an important influence on current and future preferences across the consumer life cycle [4]. Furthermore, prior research indicates that nostalgia positively influences technology acceptance of nostalgic games such as Pokémon Go [5]. Thus, this study proposes that nostalgic feelings from a user's childhood may positively bias her or his rationale in the privacy calculus and alleviate possible privacy concerns while increasing perceived benefits of the technology: The user's view on the privacy calculus is through the rose-colored glasses (Merriam-Webster defines the expression 'rose-colored glasses' as having "favorably disposed opinions [of something or somebody]" [6].) of nostalgia. ...
Article
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Pokémon Go is one of the most successful mobile games of all time. Millions played and still play this mobile augmented reality (AR) application, although severe privacy issues are pervasive in the app due to its use of several sensors such as location data and camera. In general, individuals regularly use online services and mobile apps although they might know that the use is associated with high privacy risks. This seemingly contradictory behavior of users is analyzed from a variety of different perspectives in the information systems domain. One of these perspectives evaluates privacy-related decision making processes based on concepts from behavioral economics. We follow this line of work by empirically testing one exemplary extraneous factor within the "enhanced APCO model" (antecedents-privacy concerns-outcome). Specific empirical tests on such biases are rare in the literature which is why we propose and empirically analyze the extraneous influence of a positivity bias. In our case, we hypothesize that the bias is induced by childhood brand nostalgia towards the Pokémon franchise. We analyze our proposition in the context of an online survey with 418 active players of the game. Our results indicate that childhood brand nostalgia influences the privacy calculus by exerting a large effect on the benefits within the trade-off and, therefore, causing a higher use frequency. Our work shows two important implications. First, the behavioral economics perspective on privacy provides additional insights relative to previous research. However, the effects of several other biases and heuristics have to be tested in future work. Second, relying on nostalgia represents an important, but also double-edged, instrument for practitioners to market new services and applications.
... Many contemporary adults grew up with Pokémon and carry fond memories of the characters. Playing Pokémon GO is therefore associated with 'nostalgic reverie' (Bonus et al. 2018) and people were immediately motivated to participate based on childhood nostalgia (Zsila et al. 2018;Harborth and Pape 2019;Vaterlaus et al. 2019). Players, scholars and commentators alike tend to agree that 'one of the key success factors of Pokémon GO is its success in tapping into the childhood memories of a large number of young adults' (Tang 2017: 726). ...
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This article explores the impact of COVID-19 on the developers and players of Pokémon GO through the lens of nostalgia. Focusing on the game as a nostalgic text that works to remediate physical and social spaces, we examine how gameplay has changed in response to players’ restricted mobility and isolation during the 2020 global pandemic. The release of Pokémon GO in 2016 was a watershed moment in the development of mobile augmented reality games. Building on a popular culture franchise familiar to many, it fused cutting-edge technology with memories of the past. Previous studies suggest playing Pokémon GO is associated with dreamlike nostalgia for childhood adventures. But these experiences were intimately linked with physical movement, proximity to others, and the exploration of outdoor spaces. Confined to their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, once free-roaming players are now being encouraged to embrace isolated, sedentary play. There is an additional layer of nostalgia in operation as players and developers alike reminisce about socializing and playing in the world outside the home. This article therefore explores how Pokémon GO mediates player experiences and unpacks its role in negotiating both memory and contemporary societal trauma.
... Building on Shields and Johnson's [62] construct of childhood brand nostalgia (CBN), defined as "[…] a positively valenced emotional attachment to a brand because of the brand's association with fond memories of the individual's non-recent lived past" [p. 346], Harborth and Pape [30] explored how nostalgia affects technology acceptance with Pokémon Go, a subsequent game in the same universe as the original Pokémon. Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology adapted for consumers (UTAUT2) and voluntary technology use [69], they found positive correlations between CBN and both behavioural intentions to adopt and play Pokémon Go and actual use, and particularly the model elements of effort expectancy, hedonic motivation and facilitating conditions. ...
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This experimental study explores how game experience differs between players with different gameplay histories within the same game universe. We are interested in how prolonged engagement with a game series affects the gameplay experience in relation to the most recent game version in the series. A total of 54 participants were divided into four groups depending on their gaming experience, namely non-gamers, new-gamers, old-gamers and core-gamers. They played the mobile version of Super Mario Run, and questionnaire data was collected after the gameplay session. The results of the study showed that not only the players’ personal gameplay history but also the length of experience or degree of familiarity with the game universe affected the experience of playing a new game in the same game universe. Additionally, familiarity with the game universe had a positive impact on the feeling of competence, immersion, emotions and flow.
... Many contemporary adults grew up with Pokémon and carry fond memories of the characters. Playing Pokémon GO is therefore associated with 'nostalgic reverie' (Bonus et al. 2018) and people were immediately motivated to participate based on childhood nostalgia (Zsila et al. 2018;Harborth and Pape 2019;Vaterlaus et al. 2019). Players, scholars and commentators alike tend to agree that 'one of the key success factors of Pokémon GO is its success in tapping into the childhood memories of a large number of young adults' (Tang 2017: 726). ...
Preprint
This article explores the impact of COVID-19 on the developers and players of Pokémon GO through the lens of nostalgia. Focusing on the game as a nostalgic text that works to remediate physical and social spaces, we examine how gameplay has changed in response to players’ restricted mobility and isolation during the 2020 global pandemic. The release of Pokémon GO in 2016 was a watershed moment in the development of mobile augmented reality games. Building on a popular culture franchise familiar to many, it fused cutting-edge technology with memories of the past. Previous studies suggest playing Pokémon GO is associated with dreamlike nostalgia for childhood adventures. But these experiences were intimately linked with physical movement, proximity to others, and the exploration of outdoor spaces. Confined to their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic, once free-roaming players are now being encouraged to embrace isolated, sedentary play. There is an additional layer of nostalgia in operation as players and developers alike reminisce about socializing and playing in the world outside the home. This article therefore explores how Pokémon GO mediates player experiences and unpacks its role in negotiating both memory and contemporary societal trauma.
... Nostalgia marketing techniques were successful in restaurants where people are attracted more towards nostalgic-themed restaurants (Wen et al., 2019). With Pokémon Go's release, various researches proved that nostalgic emotion is an essential aspect of attracting players in gaming industries (Ghazali et al., 2019;Harborth & Pape, 2019). So, nostalgia marketing can be an excellent option to attract customers in the toy industry. ...
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... In the psychological aspect, the nding highlighted the trend of Pokémon GO to be fashionable for those who are fond of online games and hinted that the bandwagon effect may exist in these conditions. The presence of a commonly played game might substantially in uence the player's internal attitude and behavioural intention towards the game [67,68]. The variety of age groups that have been attracted to install this free-to-play game is due to the Pokémon upsurge. ...
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Objective To explore insights of young people’s experiences and motivations in Pokémon GO in Hong Kong. The perspectives of young people through qualitative focus group interviews. Results Eight focus group discussions with young people (n=45; age from 18-25 years old) recruited in Hong Kong. We analysed the discussions using a thematic approach. Five theme categories emerged from data analysis: missing out or self-regulation, childhood memories of Pokémon, extending virtual-reality exploration, spending more time outdoors for walking and exercise, gathering together and socially interacting with others. This study sets the way for a deeper analysis of motivation factors to young people that indicate the increasing playing location-based game (LBG) via smartphones worldwide among all cohorts of society. This relatively new phenomenon of LBG may impact players’ movement, social activity, and behaviour to gain a common goal into the preferences and effects of playing LBG for young people.
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Augmented reality (AR) greatly diffused into the public consciousness in the last years, especially due to the success of mobile applications like Pokémon Go. However, only few people experienced different forms of augmented reality like head-mounted displays (HMDs). Thus, people have only a limited actual experience with AR and form attitudes and perceptions towards this technology only partially based on actual use experiences, but mainly based on hearsay and narratives of others, like the media or friends. Thus, it is highly difficult for developers and product managers of AR solutions to address the needs of potential users. Therefore, we disentangle the perceptions of individuals with a focus on their concerns about AR. Perceived concerns are an important factor for the acceptance of new technologies. We address this research topic based on twelve intensive interviews with laymen as well as AR experts and analyze them with a qualitative research method.
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Augmented reality (AR) gained much public attention since the success of Poke ́mon Go in 2016. Technology companies like Apple or Google are currently focusing primarily on mobile AR (MAR) technologies, i.e. applications on mobile devices, like smartphones or tablets. Associated privacy issues have to be investigated early to foster market adoption. This is especially relevant since past research found several threats associated with the use of smartphone applications. Thus, we investigate two of the main privacy risks for MAR application users based on a sample of 19 of the most downloaded MAR applications for Android. First, we assess threats arising from bad privacy policies based on a machine-learning approach. Second, we investigate which smartphone data resources are accessed by the MAR applications. Third, we combine both approaches to evaluate whether privacy policies cover certain data accesses or not. We provide theoretical and practical implications and recommendations based on our results.
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Purpose: Although there has been research examining the physical benefits of playing the mobile augmented reality exergame, Pokémon GO (released in July 2016), the mental health benefits have not been investigated. Therefore, to add to the body of knowledge concerning the mental health benefits of playing exergames in the new context of augmented-reality mobile games, this study investigated the positive and beneficial concept of flow and its association with playing Pokémon GO. Design/Method/Approach: A quantitative survey of 202 adult players of Pokémon GO using two validated survey instruments, measuring flow and nostalgia, investigated the correlation between the beneficial state of flow, and playing Pokémon GO. Additionally, thematic analysis was used to analyse participant responses to optional, open-ended questions. Findings: Significant predictors for 27% of variance in flow levels of Pokémon GO players were: game level achieved, playing alone, nostalgia for Pokémon from childhood, and playing with family. The themes identified by thematic analysis of participant comments concerned the beneficial effects they considered Pokémon GO was having on their social, mental, and physical well-being.
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Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the most prominent emerging technologies recently. This increase in recognition has happened predominantly because of the success of the smartphone game "Pokémon Go". But research on AR is not a new strand of literature. Especially computer scientists investigate different technological solutions and areas of application for almost 30 years. This systematic literature review aims at analyzing, synthesizing and categorizing this strand of research in the information systems (IS) domain. We follow an established methodology for conducting the literature review ensuring rigor and replicability. We apply a keyword and backward search resulting in 28 and 118 articles, respectively. Results are categorized with regard to the focus of the research and the domain of the application being investigated. We show that research on user behavior is underrepresented in the current IS literature on AR compared to technical research, especially in the domains gaming and smartphone browsers.
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In 2016, Pokémon Go became the most popular game in the history of smartphone games and was among the first games to feature geo-located augmented reality (AR) elements. The goal of the present research was to obtain a deeper understanding concerning the motivations underlying Pokémon Go use and to create a measure that assesses these motivations. By extending the framework of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire, three new factors – Outdoor Activity, Nostalgia, and Boredom – were added based on the findings of qualitative analysis, and which led to the creation of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire - Pokémon Go extension (MOGQ-PG). Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on a sample of Pokémon Go players (N = 621). Results demonstrated that the final 37-item, first-order, 10-factor model had appropriate factor structure and internal consistency. A second follow-up study on Pokémon Go players (N = 510) examined associations between gaming motivations, problematic use, and impulsivity. Results demonstrated that impulsivity was not related to the MOGQ-PG motives. Results also showed that competition and fantasy motivations predicted problematic gaming behavior. The present research is the first empirical contribution to the assessment and understanding of the motivational background of playing AR games such as Pokémon Go.
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Background: Poor physical activity is one of the major health care problems in Western civilizations. Various digital gadgets aiming to increase physical activity, such as activity trackers or fitness apps, have been introduced over recent years. The newest products are serious games that incorporate real-life physical activity into their game concept. Recent studies have shown that such games increase the physical activity of their users over the short term. Objective: In this study, we investigated the motivational effects of the digital game “Pokémon Go” leading to continued use or abandonment of the game. The aim of the study was to determine aspects that motivate individuals to play augmented reality exergames and how this motivation can be used to strengthen the initial interest in physical activity. Methods: A total of 199 participants completed an open self-selected Web-based survey. On the basis of their self-indicated assignment to one of three predefined user groups (active, former, and nonuser of Pokémon Go), participants answered various questions regarding game experience, physical activity, motivation, and personality as measured by the Big Five Inventory. Results: In total, 81 active, 56 former, and 62 nonusers of Pokémon Go were recruited. When asked about the times they perform physical activity, active users stated that they were less physically active in general than former and nonusers. However, based on a subjective rating, active users were more motivated to be physically active due to playing Pokémon Go. Motivational aspects differed for active and former users, whereas fan status was the same within both groups. Active users are more motivated by features directly related to Pokémon, such as catching all possible Pokémon and reaching higher levels, whereas former users stress the importance of general game quality, such as better augmented reality and more challenges in the game. Personality did not affect whether a person started to play Pokémon Go nor their abandonment of the game. Conclusions: The results show various motivating elements that should be incorporated into augmented reality exergames based on the game Pokémon Go. We identified different user types for whom different features of the game contribute to maintained motivation or abandonment. Our results show aspects that augmented reality exergame designers should keep in mind to encourage individuals to start playing their game and facilitate long-term user engagement, resulting in a greater interest in physical activity.
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Originating in 1996, Pokemon has become the second most successful game-based franchise in the world and arguably one of the best-known examples of transmedia storytelling in youth media today. Based around creator Satoshi Tajiri's love of insect collecting, Pokemon imagines a world where wild creatures exist to be collected, trained and battle with one another. Such an ideology, simultaneously embracing both the conservation and consumption of nature, is emblematic of the larger challenges Japan has had to negotiate as a nation trying to balance economic development and environmental protection. In this way, this article argues that, when subjected to textual analysis, the Pokemon franchise can function as vernacular theory, interrogating the relationship between environmentalism, materialism and sustainable development, a series of popular youth media texts engaging with issues and subjects that are usually reserved for academia.
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Nostalgia is a self-conscious, bittersweet but predominantly positive and fundamentally social emotion. It arises from fond memories mixed with yearning about one's childhood, close relationships, or atypically positive events, and it entails a redemption trajectory. It is triggered by a variety of external stimuli or internal states, is prevalent, is universal, and is experienced across ages. Nostalgia serves a self-oriented function (by raising self-positivity and facilitating perceptions of a positive future), an existential function (by increasing perceptions of life as meaningful), and a sociality function (by increasing social connectedness, reinforcing socially oriented action tendencies, and promoting prosocial behavior). These functions are independent of the positive affect that nostalgia may incite. Also, nostalgia-elicited sociality often mediates the self-positivity and existential functions. In addition, nostalgia maintains psychological and physiological homeostasis along the following regulatory cycle: (i) Noxious stimuli, as general as avoidance motivation and as specific as self-threat (negative performance feedback), existential threat (meaninglessness, mortality awareness), social threat (loneliness, social exclusion), well-being threat (stress, boredom), or, perhaps surprisingly, physical coldness intensify felt nostalgia; (ii) in turn, nostalgia (measured or manipulated) alleviates the impact of threat by curtailing the influence of avoidance motivation on approach motivation, buttressing the self from threat, limiting defensive responding to meaninglessness, assuaging existential anxiety, repairing interpersonal isolation, diminishing the blow of stress, relieving boredom through meaning reestablishment, or producing the sensation of physical warmth. Nostalgia has a checkered history, but is now rehabilitated as an adaptive psychological resource.