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Abstract

As a result of scandals concerning sexual harassment in Hollywood and in the media, as well as questions regarding the size of the gender pay gap, considerable attention has recently been paid to questions of gender diversity and discrimination in organisations. Gender issues would appear particularly salient within the veterinary profession, not least because women are beginning to outnumber men as practitioners. While this research on veterinary surgeons was not initially focused on gender, as the study progressed gender became an issue of such importance that it could not be ignored. Although ‘feminized in numerical terms’, the veterinary profession and ‘its professional structure and culture remains gendered masculine’. Translated into practice, this means that although 76 per cent of vet school graduates are currently female, disproportionately few have risen or are rising through the hierarchy. On the surface it is easy to rationalise this away partly by simply stating how many female vets appear to sacrifice career for family, but the authors’ aim is to go beyond merely repeating and reinforcing the common sense view of female reproduction and parenting as the sole explanation for gender inequality within this and other professions.
Female vets face “outright discrimination” and sexism from colleagues and clients
Implications for legal/ethical practice and sustainability of profession, say authors
Female vets routinely face “outright discrimination” and sexism from their colleagues and
clients, with few of them encouraged to rise up the hierarchy, indicates a small qualitative
and observational study, published online in Vet Record.
This not only has implications for the sustainability of the profession, because three out of
four vet school graduates are women and rates of practitioner burnout are high. But it also
raises questions about the legality and ethics of practice, say the authors.
The authors didn’t set out to focus on gender, they write, “but as the study progressed,
gender became an issue of such importance that it could not be ignored.”
They drew on semistructured interviews with 75 vets: 39 men and 36 women, ranging in age
from 25 to 63. They included practitioners with varying levels of experience and in all three
main types of practice: small animal (30); large animal (34); and equine (12).
The interviews were accompanied by observations during practice visits, including during
consultations and surgery, as well exchanges in staff kitchens and corridors.
The authors then carried out a thematic analysis to gauge how particular narratives were
used, consciously or not, to maintain or disrupt the prevailing status quo at work.
Their analysis revealed “highly significant” client sexism, with clients often demanding a male
vet or insisting on a second opinion from “one of the boys.”
These attitudes were rarely challenged by senior (male) vets, “partly because of their being
oblivious to the problems, but also, presumably, for fear of upsetting the client, suggest the
authors.
Some of the interviewees did seem to be outwardly sensitive to gender issues, yet were
unaware of their own sexism.
The researchers cite an example of a male large animal practitioner who suggested that
chauvinism was dying out, but then went on to say: ‘They [women] can...use their charm in
situations, which do require some physical strength to actually just get the farmer to help’.
Issues of physical weaknesses were frequently expressed by both sexes, particularly in
relation to large animal work, despite it often being a question of technique rather than
strength, note the researchers. Once again, this view was rarely challenged.
The narrative of an enforced choice between career or family was often subscribed to by
both sexes, but was “entirely absent from male accounts, as were issues of future
fatherhood,” point out the authors.
“These assumed responsibilities than become conflated (unproblematically) with either the
sheer impossibility, or lack of desire, for women to seek senior positions in their practices,” a
viewpoint that is reinforced by women’s self-deprecation and the long working hours culture
of the profession, they add.
And with one notable exception, they found once female vets had children, they were
assumed to be on the ‘mommy track’ and were no longer taken seriously by the practice,
manifest in no longer being given complex cases or considered for promotion.
These findings are important, insist the authors, because of “the potentially ethical and legal
implications of practices that conflict with equal opportunity policies and values.”
But more than that: “Often female vets were subject to outright sex discrimination.” This will
only worsen the risk of burnout, which is estimated to affect one in five female vets within
five years of graduation, they suggest.
Currently, few women work in large animal practices, hospitals, or academic research, say
the authors. But “vets do not readily recognise these issues and some even refuse to
acknowledge their existence.”
All this has implications for recruitment and retention, and ultimately the sustainability of the
profession, they suggest.
Women themselves don’t seem to want to challenge gender hierarchies and entrenched
masculine cultures at work either, suggesting that gender awareness training both in
management and the veterinary college curriculum is needed, say the authors.
“This training could raise issues of discrimination around gender and other closely related
problems such as age, so that students are equipped to recognise and challenge discourses
of limitation and discrimination before they become normalised, internalised, and
entrenched,” they conclude.
Notes for editors
Gendered practices in veterinary organisations doi 10.1136.vr.104994
Journal: Vet Record
Link to Academy of Medical Sciences labelling system:
http://press.psprings.co.uk/AMSlabels.pdf
Embargoed link to research
Public link once embargo lifts
Author contact
Professor David Knights, School of Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
Tel:+ 44 (0)1743341742 or 07891647837
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