The paper focuses on the development of drug delivery systems based on hydrogels of dextran phosphate (DP) for local cancer therapy. The hydrogels were characterized by physicochemical properties including functional group content, morphology, gel fraction, pH-responsive swelling. The desirable pH-sensitive drug release behavior of these hydrogels was demonstrated by a drug release test with Prospidine-loaded hydrogels (DP-Pr hydrogels) at different pH values. In vitro degradation of the DP-Pr hydrogels was determined under simulated physiological conditions. The cytotoxicity of the blank DP hydrogels and DP-Pr hydrogels with different Pr concentrations was evaluated with HeLa and HЕр-2 cells. Investigations of antitumor efficiency in vivo showed that administration of DP-Pr hydrogels in comparison with an aqueous solution of Pr results in the increase of antitumor activity, prolongation of therapeutic action and growth of a number of animals cured. Therefore, such pH-responsive DP hydrogels could be promising candidates as drug delivery carriers.