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Comparative Review Study of Military and Civilian Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)


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Indian flying corps and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) forged long standing military ties, Israel aviation enterprises keeping up their strong position as best-in-class UAV manufacturers for both civilian and military use and supplying the Indian military with advanced UAV frameworks. IAI has provided IAF with a sum of 176 Israel-made automatons including 108 IAI Searchers and 68 unarmed Heron-1 airships for observation and surveillance missions including an armada of IAI Harpy rambles. With the expanding request of India's military associations, for example, the DRDO, Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) have been creating UAVs with ISR, focusing on, and weapon direction abilities. The first trip of the Rustom-2 model on 16 November 2016 was a turning point for India. This work shows the correlation of the Indian and Israeli UAVs created depending on their main capacities and execution qualities.
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INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 11, Issue 3/ 2019, pp. 183 – 198 (P) ISSN 2066-8201, (E) ISSN 2247-4528
Comparative Review Study of Military and Civilian
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Sudhir Kumar CHATURVEDI*,1,a, Raj SEKHAR2,b, Saikat BANERJEE3,c,
Hutanshu KAMAL4,d
*Corresponding Author
*,1Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies,
Dehradun-248007, India,
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,
Bengaluru-560012, India,
3Wingbotics, Kolkata-700086, West Bengal, India,
4Indian Institute of Management Ranchi,
Ranchi-834009, India,
DOI: 10.13111/2066-8201.2019.11.3.16
Received: 26 April 2019/ Accepted: 02 August 2019/ Published: September 2019
Copyright © 2019. Published by INCAS. This is an “open access” article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (
Abstract: Indian flying corps and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) forged long standing military ties,
Israel aviation enterprises keeping up their strong position as best-in-class UAV manufacturers for
both civilian and military use and supplying the Indian military with advanced UAV frameworks. IAI
has provided IAF with a sum of 176 Israel-made automatons including 108 IAI Searchers and 68
unarmed Heron-1 airships for observation and surveillance missions including an armada of IAI
Harpy rambles. With the expanding request of India's military associations, for example, the DRDO,
Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL),
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) have been creating UAVs with ISR, focusing on, and weapon
direction abilities. The first trip of the Rustom-2 model on 16 November 2016 was a turning point for
India. This work shows the correlation of the Indian and Israeli UAVs created depending on their
main capacities and execution qualities.
Key Words: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Israel aerospace industries, Nano Air Vehicles
Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) occupy a dominant place in the peak areas, where emphasis
is placed on observation, accumulation of knowledge and spread of data. In several decades,
UAVs have developed from performing a solitary mission to carrying out complex missions,
a Assistant Professor (SG),
b Research Assistant
c Director
d Student
Sudhir Kumar CHATURVEDI, Raj SEKHAR, Saikat BANERJEE, Hutanshu KAMAL
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 11, Issue 3/ 2019
such as observing, verifying, insuring, tracking with the use of last-minute innovations.
UAVs fill in as one of a kind apparatus, which expand front line situational mindfulness and
the capacity to see, target, and obliterate the adversary by giving noteworthy knowledge to
the most minimal strategic dimensions. An unmistakable favourable position of UAVs is
their cost-adequacy. They can be created, delivered, and worked at lower costs contrasted
with the expense of keeping an eye on airship [3]. The relative funds in motors, airframes,
fuel utilization, pilot preparing, coordination, and support are tremendous. The most
favourable position of UAVs, nonetheless, is that there is no hazard to human lives.
Unmanned segments are increasingly deadly and non-deadly weapons as per the decision
and have changed how the military at present prosecute responsibilities. The probability of
trailing perception stages to foe fire is remarkably higher, which explains UAV as a
significant verdict. Among UAS, promising attributes are long flight span, enhanced mission
security, flight repeatability because of enhancing autopilots, and lessened operational costs
when contrasted with keeping an eye on airship [2]. The potential focal points of an
unmanned stage, be that as it may, rely upon numerous variables, for example, flying
machine, sensor types, mission destinations, and the current UAS administrative necessities
for activities of the specific stage. India and Israel being dominant military superpowers have
joined the utilization of UAS in outskirts watch, observation surveillance and for remote
detecting as well; the of little and medium-class stages, the last has is a worldwide stalwart in
UAV innovative work for regular civilian and military tasks.
This paper (1) to describe different UAV stages and classifications of UAS and
considerations for their use in remote detecting and military missions. This article various
stages and classifications of UAS and for their use in remote sensing and military missions;
(2) to arrange Indian and Israel UAS improvement in the most recent decade dependent on
their execution qualities (3) to examine case situations in which UAV frameworks have been
utilized in regular civilian and military tasks.
Unmanned airship frameworks comprise the airship segment, sensor payloads, and a ground
control station. The last mentioned, operated by at least one individual notwithstanding a
devoted human “pilot” (enhanced sometimes by an extra "spotter" to guarantee security),
generally fluctuates in its design contingent upon the stage and mission. Committed control
frameworks might be dedicated to large UAVs, and mounted on board vehicles or in trailers
to empower nearness to UAVs constrained by range or correspondence capacities [1]. The
littlest classes of UAVs regularly are joined by ground-control stations comprising of PCs
different segments little enough to be conveyed effortlessly with the flying machine in small
vehicles, onboard watercraft, or in knapsacks.
2.1 Classification of UAS Platforms
The arrangement of UAS stages for common logical utilizations has, for the most part,
pursued existing military description of the stages dependent on attributes, for example,
measure, flight perseverance, and abilities. The widely recognized terminology in the field of
non-military personnel is as follows: MAV (Micro (or Miniature) or NAV (Nano) Air
Vehicles), are purported due to their size, which commonly empowers military variants of
this airplane to be transported inside individual officers' knapsacks. This airship will operate
in general works at low elevations (<330 m), with size restrictions on battery limit prompting
short flight times in the region of ca. 5– 30 min [1]. VTOL (Vertical Take-Off and Landing):
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These airships require no departure or landing run, and are hence generally picked in
circumstances where confinements of the landscape need this particular ability. Airship of
this sort work at different heights relying upon their central goal profile yet prevalently fly at
low elevations [1]. High power prerequisites for floating flight limit the flight lengths for
VTOLs, aside from in the most significant sizes where expanded lifting abilities suit
extensive fuel limit. LASE (Low Altitude, Short-Endurance): frameworks, otherwise called
UAS, small unmanned airship frameworks, likewise hinder the requirement for runways with
flying machine streamlined for simple field organization/recuperation and transport [1]. The
flying machine part of these frameworks regularly gauges ca. 25 kg, Remote Sens. 2012, 4
1674 with wingspans <3 m to empower propelling from smaller than usual sling
frameworks, or by hand. Bargains among weight and capacity will in general decrease
continuance and correspondence extends to 12 hand inside a couple of km of ground
LALE (Low Altitude, Long Endurance): Typically, at the upper end of the “UAS” weight
assignment by the United States Federal Aviation Administration [1] (FAA; see underneath),
these UAS may convey payloads of a few kgs at elevations of a couple of thousand meters
for expanded periods. MALE (Medium Altitude, Long Endurance): airship is regularly a lot
bigger than low-elevation classes of UAVs, working at heights up to ca. 9,000 mon flights
several km from their ground stations enduring numerous hours [1].
High Altitude, Long Endurance: These are the biggest and most complex of the UAS, with
airship bigger than many general-aeronautics kept an eye on flying machine [2]. These
UAVs may fly at heights of 20,000 m or more on missions that expand a considerable
number of km. Some HALE airship has flight terms more than 30,000m and has set records
for height and flight length. For the motivations behind effortlessness, we will depict a few
qualities of the different size stages for supporting nonmilitary personnel remote detecting
and logical research applications from some time ago recognized classifications of UAS
(MAV, LALE, LASE, MALE, HALE, and VTOL) as shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: Classification of Indian UAS based on their endurance and wing span
The MAV was initially defined as a UAV having a wing-span no greater than 150 mm[1].
They are designed as short mission profile surveillance platforms, allowing unobtrusive
observation capabilities in confined spaces or hostile environments in military applications.
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) NAL, in particular, has been
Sudhir Kumar CHATURVEDI, Raj SEKHAR, Saikat BANERJEE, Hutanshu KAMAL
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leading the development of MAVs and mini UAVs to meet the requirements of India’s
military and civil forces. The organization, which was previously succeeded in the
development of three MAVs (Black Kite, Golden Hawk, and Pushpak), is now developing a
mini UAV named Suchan (figure 2). These micro air vehicles are man-portable and have
image processing capabilities, besides, these portable GCS commands, control and display,
optical flow-based obstacle avoidance; and horizon detection using computer vision
Figure 2: SUCHAN UAV Figure 3: MOSQUITO by IAI
The somewhat bigger Spy the Mosquito developed by IAI (figure 3) is worked by a two-man
team and has double the range, IAI said. Every one of the autonomous MAVs can fly for an
hour while transmitting pictures back to their administrators.
The Mosquito 1 and Mosquito 1.5 smaller scale rambles have a wingspan of 33 centimetres
(13 inches). Their little size enables them to fly through windows and to give pictures to
military units behind it. The Mosquito has officially finished a few effective 40-minute
preliminary flights.
NAV Nano Air Vehicles are proposed to be of the extent of sycamore seeds and utilized in
swarms for purposes, for example, radar perplexity or possibly, if camera, impetus and
control sub-frameworks can be made little enough, for ultra-short-range observation.
Figure 4: BLACK HORNET developed by Prox Dynamics
Black Hornet (figure 4) would be a perfect example of an advanced aerial NAV that is being
used in military spy operations all over the world. The unit measures around 10 × 2.5 cm (4
× 1 in) and furnishes troops on the ground with neighborhood situational mindfulness. They
are little enough to fit in one hand and weigh simply over a large portion of an ounce (16 g,
including batteries).
The UAV is outfitted with a camera, which gives the administrator full-movement video and
still pictures. They were created as a component of a £20 million contract for 160 units with
Marlborough Communications Ltd.
An administrator can be prepared to work the Black Hornet in as meager as 20 minutes. The
air vehicle has three cameras; one looking forward, one looking straight down, and one
pointing descending at 45 degrees. A Black Hornet bundle contains two helicopters, and
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since a 90% charge is come to in 20-25 minutes, the equivalent as its drifting time, with a top
speed is 11 mph (18 km/h) when one should be revived the other is prepared to fly.
2.3 VTOL Unmanned elevated frameworks
The upsides of VTOL UAS are the versatility of the stages for remote zone tasks without the
need for runway buildings. A greater amount of the flow VTOL stages is little, with most
working with electric engines from battery-powered batteries restricting flight terms to short
of what 60 minutes [10].
They have constrained sensor payload capacities yet as scaling down of sensors
happens; the stages demonstrated to be more profitable for use in speedy investigation
Representations of the effectiveness of VTOL UAS phases are to assistance regulation
execution responsibilities, where a low-height, drifting ability with depiction information
catch is valuable for finding out an occurrence scene.
Logical research applications requiring standing around capacity over a settled review
plot of moderately little size (e.g., horticultural field) are another territory in which this class
of UAV has huge potential.
Quad-rotors are the most well-known case of this sort of setups. The thought is to have
the rotor edges all settled in pitch and to accomplish pushed changes on every rotor by
changing its speed of revolution.
Every rotor is exclusively determined by an electric engine mounted at the rotor head.
Along these lines, for instance, for the flying machine to push ahead the rotational speed of
the two back rotors would be expanded to pitch the airship nose-down and coordinate the
subsequently pushed vector advances.
In the meantime, the aggregate push must be expanded to forestall the loss of stature
and, when set up in forwarding flight, the rotor speeds should again be blended. The design
is normally more blast touchy than alternate arrangements, and its control reaction must be
relied upon to be slower.
Along these lines, the accomplishment of adequate control might be sufficiently
troublesome in the still quality of research facility conditions, and significantly riskier in the
tempestuous demeanour of urban tasks.
Notwithstanding these tests Quadrotors outfitted with camera payloads are as yet
utilized in remote detecting activities due to fabrication straightforward. Indeed, even a
newbie UAV pilot with some simple preparing can fly it. India’s safeguard inquires about
organization DRDO has built up an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) particularly intended
for against fearmongering and counter-insurrection tasks, which will be enlisted into the
military constantly culmination.
The 1.5 kg UAV, called Netra is a collective improvement venture among idea Forge,
and Defense Research and Development Organization Pune-based labs, The UAV is fit for
working in all the contention theatres, including urban quarters, in a circumstance like that of
the 26/11 dread assaults, the evaluated expense of Netra is Rs 20 lakhs, yet the cost could
change if extra segments like warm camera are included according to the prerequisites of the
security offices concerned and their utilization, the UAV has been intended to complete
observation in a territory of 1.5 KM Line of Sight (LOS) and has a perseverance limit of 30
minutes of battery charge [3,4].
Aside from that, Netra (figure 5), is outfitted with a goals CCD camera with a skillet/tilt
and zoom to encourage more extensive observation.
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It can likewise be fitted with warm cameras to do night activities with an operational
elevation of 200 meters most extreme, having a vertical take-off and landing limit (VTOL)
and is furnished with a remote transmitter.
Notwithstanding that, the in-fabricated safeguard highlights enable Netra to profit to
base for loss of correspondence or low battery.
Figure 5: NETRA jointly developed by Idea-Forge and
Figure 6: TIKAD Drone Developed by Duke
As shown in the figure 6, in September 2017, Duke Robotics has reported that Israel's
Ministry of Defense has supported Duke Robotics' TIKAD ramble as creative future war
zone innovation.
The TIKAD is planned with a lightweight, continuous 6 DOF (degrees of opportunity)
Robotic gimbal with a weight of under 10 kg.
It can convey and balance out up to 3x the heaviness of the gimbal. The TIKAD can be sent
above water and finishes with a base hazard circumstance [3, 4].
As of not long ago, troops must be there to explore. The organization's restrictive mechanical
adjustment innovation empowers the TIKAD to assimilate the force of a weapon, taking into
consideration pinpoint focusing on and shooting exactness that can ensure troops in an
assortment of dangerous circumstances.
By decreasing the requirement for ground troops, the TIKAD speaks to a remarkable
advance towards limiting military and regular citizen losses, and the innovation is picking up
help on a worldwide premise.
Low-altitude, Short Endurance, and Low-Altitude, Long Endurance UAS happen in a variety
of sizes and setups, from back-packable, hand-propelled stages to sling dispatch stages. A
portion of the more typical, minimal effort LASE/LALE stages being used today is those that
are lightweight and can be hand-propelled, permitting flexible field condition tasks in
territories without active surface runways.
The impediment of hand-dispatch stages is their relatively brief length operational abilities
of 45 min– 2 h, and a lessened payload limit [1]. These UAS are generally easy to work, with
flight controls like RC models and rearranged ground-control stations that take into account
little teams. The majority of the remote detecting frameworks are small, disentangled
cameras or spilling camcorders in either sunshine (shading or B/W) or infrared (B/W) video
gave of surface items being imaged, albeit expanded abilities are empowering direct picture
georeferencing in a portion of these frameworks.
DRDO structured 'Nishant' a LALE class UAV with AUW of 340 Kg sling propelled, a
versatile conservative framework for day and night war zone observation, surveillance, target
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assignment, ordnance fire course, and harm appraisal as shown in the figure 7. Following
quite a while of improvement and preliminaries, it was conveyed to the Indian Army in
Figure 7: NISHANT UAV by DRDO Figure 8: Bird-Eye 650D Developed by IAI
Bird-Eye 650D, (figure 8) a small tactical unmanned aerial system (UAS) designed and
developed by MALAT Division of Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), entered serial
production in June 2016. The UAS is intended for a variety of military and paramilitary
missions such as over-the-hill intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and
reconnaissance (ISTAR), patrol, urban operation, counter-terrorism, convoy escort, radio
relay, and law enforcement. Its civilian applications include surveillance of disaster areas,
water resource management, mapping, and powerline inspections [10].
The Skylark II (figure 9) one of the LALE class UAV systems is a short proximity strategic
unmanned air vehicle (UAV) framework essentially intended for Israeli, Canadian and
Korean guard powers to complete insight, observation, target securing, and surveillance
activities. The UAV was structured and fabricated by Elbit Systems. It was first divulged in
2006 and is gotten from the Skylark I. The UAV is fundamentally utilized for most
exceedingly awful climate observation, information gathering and target stamping for
missions going more than 50km [10].
The Skylark II is fueled by a single electrical engine fabricated by Bental Industries. The
motor can deliver the greatest of 4kW. It is controlled by a battery pack contained in the
payload unit underneath the first blast.
The drive framework utilizes dual channel perpetual magnet brushless engines. A controller
turns off one channel while cruising as this requires less power. On the off chance that one of
the frameworks comes up short, the control will consequently change to another framework,
enabling the vehicle to proceed with the mission or drop and come back to the ground
Figure 9: Searcher 2 developed by IAI Figure 10: Skylark 3 developed by IAI
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In February 2016, Elbit Systems disclosed the Skylark 3 unmanned air framework,
additionally uncovering it had just picked up a choice by an undisclosed client. In the
figure:10, the Skylark 3 is proposed to help detachment and division-level units, having a 4.8
m (15.7 ft) wingspan and a most extreme take-off weight of 45 kg (99 lb) with a 10 kg (22
lb) payload.
It is conveyed from a pneumatic launcher on the ground or mounted on a vehicle, with a
working scope of more than 54 miles, (62 mi; 100 km), an administration roof of 15,000 ft
(4,600 m), and flight autonomy of up to 6 hours. Two air vehicles can be worked all the
while utilizing a mutual ground control station.
2.5 MALE-medium altitude long endurance UAV
Heron TP (Eitan), a MALE (UAV) is a high-end variation of the Heron 1 (figure:11) UAV
created by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) to meet various mission needs of the military.
The Eitan MALE UAV's main goal capacities incorporate observation, surveillance, fight
harm appraisal, target procurement, airborne refuelling, knowledge social occasion, and
rocket safeguard.
A full-scale model of the Heron TP was shown amid an incident that occurred in Berlin
Expo Center Airport on June 2016. Heron TP unmanned air framework requests and
conveyances IAI's MALAT Division divulged the Heron TP unmanned flying vehicle amid
the Paris Air Show held on June 2007. In June 2008, IAI and Rheinmetall Defense
Electronics (RDE) entered a co-task consent to offer Heron TP for the SAATEG middle of
the road arrangement of the German Armed Forces. Some Heron TP rambles were drafted
into the White Eagle Squadron of the Israeli Air Force (IAF) in February 2010. One of them
was slammed amid an experimental drill in January 2012. The Indian Government affirmed
the buy often outfitted Heron TP UAVs for the Indian Air Force in September 2015. In
January 2016, Germany declared its choice to rent up to five equipped Heron TPs as an
internal arrangement.
The new UAVs are required to enter benefit in 2018. A decent case of a small-scale ramble
is the FULMAR settled wing smaller scale UAV which has a most extreme departure weight
of around 20 kg. It was produced by Thales and Wake building, and it has endurance of 12
hours and range of about 90km. The best speed of this UAV is 100km/h, and the greatest
height it can get to is 4000m with a payload of 8 kilograms [10].
Figure 11: Heron TP by IAI
The 14m-long, Heron TP MALE unmanned flying machine framework (UAV) highlights an
all-composite airframe with high-wing cantilever monoplane plan. The principle wings,
spreading over 26m, have a high-angle proportion. The UAV likewise includes a twin-blast
arrangement, where blasts are stretched out from the wings to frame the tail structure,
comprising of two tails associated by a single tailplane [10]. A couple of vertical tail blades
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is mounted at the closures of the tailplane. The retractable landing gear is masterminded in a
tricycle form with two fundamental units installed under the tail blasts and a nose wheel
under the fuselage. With a substantial inside volume, the UAV can convey different payloads
weighing 1,000kg. The Heron TP configuration can likewise be adjusted to an assortment of
missions. The Heron TP's main goal frameworks incorporate oceanic watch radar (MPR),
electronic helps measures (ESM), electronic and interchanges insight (ELINT/COMINT),
and manufactured opening radar (SAR).
It can likewise be introduced with M-19HD multi-sensor electro-optical payload. The
constant symbolism and telemetry information gathered by the payloads are transmitted to
the ground control station utilizing viewable pathway proliferation and satellite interchanges
The UAV takes into account concurrent task of various payloads for multi-mission
necessities. India’s purchase of 10 Heron TP proposes that ordinary turboprop-driven
outfitted automatons are of constrained utility to India and its Stealthy turbofan-driven
American Avenger and India's own Ghatak UCAV Projects which will be a genuine distinct
advantage concerning Indian Military.
Figure 12: RUSTOM 2 developed by DRDO
As shown in figure 12, Rustom 2 or TAPAS-BH-201 is a MALE (UAV), intended to do
observation and surveillance missions for the Indian Armed Forces. It is equipped for
conveying an alternate mix of payloads including manufactured gap radar, electronic insight
frameworks, and situational mindfulness frameworks. The UAV has autonomy of 24 hours
and is like the American Predator UAV. The UAV is capable of carrying different
combinations of payloads like synthetic aperture radar, electronic intelligence systems, and
situational awareness payloads. DRDO did a test run of Rustom 2 on 25 February 2018, at
the Aeronautical Test Range (ATR) situated in Chalker, Chitradurga region. This was the
first trip of the UAV in client arrangement with higher power motor [4].
The “Eitan” belongs to the HALE (High Altitude Long Endurance) family of UAVs that
participate in missions that require long periods of non-stop air time. Their endurance
addresses the operational need for a presence in a specific area and allows the IAF to
maintain aerial continuity. As a multi-role aircraft, the “Eitan” is responsible for general
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surveillance, long-range target photography, and designation of targets for other aircraft to
attack [10]. (HALE) Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV). AURA is being intended to be a
strategic stealth airplane ready to convey laser-guided weapons. Preliminary design pictures
demonstrate it to be fueled by a locally manufactured Kaveri turbofan, and furnished with
inner weapons coves. The vehicle can work at the highest elevation of 30,000 ft out to scope
of 300 km, with an all-up weight of 1.5 tons [10]. The program was begun in 2009 and has
been halted and restarted a few times from that point forward. The most recent restart in
2014 pursues a coordinated effort with the Aeronautical Development Authority (ADA) and
has seen the AURA restored under the name Ghatak (Lethal). The AURA/Ghatak is relied
upon to be flown by numerous Indian offices, for example, the Aeronautical Development
Establishment (ADE), the Defense Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL), the Defense
Avionics Research Establishment (DARE), and the Gas Turbine Research Establishment
(GTRE) all divisions of the DRDO a fully developed flying prototype expected to be
completed by 2023 (figure 13).
Figure 13: ARUA/GAHATK being developed jointly by DRDO and ADE
2.7 AUVs
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are not new. They have been used for
oceanographic studies and for military purposes for several years. But, to we users of
commercial survey services, it seemed that most works had concentrated on the vehicles
themselves rather than on the use of such vehicles in surveying and site investigation.
Nevertheless, the deployment of AUV-bourne sensors appeared to have the potential to solve
the problems of accurately surveying deep-water sites.In the late 1990’s BP surveyors and
site investigation specialists vigorously pursued the technology and its application to oil
industry requirements[18]. In 2001 we conducted our first commercial surveys using the
technology. This paper outlines our experiences, contrasts them against our previous
expectations, and suggests future directions.
Figure 14: MAYA AUV
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2.8 Indian AUVs capabilities
Our review of AUV capabilities confirmed the potential of the technology in two areas: - as
a replacement for conventional ship-bourne hydrographic survey tasks. - as a replacement for
conventional tethered Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) tasks. We recognised two
significant limiting factors. Initially, there are the batteries. Limitations in battery power
restricted either endurance or the sensors that the vehicle could carry. Secondly, there is the
vehicle navigation and control. Whilst all of the navigation components, in particular inertial
systems, were available and all of the sensors were in existence, they had not been integrated
into a commercial autonomous vehicle before. Indian AUVs. As they have similar
capabilities they were incorporated into active NAVY services in the past [14]. The Maya
AUV fig. 14 belongs to a class of small autonomous underwater vehicles [13] that have been
gaining popularity in marine application areas such as oceanography, monitoring the coastal
environment, as well as in naval applications such as mapping of naval mines for mine
The development of Maya was jointly funded by NIO and the Department of Electronics and
Information Technology, New Delhi, India (known as the Department of Information
Technology before 2012). The AUV's development began in 2003, [15] completed
horizontal plane tests in May 2005, [16] with the first set of dive missions tested on May 12,
2006, [17] making it India's first indigenously developed AUV for scientific applications.
AUV-150 (UUV) being developed by Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute
(CMERI) scientists in Durgapur in the Indian state of West Bengal. The project is sponsored
by the Ministry of Earth Sciences and has technical assistance from IIT-Kharagpur [21]. The
vehicle was built with the intent of coastal security like mine counter-measures, coastal
monitoring and reconnaissance. AUV 150 can be used to study aquatic life, for mapping of
sea-floor and minerals along with monitoring of environmental parameters, such as current,
temperature, depth and salinity. It can also be useful in cable and pipeline surveys. It is built
to operate 150 metres under the sea and have cruising speed of up to four knots.
2.9 Current Statistics of Indian and Israel UAVs
In 2009, the Indian Air Force purchased 10 Harops in a $100 million contract with Israel
Aerospace Industries. In February 2013, the Indian Air Force made a $280 million deal with
Israel Aerospace Industries for a new series of Heron medium-altitude, long-endurance
drones. In the two decades that have followed, Indian armed forces have acquired more than
200 UAVs mostly of Israeli origin. DRDO which had been dabbling with UAV design for
some time also got in the act and working in collaboration with Indian industry has made
some progress in creating indigenous capacity. The perceived necessity of close surveillance
was the original purpose of UAVs [3]. However, sensing enhanced possibilities with
maturing of relevant technologies at home, Indian armed forces have widened their horizons
to include them for kinetic action against suitable targets. Therefore, it is entirely possible
that a future surgical strike across the LOC may well be a precision missile attack executed
by employing UAVs. Besides a small number of IAF’s HAROP Unmanned Combat Aerial
Vehicles (UCAV) designed to neutralize radiating targets, currently, Indian armed forces
have some 200+ Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Searcher and Heron UAVs of
Israeli origin. Searcher, the smaller of the two is limited both in payload capacity (150 lbs) as
well as the operational ceiling of (20,000ft.). However, with its abilities to stay aloft for up to
18 hours and carry a variety of sensors, it has rendered yeoman’s service along the Western
borders and Indian shores. Heron, the larger of the two MALE UAVs is more versatile. With
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a take-off weight of 1,150 Kg, it can carry a 250 Kg. payload of sensors, stay aloft up to 52
hours (depending on the chosen flight profile) and with operating ceiling of 32,000 ft, it has
proven to be a handy surveillance tool along the mountainous Northern borders. On the
acquisition horizon, there are some other systems which when inducted would give a
quantum leap in capability. From Israel, India’s dependable supplier of choice there is Heron
TP, an upgraded version of Heron. Israel was inhibited in the sale of this system because of
its voluntary moratorium on selling dual-use strategic assets to parties not a signatory to the
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Following India’s entry into MTCR in 2016,
an agreement has been reached for the purchase of 10 Heron TPs.India has also been keen to
acquire both armed as well as unarmed Predators from the United States. Indian Navy’s
request for 22 Guardian UAVs (a maritime variant of Predator MQ-9) has already been
approved by the US Govt. IAF’s demand for 100 Predator C Avenger drones appears to be in
the process. Sale of armed UAVs has been a matter of discussion between the US and India.
The Iranian effort to develop new armed UAVs and is worrying Israel. In recent years the
Israeli Air Force (IAF) has foiled attempts by Hezbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in Gaza to
penetrate Israeli airspace, probably for intelligence purposes. Last year, IAI unveiled the
Drone Guard system for UAV detection, identification and flight disruption. The ELTA
division of IAI has developed a unique system that integrates a 3-Dimensional (3D) radar
and Electro-Optical (EO) sensors for detection and identification, as well as dedicated
Electronic Attack (EA) jamming systems for disrupting UAV flight [3]. To detect low
signature, low-level and low-speed airborne targets, ELTA has adapted to this specific
mission its 3D radars, which include the ELM-2026D, ELM-2026Band ELM-2026BF for
short (10km), medium (15km) and long (20 km) ranges, respectively, with unique UAV
detection and tracking algorithms, as well as adapting them with EO sensors for visual
identification of the target. To disrupt the hostile UAV, ELTA has developed advanced
adaptive jamming systems which can be used in concert with its detection and identification
sensors, or as a continuously operated stand-alone system. The jamming disrupts the UAV's
flight and can either cause it to return to its point-of-origin (‘Return Home’ function) or to
shut down and make a crash landing.
2.10 Future
Indian armed force intends to draft 5,000 UAVs throughout the following ten years.
Regardless of whether the expressed numbers show up to some degree hopeful yet they
recommend the profundity to which Indian military are intending to incorporate UAVs in
each part of their operational theory. UAVs' jobs have up to this point been constrained to
C4ISTAR capacities. Future acceptances would without a doubt empower supporting the rest
of the abilities significantly further. Likewise, outfitted UAVs would likewise in all
likelihood turn into a critical part of the Indian military's hostile abilities. Work is as of now
in progress to coordinate HELINA against tank rocket with Rustom H. When operational it
could likewise be utilized for strikes of the degree and kind as Indian armed force's careful
strike over the LOC in September 2016. Fundamental components to empower motor UAV
strikes at longer ranges are additionally relentlessly set up.
GAGAN Indian satellite-based expansion framework (SBAS) vital for the upgrade of
SATNAV signals for the precise route is now operational. Extra satellites solely for military
correspondence would outfit the extra data transfer capacity required for the task at
broadened ranges [10]. Rustom 2 with its heavier casing, more noteworthy payload limit and
continuance of up to 30 hours are probably going to be the indigenous stage of decision for
an Indian outfitted UAV armada. In the more distant future AURA, a stealthy UCAV being
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produced by DRDO would include another club taken care of. Not exactly obvious yet but
rather UAVs are set to wind up a noteworthy segment in the battle capacity of the Indian
military. REHOVOT, Israel (Reuters) - Israeli protection firm Elbit Systems (June 2018)
divulged a 1.6-ton unmanned airship vehicle (UAV) intended to fly in the airspace at present
saved for steered nonmilitary personnel planes as a race warms up to convey military
automatons outside battle zones.
India's first rocket equipped automatons that will give it the ability to steal out stand
away cross-outskirt strikes are prepared in Israel, in front of the first historically speaking
visit to the country by an Indian PM. The Heron TP-outfitted automatons, fit for
distinguishing, following and bringing down focuses with air to ground rockets, have been
on the military list of things to get for quite a long time, before the program was optimized in
September 2015, as detailed by ET.
A form of Elbit's Hermes 900 Star Liner is being amassed for the Swiss military and is
planned to be conveyed in 2019 of an arrangement worth $200 million. The StarLiner, being
propelled in front of one week from now's Farnborough Airshow, is gotten from the Hermes
900 worked by Brazil for observation amid the 2014 World Cup [3]. The automaton is
agreeable with NATO criteria, qualifying it to be incorporated into regular citizen airspace.
Israel's automaton trades in 2005-2012 totalled $4.6 billion, as per consultancy Frost and
Sullivan. They came to $525 million out of 2016, representing 7 percent of Israel's resistance
sends out. U.S. military automaton producers are competing for a bigger offer of the
worldwide market, which economic scientist the Teal Group conjectures will ascend from
$2.8 billion of every 2016 to $9.4 billion of every 2025. In 2009, the Indian Air Force
acquired 10 Harps in a $100 million contract with Israel Aerospace Industries.
In February 2013, the Indian Air Force made a $280 million manage Israel Aerospace
Industries for another arrangement of Heron medium-height, long-continuance rambles. In
late 2013, India's Ministry of Defense dismissed an offer by Israel Aerospace Industries and
India's Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) to mutually build up
another form of the Heron UAV be that as it may, India turned down the offer.
The capability of UAVs is exceptionally vast. In the 21st century, DRDO is resolved to
convey state of-the-craftsmanship UAV frameworks to the Indian Armed Forces. The
advances portrayed above are the base for the future UAV improvement programs. Cutting
edge projects of DRDO incorporate UCAV, smaller scale and little, multi-job, and solar-
powered UAVs. Innovation forecasts for the following decade conceive 50 percent
expansion in perseverance, quiet motors, self-fixing, and harm repaying structures with
continuous observing of auxiliary wellbeing, rotorcraft of high speeds, multichannel
information obtaining frameworks, full programmed control of flight and mission, and so on
2.11 Case scenarios in which drones where are used in India
UAVs are extraordinary power multipliers, and there must be cooperative energy between
the three Services to improve their work. One beneficial thing which is going on in the
ongoing years is that all acquisitions are cleared by the Chiefs of Staff Committee,
rotationally headed by the senior the majority of the three Service Chiefs, and they work now
on regular particulars to the degree conceivable.
The subsequent coordination is helpful. The UAVs could be utilized for diverse undertakings
productively, in composed assignments. Directly, the three Indian Services have somewhat
limited quantities of these flying vehicles, and each Service is looking towards its expanding
singular prerequisites. There ought to be an exceptional ascent in their numbers in the
Sudhir Kumar CHATURVEDI, Raj SEKHAR, Saikat BANERJEE, Hutanshu KAMAL
INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 11, Issue 3/ 2019
coming years. In as much as the Army is concerned, the Herons are performing exceedingly
well in reconnaissance missions in the high elevation sloping areas as additionally giving
primary data to move components in the nation's southern deserts. They would provide the
objective contributions to rockets and furthermore PSDA on the commitment of targets. This
job has viably been tried amid activities.
The Herons have possessed the capacity to fly in the second role and along these lines
operate at scopes of 400 km. In high height regions, there are screening issues a few times,
yet they are effortlessly defeated through satellite interchanges (SATCOM) [7]. That
expands the scope of these frameworks to even 1000 km. The Searcher Mark II is being
utilized in the precipitous district as likewise in the fields and semi-deserts. It is to the credit
of Indian UAV pilots that they have advanced the flying vehicle effectively under India's
changing and extreme climate conditions.
The UAVs have given significant contributions about any interruptions hanging in the
balance of Control (LoC) as additionally on issues relating to the landscape which aid
operational arranging. There are issues however still about the nature of pictures acquired
while utilizing the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) [20]. Ongoing universal enhancements
in SAR give a clear image of the question, and that is the place the exertion is going at this
point. Numerous fear mongers and activists in the north or north-east locales of India cover-
up in zones of thick foliage.
There is a need to get astounding SAR gadgets to create great pictures. In any case, the
Searcher Mark I assortment is a short-range UAV which is by and large appropriately
utilized in the bumpy locales and fields. The Nishant, an indigenous item made by DRDO
which is propelled from a vehicle and recouped by parachute, is conceivably under
acceptance and would be used in the fields. All UAVs by and by held by the Army are being
controlled at the operational dimension and serve the requirements at the more elevated
amount. There is a desperate prerequisite of UAVs at the strategic dimension which should
be given to driving increase results at the ground level for undertaking missions with
accurate insight.
Further, in the Indian condition, there is an immediate need to weaponize these
unmanned elevated stages to obliterate threatening focuses on exactness. The UCAVs are
working in Afghanistan and causing the exact annihilation of pinpoint targets. This has
prompted passing of various best pioneers of Al Qaida pioneers, accordingly lessening the
power of the foundation. That is a decent case for the military of any nation, India
notwithstanding [21]. The errands pictured are observation, especially of landing strips,
radars, air guard weapons, field safeguards and automated segments; from that point double-
dealing by utilizing electronic payloads, obliteration of chosen focus by lingering rockets,
and afterwards PSDA. IAF's Searcher Mark II and Heron are like the frameworks held by the
Indian Army while Harrop, the standing around the rocket, can be utilized in high thickness
strife and counter uprising for accuracy strikes. It has a decent, 1000 km range and six hours
autonomy Harrop can be propelled both against land-based and ocean-based targets. It
recognizes solid heartbeats from correspondence targets, for example, rockets and radars and
hits them at the source. It is conceivable to dispatch the Harrop from ground, ocean, and air.
The Indian Navy by and by will have a squadron of Searcher Mark II and Heron [22]. They
are situated at Kochi and Porbandar. Conceivably two more squadrons are made
arrangements for the southeastern drift and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. All these
UAVs are arriving based and are controlled by the Command Headquarters. A prerequisite
of ship-based rotating UAVs which can work successfully with a bearer team and give
insinuate constant observation is under thought [10].
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INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 11, Issue 3/ 2019
In this paper, we classified Indian and Israeli UAVs based on their platform and performance
characteristics and previous decade's expansion of UAS stages and sensors. The article also
shows the pattern of progressively scaled-down segments guarantees a time of custom-fitted
frameworks for on-request remote detecting at exceptional dimensions of sensor exactness
and navigational precision. This will enable the capacity of specialists to remotely build-up
study locales at small spatial scales for fine-scale extends that can be over and over-tested
without falling back on ground-control focus, much of the time forestalling the requirement
for site visits. While expenses can be hard to survey permission or per flight hour because of
fluctuating prerequisites for the workforce, sensors, and strategic help, enhanced unwavering
quality and innovative scaling down might be relied upon to lessen procurement or activity
costs. The symbolism got from UAVs can enormously bolster in numerous applications
going from extensive scale mapping, urban displaying to vegetation structure mapping.
Nevertheless, there are confinements like i) impediment in the extent of the investigation
territory, ii) imperative in the handling of the substantial volume of information, iii)
prerequisite of expansive scale preparing and vast storage room, and so forth. Moreover,
existing highlights catching and extraction systems should be enhanced for preparing of high
dimensional UAV information. UAVs can perform proficient studies for calamity inclined or
physically difficult to reach regions, fast harm evaluation of avalanches, surges, and
earthquakes to enhance rescue and assistance measures.
[1] * * * Reg Austin Aeronautical Consultant, UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS UAVS DESIGN,
DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT, A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication.
[2] F. S. Haydon, Aeronautics in the Union and Confederate Armies, With a Survey of Military Aeronautics Prior
to 1861. In Military Ballooning During the Early Civil War; Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore,
MD, USA, Volume 1, 2000.
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[5] D. Bowen, Encyclopedia of War Machines: An Historical Survey of the World’s Great Weapons, Peerage
Books: London, UK, 1977.
[6] J. Hannavy Ed., Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group,
Volume 1, pp. 14–15, 2007.
[7] V. G. Ambrosia, S. Wegener, T. Zajkowski, D. V. Sullivan, S. Buechel, F. Enomoto, E. A. Hinkley, B.
Lobitz, S. Schoenung, The Ikhana UAS western states fire imaging missions: From concept to reality
(2006–2010), Geocarto Int. 2011.
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[11] J. Torres-Sánchez, F. López-Granados & J. M. Peña, An automatic object-based method for optimal
thresholding in UAV images: Application for vegetation detection in herbaceous crops, Computers and
Electronics in Agriculture, 114, 43-52, 2015.
[12] J. Primicerio, S. F. Di Gennaro, E. Fiorillo, L. Genesio & E. Lugato, A flexible unmanned aerial vehicle for
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[18] T. Ura, AUV ‘r2D4’, Its Operation, and Road Map for AUV Development, in: Advances in Unmanned
Marine Vehicles, edited by G.N. Roberts & R. Sutton, IEE Control Series 69, 2006.
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IslandThe Ocean State), pp. 835 840, 2000.
[20] F. Song, An Edgar and Smith Samuel, Design of robust nonlinear controllers for autonomous underwater
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[21] H. S. Kim & Y. K. Shin, Expanded Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller using Expert Knowledge and
Fuzzy Basis Function Expansion for UFV Depth Control, Journal of Ocean Engineering, 34, 1080-1088,
[22] W. M. Bessa, M. S. Dutra & E. Kreuzer, Depth Control of Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles using an
Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller, Journal of Robotics and Autonomous System, 56, 670-677,
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... Backto-back, the UAV will be outfitted with a balanced camera payload [22] . The knowledge and observation missions can be flown self-sufficiently, along these lines the payload symbolism and flight progress down-joins are the prime capacities (assignments) of a UAV's correspondence framework Stealthiness of a UAV ought to be verified by its shape, shading, and insignificant warm and commotion outflows [22] . Since the lightweight UAV will have just short continuance in the zone of battle tasks because of the weight-limited onboard power accessibility, electromagnetic stealthiness is not envisioned. ...
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For 2 dimensional systems, the time optimal control law with physically limited control command follows Pontryagin's maximum principle. The control switches its sign on both sides of a nonlinear switching curve. The key factor in robust time optimal controller design is to approximate that nonlinear curve while maintaining robustness. Time optimality and robustness are contradictory to each other. This paper describes the development of a sliding mode fuzzy pitch controller and a sliding mode fuzzy heading controller for Ocean Explorer (OEX) series autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) developed in Florida Atlantic University. A sliding mode fuzzy controller (SMFC) inherits the robustness property of sliding mode control and interpolation property of fuzzy logic control such that the nonlinear switching curve can be approximated and the robustness can be maintained. Moreover, since the physical meaning of the parameters in a SMFC is straightforward, the on-line tuning with an SMFC is much easier than with the old fuzzy logic controllers used on the OEX series AUVs. The at-sea experimental results show the effectiveness of the design philosophy
Successful controller development involves three distinct stages, namely, control law design, code debugging and field test. For Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) applications, the first two stages require special strategies. Since the dynamics of an AUV is highly nonlinear, and the environment that an AUV operates in is noisy with external disturbance that cannot be neglected, a robust control law must be considered in the first stage. The control law design is even more difficult when optimal criteria are also involved. In the second stage, since the software architecture on an AUV is very complicated, debugging the controllers alone without all the software routines running together often can not reveal subtle faults in the controller code. Thorough debugging needs at-sea test, which is costly. Therefore, a platform that can help designers debug and evaluate controller performance before any at-sea experiment is highly desirable. Recently, a 6 Degree of Freedom (DOF) AUV simulation toolbox was developed for the Ocean Explorer (OEX) series AUVs developed at Florida Atlantic University. The simulation toolbox is an ideal platform for controller in-lab debugging and evaluation. This paper first presents a novel robust controller design methodology, named the Sliding Mode Fuzzy Controller (SMFC). It combines sliding mode control and fuzzy logic control to create a robust, easy on-line tunable controller structure. A formal proof of the robustness of the proposed nonlinear sliding mode control is also given. A pitch and a heading controller have been designed with the presented structure and the controller code was tested on the simulation software package as well as at sea. The simulated and at-sea test data are compared. The whole controller design procedure described in this paper clearly demonstrates the advantage of using the simulation toolbox to debug and test the controller in-lab. Moreover, the pitch and heading controller have been used in the real system for more than 2 years, and have also been successfully ported to other types of vehicles without any major modification on the controller parameters. The similarity of the controller performances on different vehicles further demonstrates the robustness of the proposed Sliding Mode Fuzzy Controller. The main contribution of this paper is to provide useful insights into the design and implementation of the proposed control architecture, and its application in AUV control.
Generally, the underwater flight vehicle (UFV) depth control system operates with the following problems: it is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system, it requires robustness, a continuous control input, and further, it has the speed dependency of controller parameters. To solve these problems, an expanded adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller (EAFSMC), which is based on the decomposition method designed by using an expert knowledge and the decoupled sub-controllers and composition method designed by using the fuzzy basis function expansions (FBFEs), is proposed. To verify the performance of the EAFSMC, the depth control of UFV in various operating conditions is performed. Simulation results show that the EAFSMC solves all problems experienced in the UFV depth control system online.
Sliding mode control, due to its robustness against modelling imprecisions and external disturbances, has been successfully employed to the dynamic positioning of remotely operated underwater vehicles. In order to improve the performance of the complete system, the discontinuity in the control law must be smoothed out to avoid the undesirable chattering effects. The adoption of a properly designed thin boundary layer has proven effective in completely eliminating chattering, however, leading to an inferior tracking performance. This paper describes the development of a depth control system for remotely operated underwater vehicles. The adopted approach is based on the sliding mode control strategy and enhanced by an adaptive fuzzy algorithm for uncertainty/disturbance compensation. The stability and convergence properties of the closed-loop system are analytically proved using Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat’s lemma. Numerical results are presented in order to demonstrate the control system performance.
Underwater robotic vehicles have become an important tool to explore the secret life undersea. They are used for various purposes: Inspection, recovery, construction, etc. With the increased utilization of the vehicles in subsea applications, the development of autonomous vehicles becomes highly desirable to enhance operator efficiency. However, engineering problems associated with the high density, nonuniform, and unstructured seawater environment and the nonlinear response of the vehicle make a high degree of autonomy difficult to achieve. In this paper, results of the recent study on the application of neural networks to the underwater robotic vehicle control system are presented. The robustness of the control system with respect to the nonlinear dynamic behavior and parameter uncertainties is investigated by computer simulation. The results show the feasibility of using neural networks to control the vehicle in the presence of unpredictable changes in the dynamics of the vehicle and its environment.
Encyclopedia of War Machines: An Historical Survey of the World's Great Weapons
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Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge
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J. Hannavy Ed., Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, Volume 1, pp. 14-15, 2007.