ArticlePDF Available

The effect of sugar substitutes on selected characteristics of shortcrust pastry



The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of substituting sugar in crust pastry with natural substitutes, such as stevia, xylitol, coconut sugar as well as dried banana. Furthermore, a comparison of physicochemical properties was carried out. The crust pastry obtained was analyzed in terms of color by CIEL*a*b*, textures, water activity, bake loss, semi-consumer assessments and the nutritional value was calculated. There was a clear impact caused by the sugar substitute on the physicochemical properties and their sensory assessment. The cakes with xylitol had the closest color, smell and taste to the control sample (with sucrose). The cakes with dried banana had a significantly reduced hardness compared to the control sample. The lowest bake loss was observed in the case of pastry with dried banana, while the highest was in the case of xylitol. In sensory analysis, the “Just-about-right” method was used, and pastries with a sweeter taste were more desirable (xylitol) and pastry with the stevia substitute showed the lowest desirability. The lowest energy value per 100 g was obtained for stevia (392 kcal/ 100g), while for xylitol energy, the value was reduced by 6%.
Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599 2019 no. 31: 57-63 57 2300-5599 2019 RIC Pro-Akademia – CC BY
Katarzyna Król, Alicja Ponder, Magdalena Gantner
Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Department of Functional Food, Ecological Food and
Commodities, Warsaw University Life of Sciences
ul. Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland,
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of substituting sugar in crust pastry with natural
substitutes, such as stevia, xylitol, coconut sugar as well as dried banana. Furthermore, a comparison of
physicochemical properties was carried out. The crust pastry obtained was analyzed in terms of color by
CIEL*a*b*, textures, water activity, bake loss, semi-consumer assessments and the nutritional value was
calculated. There was a clear impact caused by the sugar substitute on the physicochemical properties and
their sensory assessment. The cakes with xylitol had the closest color, smell and taste to the control sample
(with sucrose). The cakes with dried banana had a significantly reduced hardness compared to the control
sample. The lowest bake loss was observed in the case of pastry with dried banana, while the highest was in
the case of xylitol. In sensory analysis, the “Just-about-right” method was used, and pastries with a sweeter
taste were more desirable (xylitol) and pastry with the stevia substitute showed the lowest desirability. The
lowest energy value per 100 g was obtained for stevia (392 kcal/ 100g), while for xylitol energy, the value was
reduced by 6%.
Key words
Xylitol, stevia, dried banana, coconut sugar, crust pastry
Sugar, which is currently consumed by society in increasing quantities, is a substance that causes many
diseases, known as civilization diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease [1].
However, Sucrose in bakery products makes a major contribution to providing sweetness, controlling moisture
retention, influencing air incorporation, stabilizing air bubbles, and limiting the swelling of starch during baking,
all of which help to create a finer texture [2].
The baking industry is currently witnessing a situation in which the labeling claims of products, like sugar free,
reduced calorie, gluten-free and fibre rich, are attracting health-conscious consumers. Consumers are
becoming more and more aware of this, and out of concern for their own health, often choose healthier
products. Due to this, the food industry, over the last several years, has been investigating ways to reduce the
levels of free sugars within their products to comply with guidelines and regulations, such as those of the
World Health Organization, which has made a strong recommendation to reduce the level of sugar in the diet
to less than 10%, and preferably as low as 5% [3, 4]. It is important to find alternative sugar replacers for
traditional sugars in order to improve the quality of low-sugar pastry products. The energy content of sweet
bakery products may be appropriately reduced by substituting sucrose with non-nutritive, naturally occurring
(further denoted as natural) or artificial high-intensity sweeteners. Sweeteners can be classified according to
the following criteria:
Origin (natural or artificial),
Consistency (powders/syrups),
Energy value (nutritive or non-nutritive),
Technological function (bulking agent or sweeteners).
Stevia is a glycoside isolated from the plant Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni [5]. Stevioside can be isolated from
dried leaves and is approximately 300-400 times sweeter than sucrose, however the bitterness that presents as
an aftertaste affects the sensory quality of the final product [6]. Some studies have suggested that stevia
increases insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in human cells and safety issues concerning stevia showed no
negative side effects. Furthermore, stevia glycosides were recently approved for use as a sweetener by the
Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599 2019 no. 31: 57-63 58 2300-5599 2019 RIC Pro-Akademia – CC BY
Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives and ADI is 4
mg/kg day [7].
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol obtained by replacing an aldehyde group with a hydroxyl group. Xylitol is the sweetest
of the polyols, being equivalent to sucrose in sweetness, but with fewer calories, and lower glycemic index [8,
9]. The most common application of xylitol is in chewing gum, because it is very convenient due to its sensory
properties. It is also used in candies, gelatins, chocolate, yogurt, and a wide range of confectionery products.
Furthermore, xylitol dissolves in the mouth to give a pleasant sensation of cooling and freshness after
consumption [10].
Coconut sugar has been used as a traditional sweetener in Asia and is now gaining popularity because of its
natural and minimal processes. A recent work has stated that the GI of coconut sap sugar was reported to be in
the low category (35-45) [11]. The main component of coconut sugar is sucrose (about 70-80%) combined with
glucose (3-9%) and fructose (3-9%). Palm sugar is produced from filtered juice, which is heated for several
hours at a temperature of about 100°C until concentration and a typical aroma is obtained. The Maillard
reaction and caramelization occur during the processing of palm sugar [12].
Dried bananas can be used as substitute for sugar, because of its sweet taste. Mostly, dried banana consists of
simple sugars as well as dietary fibre (starch) (6.4g / 100g). Dried bananas contain about 4 times more
potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium and other minerals than the fresh ones. Their energy value is
97kcal / 100g [13].
However, the decrease in the sucrose content is accompanied by significant changes in texture, volume, colour,
taste, hardness, surface finish and shelf life of the product. These changes may negatively influence product
acceptability and also affect processing properties of doughs or batters. Furthermore, sugar substitutes have
high sweetness intensity but it does not support texture characteristics [14]. Non-caloric sweeteners does not
participate in Maillard reaction or caramelization resulting in lighter color after baking. Furthermore, sugar
alcohol have lower humectancy and do not retain a moistness compared to sugar [15].There are many
published studies that show reduced sucrose products to be less acceptable than their full-sucrose
counterparts [15, 16, 17, 18].
The objective aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing sugar with different natural
sweeteners in making short crust pasty. For this purpose, four different substitutes were used (stevia, xylitol,
coconut sugar, dried bananas). Then, the physical and sensory properties of cakes were evaluated.
Materials and methods
The material was short crust pastry. As the basic ingredients 200 g flour (type 450), 30 g egg yolk, 120 g butter
(83% of fat) and 2 g salt were used for every type of cake. In the cake with xylitol and coconut sugar
formulation, 60 g was used, with stevia 0,2 g, with dried banana 70 g. The control sample was made using
saccharose (60g) as a sweetener. Then, all ingredients were mixed in mixer (Kenwood Major Classic) for a 5 min
and then covered in plastic wrap and refrigerate the dough for 30 min. After that was baked in a convection
oven (Kuppersbusch 10xGN1/1/) 180˚C for 30 min. Each of the prepared samples weighed 170 g and were
baked in silicone mold with 20 cm diameter and were prepared in 8 replications. The samples were cooled at
room temperature for 10 minutes, covered by cellophane and finally kept at an ambient temperature, in a dry
and dark place, until they were analyzed. For sensory evaluation the samples were prepared one day before of
each trial.
Water activity (a
) was measured at 20 ± 2°C on 2 replicates for each sample with a dew point hygrometer
series 3 TEV (Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA., U.S.A. The bake loss of pastry was calculated by
weighing one piece before and after baking. The difference in weight was averaged and reported as a
percentage bake loss.
The instrumental measurement of the colour of the pastry was performed in the L*a*b* color system, where
L* – lightness, a* – the colour axis ranging from greenness (-a*) to redness (+a*), b* – colour axis ranging from
blueness (-b*) to yellowness (+b*). The colour was measured by a Minolta chromameter (CR-400, Konica
Minolta Inc., Tokyo, Japan). The chromameter was calibrated using a white standard plate
Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599 2019 no. 31: 57-63 59 2300-5599 2019 RIC Pro-Akademia – CC BY
(L* = 98.45, a* = −0.10, b* = −0.13). A measuring head with a diameter of 8mm and a D65 illuminant was used.
The determination of colour parameters was performed by randomly measuring 10 different places on each
surface. The total colour change (ΔE) is a measure of the difference between the control sample and a tested
sample and was calculated using the following equation: (ΔE* = [(L
+ (a
+ (b
For measuring the textural properties of cakes, an Instron universal testing machine (Model 5965, Instron,
Canton, MA, USA) with Bluehill®2 software was used, which included a compression test. The compression test
was carried out using a flat probe. A sample deformation was limited to 50% for all the determined
parameters. This deformation percentage was found to be sufficient to break a crusty pastry. The test was
conducted 6 times, where one speed test (10 mm/min) was applied. The force curve (N) versus distance (mm)
allows the hardness to be calculated. The hardness of the short crust pastry was designated as the maximum
compression force (N). Ten replicates of each formulation were conducted.
In the sensory evaluation of the pastry, the “Just About Right” (JAR) method was used and 39 (28 female, 11
male) participants were invited to semi-consumer analysis. For each sample, participants were asked to rate
their overall liking and attribute intensity. The attributes assessed included: hardness, colour, odour, crispness,
sweet flavour and metallic aftertaste. “Just-about-right” (JAR) scales were designed as continuous line scales (-
4 to 4) with three descriptive anchors, low intensity (“Much Too Weak”) on the left end, (“Just About Right”) at
the centre, and high intensity (“Much Too Strong”) on the right end. Samples were served in a sequential order,
with a minimum two-minute mandatory break between each sample. Participants rinsed with filtered water
between samples to reduce potential carry-over effects.
The caloric value of pastry was calculated on the basis of the information on the packaging (fat 9 kcal/1 g,
protein, carbohydrate, saccharose, dried banana, coconut sugar 4 kcal/1g, stevia 0,2 kcal/1 g). At the
beginning, the energy value of the whole product was obtained, and then it was converted into 100g of
product and per portion of product, which was taken as 30g.
Statistical analysis: all experiments were carried out in triplicate and average values with standard deviation
were calculated. The statistical differences were checked using the one-way ANOVA method and Tukey’s post-
hoc test (at a significance level α=0.05). P-values lower than 0.05 were considered statistically significant and
homogenous groups were noted with the same letters in tables. Analyses were conducted using Statistica
Software version 12.0 (StatStoft, Tulsa, USA).
Results and discussion
The physical properties (water activity, bake loss, colour parameters and hardness) of four types of pastry are
shown in Table 1. Results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between each sample in terms
of a
bake loss, L*, a *, b*, ΔE* and hardness.
Water activity is an important indicator for product design, shelf-life and food safety. If a product is kept below
a certain water activity, then it is possible to inhibit the growth of fungi/bacteria/mold, thus the shelf-life is
longer. In the case of the a
sample with xylitol (0.67), it was characterized by a lower level and other samples
were in a homogeneous group and varied from 0.70 to 0.76. Water activity in the range 0.55-0.9 is considered
as medium water activity, and bacteria usually require at least 0.91 and fungi at least 0.71. All of our samples
are in this group and the growth of bacteria is inhibited. Furthermore, xylitol is more hygroscopic than sucrose,
therefore, it seems reasonable that partial or complete elimination of sucrose led to a reduction in the water
activity of dietetic pastry [14]. However in our study polyols showed a lower water activity than sample with
saccharose, what is not in consistent with studied conducted by Majeed et al. (2018) [22], but is in close
agreement with study conducted by Nourmohammadi and Peighambardoust (2016) [15]. Investigated by
Winkelhausen et al. (2007) [19], xylitol improved microbial stability and shelf-life of cakes as it provided lower
water activity at the same concentration with sucrose, which was confirmed with obtained results In our study.
Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599 2019 no. 31: 57-63 60 2300-5599 2019 RIC Pro-Akademia – CC BY
Table 1. Physical properties of short crust pastry obtained from different sweeteners (coconut sugar, dried banana, xylitol,
stevia and saccharose).
Values are expressed with the standard deviation. Lowercase letters in rows (a-c) show between which samples were
statistical differences (p <0.05).
Source: Author’s
The bake loss of pastry was the smallest and similar for the control sample, coconut sugar and dried banana,
while the highest was for xylitol and stevia. Dried banana have a higher water holding capacity compared to
sweeteners, due to its higher protein content [13]. Proteins would increase water holding capacity, thus
enhancing the swelling ability, an important function of protein in preparation of viscous foods such as soups,
dough and baked products [24]. Similar results was obtained by Akesowan (2009) [25] bake loss was increased
compared to control sample with saccharose.
The colour values measured by a colorimeter showed that L* was the smallest for coconut sugar and the
highest for stevia. The lightness (L*) of short crust pastry displayed an increasing trend along with the
increasing substitution level of sugar (stevia and xylitol). For a* coordinate (redness) the highest was coconut
and the control sample, the smallest for samples with sweeteners. For b* coordinate (yellowness) only the
sample with coconut sugar showed a lower value of b*, other samples are in a homogeneous group. The darker
colour of pastry from coconut sugar and dried banana is correlated with the initial darker colour of the product.
Furthermore, some authors have suggested that the darker color of the pastry is related to higher protein as
well as sugar content, and thus a more intense Maillard reaction (browning and caramelization of sugar is
considered to produce brown pigments during baking) [13]. Furthermore, it is believed that sugar alcohols
(xylitol) and stevia are not able to participate (thermal stability) in the Maillard reaction due to the lack of
functional groups [14]. This is in keeping with the findings of Martínez-Cervera et al. (2011) [25], which showed
the addition of erythritol in muffins appeared not to influence the crust color. Furthermore, Gao et al. (2017)
[21] also reported increase of L* value in muffins with stevia as a sweetener, what is in close agreement with
obtained results.
The results of the hardness showed that pastry made with dried banana and stevia decreased significantly at
the 55-56% level compared to the control sample and increase in the case of the sample made with coconut
sugar and xylitol at 10%-84% level. According to Nourmohammadi and Peighambardoust [13] the investigated
correlation between water activity and hardness (the higher the water activity, the higher the crumb firmness)
was also obtained from this study. Other studies showed that replacing sugar with polyoils may effect on
decrease of hardness and firmness of cakes compare to control samples with saccharose [27].
Table 2. Evaluation of the nutritional composition of the short crust pastry obtained
Source: Author’s
Coconut sugar Dried banana Xylitol Stevia Control sample
Bake loss (%) 17.01 ± 0.34
16.21 ± 0.21
20.21± 0.11
20.23 ± 0.20
14.21 ± 0.12
L* 42.43 ± 0.20
46.23 ± 0.04
68.24 ± 0.14
70.54 ± 0.11
63.03 ± 0.26
a* 12.5 ± 0.12
8.62 ± 0.12
10.22 ± 0.16
4.92 ± 0.03
11.04 ± 0.03
b* 25.70 ± 0.08
35.82 ± 0.22
37.26 ± 0.03
34.80 ± 0.07
35.54 ± 0.24
20.72 ± 1.21
3.54 ± 0.18
3.32 ± 0.19
3.01 ± 0.03
Hardness (N) 15.02 ± 1.32
6.69 ± 0.95
25.04 ± 0.46
6.94 ± 0.54
13.52 ± 0.59
Coconut sugar Dried banana Xylitol Stevia Control sample
Energy (kcal) 448 450 427 392 452
Protein [g] 6.5 7.1 6.5 6.5 6.5
Carbohydrates [g] 50 52 49 36 51
Sugar [g] 13.5 0 0 0 15
Fat [g] 24 24 24 24 24
Fibre [g] 1.2 2.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599 2019 no. 31: 57-63 61 2300-5599 2019 RIC Pro-Akademia – CC BY
The results of nutritional composition are shown in Table 2. The proximate values of sugar decreased with the
increased level of sugar substitutes. The high energy values were the results of high fat content (24g/sample)
which provide 9kcal/1 gram. The proximate values of energy and sugar were highest in the control sample,
while the lowest was in the stevia sample, where the energy was reduced by 13% and carbohydrates by 30%.
Fig. 1. The effect of the replacement of sugar with coconut sugar, dried banana, xylitol and stevia on the sensory
characteristics of short crust pastry. Lowercase letters on figure (a-c) show between which samples were statistical
differences (p <0.05).
Source: Author’s
In the sample with dried banana, an increase of protein and fibre content was observed in the range between
8.5% and 90%, respectively. The lower content of sugar in the sample with coconut sugar is the result of
minimal processing and a higher content of dietary fibre, especially inulin. These could play an important role
in lowering the GI values of palm sugars when compared to refined sugarcane which contains almost 100% of
sucrose [9, 15].
The sensory scores of short crust pastry with sugar substitutes are presented in Figure 1. The JAR scale was
selected as it is designed to find the optimum/most appropriate level of a specific attribute and is easy for
panelists to understand. According to the presented results, there was a significant difference between all
investigates samples (p < 0.05). The largest deviations from the control sample were recorded for the sample
with stevia, where colour, odour, hardness, crispness sweet flavor were “too weak”/”much too weak”, while a
metallic aftertaste was determined as “too strong”. According to the sensory evaluation, stevia as a
substitution in cakes resulted in the occurrence of a little bitterness which is attributed to the inherent
bitterness of steviol glycosides [28]. Mean JAR rating for the colour of samples with dried banana and xylitol
was similar to the control sample, while for coconut sugar the colour was “too strong”. The smallest deviations
from the standard were recorded for the xylitol sample, which revealed that short crust pastry with xylitol
reformulation was found to be most acceptable by the panelist. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first
work presenting JAR sensory analysis of short crust pastry, however, other studies with sugar replacements
showed that, in sensory evaluation, samples with xylitol were the best substitute for the sugar contained in
cakes [17, 19] and results are in close agreement with results obtained by Winkelhausen et al. [19].
Summary and conclusions
Sweeteners cannot solely replace sugar and the food industry, however it is important to find alternative sugar
replacers for traditional sugars in order to improve the quality of low-sugar cakes. To summarise, sweeteners
influenced the physicochemical (a
, colour, hardness and bake loss) properties of short crust pastry. The caloric
content of pastry with coconut sugar, dried banana, xylitol, stevia and sucralose are 448, 450, 427, 392, 452
kcal/100g, respectively (estimated by the raw materials used for each cake). Sugar alcohol such as xylitol,
among the four tested substances, was found to be the best substitute and in the sensory evaluation score was
similar to sugar-containing short crust pastry and physical properties (a
color coordinates) were comparable
to control sample However, for wider acceptance of products with xylitol, consumers should be educated and
learn more about the benefits of xylitol itself. However, further optimizing is required to obtain muffins with
satisfactory textural properties and mouthfeel and an appealing appearance that would satisfy consumer
Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599 2019 no. 31: 57-63 62 2300-5599 2019 RIC Pro-Akademia – CC BY
[1] D. Włodarek, E. Lange, L. Kozłowska, D. Głąbska, Dietoterapia. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa
2014, 188, 252-253, 257, 259, 274, 282.
[2] Y.-H. Hui, W.-K. Nip, Sweeteners, In: W. Zhou, Y. H. Hui (Eds.), Bakery Products: Science and Technology,
Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2006, pp. 137–160.
[3] World Health Organization (WHO) Guideline, Sugars Intake for Adults and Children, WHO, Geneva, 2015.
[4] D. Martyn, M. Darch, A. Roberts, H. Youl Lee, T. Tian, N. Kaburagi, P. Belmar, Low-/No-Calorie Sweeteners: A
Review of Global Intakes. Nutrients 10 (2018) 357.
[5] A. Sclafani, M. Bahrani, S. Zukerman, K. Achroff. Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice. Chem
Senses 35 (2010) 433-443.
[6] US Food & Drugs Administration, Code of federal regulations title 21. Chapter I, Subchapter B, Washington,
DC, 2012.
[7] S.D. Anton, C.K. Martin, H. Han, S. Coulon, W.T. Cefalu, P. Geiselman. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and
sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite 55 (2010) 37-43.
[8] T. Varzakas, A. Labropoulos, S. Anestis (Eds.), Sweeteners: Nutritional Aspects, Applications, and Production
Technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2012.
[9] R. Pulicharla, L. Lonappan, S.K. Brar, M. Verma, Production of renewable C5 platform chemicals and
potential application, in: S.K. Brar S.J. Sarma, K. Pakshirajan (Eds.), Platform Chemical Biorefinery, Elsevier,
Amsterdam, 2017, pp. 201-216.
[10] Y. Arcano, O. Garcia, D. Mandelli, W. Carvalho, L. Pontes, Xylitol: A review on the progress and challenges
of its production by chemical route, Catalysis Today 8 (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2018.07.060.
[11] T.P. Trinidad, A.C. Mallillin, R.S. Sagum, R.R. Encabo, Glycemic index of commonly consumed carbohydrate
foods in the Philippines, Journal of Functional Foods 2 (2010) 271-274.
[12] K. Srikaeo, R. Thongta, Effects of sugarcane, palm sugar, coconut sugar and sorbitol on starch digestibility
and physicochemical properties of wheat-based foods, International Food Research Journal 22 (2015) 923-929.
[13] P.P. Subedi, K.B. Walsh, Assessments of sugar and starch in intact banana and mango fruit by SWNIR
spectroscopy, Postharvest Biology and Technology 62 (2011) 238-245.
[14] A.M. Abdel-Salam, A.S. Ammar, W.K. Galal, Evaluation and properties of formulated low calories functional
yoghurt cake, Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 2 (2009) 218–221.
[15] E. Nourmohammadi, S. Peighambardoust, New Concept in Reduced-Calorie Sponge Cake Production by
Xylitol and Oligofructose, Journal of Food Quality 39 (2016) 6.
[16] L. Laguna, P. Varela, A. Salvador, T. Sanz, S.M. Fiszman, Balancing texture and other sensory features in
reduced fat short-dough biscuits, Journal of Texture Studies 43 (2011) 235–245.
[17] A., Chauhan, D.C. Saxena, S. Singh, Physical, textural, and sensory characteristics of wheat and amaranth
flour blend cookies, Food Science & Technology 2 (2016) 1125773.
[18] P.K. Vayalil. Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An emerging medicinal food, Critical Reviews in Food
Science and Nutrition 52 (2010) 249-271.
Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599 2019 no. 31: 57-63 63 2300-5599 2019 RIC Pro-Akademia – CC BY
[19] E. Winkelhausen, R. Jovanovska-Malinovska, E. Velickova, S. Kuzmanova, Sensory and Microbiological
quality of a baked product containing xylitol as an alternative sweetener, International Journal of food
properties 10 (2010) 639 – 649.
[20] S. Struck, D. Jaros, C.S. Brennan, H. Rohm, Sugar replacement in sweetened bakery goods, International
Journal of Food Science and Technology 49 (2014) 1963–1976.
[21] J. Gao, M.A. Brennan, S.L. Mason, C.S. Brennan, Effects of Sugar Substitution with “Stevianna” on the
Sensory Characteristics of Muffins, Journal of Food Quality 2 (2017) 1-11.
[22] M. Majeed, M. Mohmod, M.U. Khan. M. Fazel. M. Shariati, I. Pigorev, Effect of sorbitol on dough rheology
and quality of sugar replaced cookies, Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 1 (2018) 50-56.
[23] S.M. Savita, K. Sheela, S. Sunanda, A. G. Shankar, P. Ramakrishna, Stevia rebaudiana—A Functional
Component for Food Industry, Journal of Human Ecology, 4 (2004) 261-264.
[24] A. Akesowan, Quality of Reduced-Fat Chiffon Cakes Prepared with Erythritol-Sucralose as Replacement for
Sugar, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (2009) 1383-1386.
[25] S. Martínez-Cervera, A. Salvador, B. Muguerza, L. Moulay, S. M. Fiszman, Cocoa fibre and its application as
a fat replacer in chocolate muffins, LWT—Food Science and Technology 3 (2011) 729–736.
[26] V. Psimouli, V. Oreopoulou, The effect of alternative sweeteners on batter rheology and cake properties. J.
Food Sci. Agric. 92 (2012) 99–105.
[27] M.C. Carakostas, L.L. Curry, A.C. Boileau, D.J. Brusick, Overview: the history, technical function and safety
of rebaudioside A, a naturally occurring steviol glycoside, for use in food and beverages, Food and Chemical
Toxicology, 7 (2008) S1–S10.
[28] E. Gallagher, C. O’Brien, A. Scannell, E. Arendt, Evaluation of sugar replacers in short dough biscuit
production. Journal of food engineering 56 (2003) 261-263.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Xylitol is one of the Top Value-Added chemicals from biomass released by DOE, with no petrochemical alternative. Industrially, this polyol is obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of xylose, a major component of hemicellulose. From xylitol it is possible to obtain various products, such as polyethylene glycol and ethylene glycol, and thus substitute fossil-based raw material. To reduce production costs and make the process environmentally friendly, it is necessary to reduce the stages of chemical conversion of lignocelluloses to xylitol. The present paper discusses the research advances focused on integrating several types of catalytic processes in a single container. The mechanism of catalytic hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol is detailed. The domain of the different parameters of the reaction will allow to increase the efficiency of the transformation of the biomass.
Full-text available
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides—globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design. Overall, the studies conducted since 2008 raised no concerns with respect to exceedance of individual sweetener acceptable daily intake (ADIs) among the general population globally. The data identified do not suggest a shift in exposure over time, with several studies indicating a reduction in intake. However, some data suggest there may have been an increase in the numbers of consumers of low-/no-calorie-sweetened products. Future research should consider a more standardized approach to allow the monitoring of potential changes in exposure based upon events such as sugar reduction recommendations, to ensure there is no shift in intake, particularly for high-risk individuals, including diabetics and children with specific dietary requirements, and to ensure risk management decisions are based on quality intake analyses.
Full-text available
Sugar is a main ingredient of muffins and other baked products, so removal or reduction of sucrose negatively affects product appearance, texture, and mouthfeel. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of sugar replaced muffins made using stevianna in combination with cocoa powder and/or vanilla. Optimal results were obtained with 50% stevianna, leading to muffins similar to the control products and having a high level of acceptance in sensory evaluation. Sugar-free muffins (100% stevianna) were harder in texture and more compact in crumb compared to the control. Results from sensory evaluation also illustrated that 100% stevianna addition led to muffins with poorer acceptance, harder texture, and a drier mouthfeel when compared against the control. This study also investigated the use of cocoa powder and/or vanilla to mask the stevianna bitterness in terms of aftertaste.
Full-text available
In the present study, the influence of sucrose replacement with xylitol and oligofructose on volume, apparent and solid density, porosity, water activity, crust color, texture and sensory properties of reduced‐calorie sponge cakes was investigated (control: 100% sucrose, X1: 100% xylitol, X2: 77% xylitol‐23% oligofructose, X3: 23% xylitol‐57% sucrose‐20% oligofructose and X4: 25% xylitol‐75% sucrose). Based on the results X3 indicated the highest volume and porosity and the lowest apparent density. X3 also possessed the same firmness with sucrose cakes, while other reduced‐calorie samples showed lower firmness compared to control. In terms of crust color, all reduced‐calorie samples excluding X1 had darker crust than control. Control cakes showed the highest water activity than other samples. The sensory scores of all reduced‐calorie cakes were similar to control at the 1st and 7th days of evaluation, while dietetic samples got higher scores than sucrose cakes at the 14th day after production. Xylitol had no significant effect on solid density (P > 0.05). Practical Applications Due to high level of sucrose in cake formulation, and problems such as obesity and increased blood sugar as the result of over consumption of these products, it is necessary to find a way to eliminate or reduce sucrose in cake formulation. Bulking agents are allowed for low calorie and diabetic diets, since their metabolism is slow and incomplete. The purpose of this research is using different concentrations of xylitol and oligofructose as bulking agents in reduced‐calorie cakes. Based on our findings, partial substitution of sucrose with xylitol and oligofructose (X3: xylitol‐sucrose‐oligofructose) showed the best results. On the other hand, complete substitution of sucrose with xylitol (X1) did not provide suitable physical and sensory properties.
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of whole amaranth substitutions at various proportions and evaluated the cookies baking behavior. Six types of formulations of cookies were prepared with whole amaranth flour ranging from 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. These cookies were evaluated for physical (thickness, diameter, spread ratio, and bake loss), textural, and organoleptic attributes. The diameter and spread ratios were found to be higher in whole amaranth flour cookies 52.20 mm and 6.46, respectively, as compared to other blends (20–80%) of cookies from 51.37 to 51.92 mm and 6.13 to 6.36, respectively. Textural measurement showed that hardness of cookies decreased with the addition of amaranth flour. Whole amaranth flour cookies required least snap force (72.4 N) compared to control (whole-wheat flour) cookies (145 N). Sensory data indicated that the amaranth cookies with up to 60% were acceptable, while additional amaranth flour resulted in a decreased mean score for overall acceptability.
Full-text available
Wheat flours mixed with four types of sweeteners; sugarcane, palm sugar, coconut sugar and sorbitol were evaluated for their in vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index (GI) and physicochemical properties. It was found that sorbitol which is a sugar alcohol gave the best starch digestibility results providing the lowest estimated GI values. Palm and coconut sugars provided better starch digestion rate and lower estimated GI values than those of sugarcane, indicating their nutritional quality over the sugarcane. All the studied sweeteners influenced the physicochemical properties of wheat flour and sweetener mixtures as examined by the DSC, RVA and texture analyzer. The addition of sweeteners increased gelatinization temperatures, decreased viscosities and altered the gel textures. The studied sweeteners were used as an ingredient to produce the breads. The appearances of the products were similar but physicochemical properties and estimated GI values were varied according to the sweeteners used. The use of palm and coconut sugars in breads provided lower GI values than those of sugarcane.
Sweeteners are defined as food additives that are used or intended to be used either to impart a sweet taste to food or as a tabletop sweetener. Tabletop sweeteners are products that consist of, or include, any permitted sweeteners and are intended for sale to the ultimate consumer, normally for use as an alternative to sugar. Foods with sweetening properties, such as sugar and honey, are not additives and are excluded from the scope of official regulations. Sweeteners are classified as either high intensity or bulk. High-intensity sweeteners possess a sweet taste, but are noncaloric, provide essentially no bulk to food, have greater sweetness than sugar, and are therefore used at very low levels. On the other hand, bulk sweeteners are generally carbohydrates, providing energy (calories) and bulk to food. These have similar sweetness to sugar and are used at comparable levels.
A high amount of sugar is used in bakery products, which may cause diabetes, high blood glucose levels and obesity. Due to these reasons, sugar is being replaced with substitutes. There are different carbohydrate-based sugar substitutes (polyols) that can efficiently replace sugar. Among polyols, sorbitol is an efficient replacer that can mimic sugar with minimal effects on cookie quality. Effects of different sorbitol levels (0 to 12.5%) were seen on the dough rheology. Mixographic studies showed that peak height and mixing time reduced with the addition of sorbitol. Farinographic studies showed that water absorption and the mixing tolerance index of dough reduced with the supplementation of sorbitol, whereas dough development time, arrival time, dough stability time and softening of dough increased. Extensographic studies revealed that sorbitol substitution produced hard, cohesive, adhesive and elastic dough. Sugar in cookies formulations was reduced from 100 to 50% by replacing with sorbitol 0 to 50%. Physical analysis of sorbitol containing cookies showed that the diameter and spread factor of cookies decreased with higher levels of sorbitol, whereas thickness, color, hardness and water activity of cookies increased. The calorific value of cookies decreased with the increasing levels of sorbitol. At upto 20% replacement of sugar, other parameters of cookies were not affected. Sensory evaluation of the cookies showed that hedonic points for sensory evaluation parameters reduced with the increasing levels of sorbitol, T2 (20% replacement) showed maximum overall acceptability.
Nonfood biomass through biorefineries offers an alternative to fossil-based feedstocks for platform chemicals, which are sources for the production of energy, materials, and chemicals. The traditional process for the production of these sources relies on nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstock and has negative environmental impacts. C5 chemicals are the biomass-derived platform chemicals, having a high transformation potential into industrially important bio-chemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols, and biopolymers. The feasibility of production of C5 chemicals by a microbial process has been achieved by metabolic engineering. This chapter introduces essential concepts on the optimization of the metabolic capacities of microorganisms for more bulk and/or fine chemical production. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of different microorganisms and the strategies for strain improvements for enhanced biochemical production will be discussed.
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a natural herb native of northeastern Paraguay, cultivated as a cash crop in number of countries. There appears to be no large-scale mechanized production of stevia due to difficulties in producing the crop through seeds. The stevia leaves in its powder form is green in color, 10 – 15 times sweeter than sucrose with after taste bitterness. However, there are no studies reported on the use of stevia in food product formulation and development and other related aspects. Considering its sweetness potentia-lities and possible health implications, an investigation was focused and the results indicated that gram of stevia sweetness was perceived to be equivalent to 20g of sucrose and produced more than 40 seconds of sweetness stimulus. Per cent nutrient composition of stevia was found to be impressive with 269 Kcal, 9.8 g of protein, ash at 10.5 g and crude fiber at 18.4 g. Mineral composition indicated that presence of fairly good amount of calcium (464 mg), iron (55.3 mg), sodium (190 mg) and potassium (1800 mg) with higher amount of oxalic acid (2295 mg). Functional properties of stevia studied revealed the suitability of substituting in different products. Varieties of stevia substituted products formulated and developed had different levels of acceptability. Similarly, their storage study for shelf life also varied. Glycemic Index of selected products found to be lower in diabetics as well as in normal individuals. Thus it can be concluded that the plant based stevia herb is a low calorie nutritious component has an immense potential in the main stream of food processing industries as a health and dietetic benefactor. Table 4: Functional properties of stevia leaf powder Properties Values Bulk density 0.443 gm/ml Water absorption capacity 4.7 ml/gm Fat absorption capacity 4.5 ml/gm Emulsification value 5ml / gm Swelling 5.01 gm / gm Solubility 0.365 g/gm pH 5.95 Table 5: Glycemic index of stevia bun in diabetic and normal subjects Test Products Normal subjects Diabetics Glucose 100 100 Control bun 60.4 72 Stevia bun 55.5 62.12