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oat Feed Resource Inventory and Feed Balance In Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia Commissioned By Farm Africa, Livestock for Livelihoods (L4L) Project in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia Studied BY

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A goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted inthe Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas in South Omo Zone with the aim of assessing the current status of major goat feed resources, their dry matter availability and the overall goat feed balance within the regions. Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three kebeles from Hamer were selected for the purposes of conducting the studies. In each of these woredas, between eight and twelve herders were recruited for focus group discussions (FGDs) aimed at compiling local feed inventories. These verbal reports collected from the pastoralists and agro pastotalists were additionally confirmed by field observations and monitoring, and compared with similar previous studies and other secondary information from the study districts. Pastoralists and agro pastoralist were interviewed about the major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and the morphological plant parts utilized by goats. They were also asked to make comment on goat feeding practices, including the role of special feeding and the use of planted fodder species and crop residues. In addition to the FGDs, in each kebele engaged, a subset of the most experienced participating pastoralists were asked to collect samples of each of the rangeland goat forage species nominated during the interviews. These samples were photographed and catalogued in code corresponding to the local names for each species. Botanical identification was later made by Adami Tulu of the Agriculture Research Centre Laboratory. The findings from this study revealed that there were 22 and 20, 51 and 40 different herbaceous and browse forage species were identified as major goat feeds from Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda respectively. Pertaining to goat feed resource availability and seasonal dynamics, herders reported that the majority of nominated feed resources for goat were in surplus supply during wet seasons (particularly from April to August) and that these reserves then declined declined during the dry seasons, with many of the species becoming unavailable to goats from January to February. The overwhelming proportion of dry matter available to goats in Hamer Woreda comes from naturally grown rangeland plants while small contributions was comes from crop residues. The opposite is true for Bena-Temay Woreda, where agro-pastoralists depend heavily on crop residues for animal survival during dry seasons. There are an estimated 205,300 and 75,573 goats (Tropical Livestock Unit) kept in the districts of Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively.The working on an average body weight and an assumed dry matter intake of 2.5% and the estimated total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for all goats across these districts are likely to be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons respectively. This figure far exceeds the estimated dry matter produced in the study areas (370,000 and 40,000 for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively) and equates to estimated deficits of roughly 94,000 and 129,000 tons of dry matter for each respective Woreda. These figures are inherently unreliable and can only serve as approximations due to the desktop nature of the calculations, the number of plant species comprising total yield and their spacious-temporal variance in frequency, density, growth and yield. Frequent droughts as a result of climate change, the conversion of rangeland browsing area in to cropping land, lack of skill and knowledge in goat feeding and husbandry in combination with increasing goat populations represent as major challenges to goat production in the study areas. The general conclusions of this study are that presently, in both of the Woredas investigated, aggregate goat stocking numbers cannot be supported by the estimated dry matter available to goats and do not match to support profitable from the goat production in the study areas. This is likely to represent an on-going problem for goats’ survival, productivity and household incomes, while also threatening to further degrade the naturally occurring browse resource species. These is suggest that the primary focus of development efforts to support pastoralists and agro-pastoral goat production need to be improving the existing feed resources through area enclosure, treating poor quality feeds for goats, forage banking from range land during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated fodder species and enhancing the utilization of native browse species as a local protein supplements. Key Words: Goats, Feed Resources, Feed Resource Availability, Feed Resources dynamics and Feed Balance
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Complied by Denbela H. and Shagnachew H. Page 0
oat Feed Resource Inventory and Feed Balance In
Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone,
South Western Ethiopia
Commissioned By Farm Africa, Livestock for Livelihoods (L4L) Project in
South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
Studied BY
Denbela Hidosa and Shagnachew Hailu
Southern Agricultural Research Institute, Jinka Agricultural Research
Centre
MARCH, 2019
JINKA, ETHIOPIA
G
i
Table of contents
List of Tables .................................................................................................................................. v
List of Figure.................................................................................................................................. vi
Terminologies Used in this Study ................................................................................................. vii
Executive Summary of Study ........................................................................................................ viii
1. Background and Justification ...................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Objectives of Study: ......................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Scope and Limitation of the Study ................................................................................... 4
2. LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................... 4
2.1 Description of Woyto-Guji goats .......................................................................................... 4
2.2 Role of Goat Production ................................................................................................... 6
2.2.1 Socio-Economic Functions ............................................................................................. 6
2.2.2 Nutritional Functions ...................................................................................................... 7
2.2.3 Other Functions of Goats ................................................................................................ 8
2.3 Rangeland Resource Inventory and Monitoring ................................................................... 9
2.4 Feed Balance ......................................................................................................................... 9
2.5 Goat Feed Resource and Its’ Availability ...................................................................... 10
2.5.1 Natural Pasture ............................................................................................................ 10
2.5.2 Woody Vegetation ........................................................................................................ 11
2.6 Feed Resources for Goats in to Study Areas ....................................................................... 11
ii
2.7 Feed Resource Availability in to Study Areas for Goats .................................................... 12
2.9 Goats Feed Management and Feeding ................................................................................ 12
3. Study Methodology ................................................................................................................... 13
3.1 Description of the Study Area ............................................................................................. 13
3.2 Type of Data and Methods of Data Collection ................................................................... 15
3.2.1 Focus Group Discussion ............................................................................................... 15
3.2.2 On-farm and rangeland field observations ................................................................... 16
3.2.4 Source of Secondary Data ............................................................................................ 16
3.3 Estimation of Annual Dry Matter Production for Goats ..................................................... 16
3.5 Estimation the Feed Requirements and Feed Balance for Goats ........................................ 17
4. Results ....................................................................................................................................... 17
4.1 Major Feed Resources for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda ............................. 17
4.1.1 Major Herbaceous Feed Resources for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda ... 17
4.1.2. Major browse forages for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda ....................... 20
4.1.3 Major Crop Residues for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda ........................ 23
4.2 Major Goats Feed Resource Availability in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda ................ 24
4.2.1 Herbaceous Goat feed Resource Availability ............................................................... 24
4.2.2 Browse Goat Feed Resource Availability in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ...................... 26
4.2.3 Crop Residues Feed Resource Availability for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ..... 29
4.3 Seasonal Dynamic of Feed Resource for Goat in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda ........ 29
iii
4.3.1 Seasonal Dynamic of Herbaceous Feed Resource for Goat in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
............................................................................................................................................... 29
4.3.2 Seasonal dynamic of browse species for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ............... 33
4.3.3 Seasonal Dynamic of Crop Residues for Goat in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ............... 36
4.4 Morphological plant parts utilized by the goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay .................... 37
4.4.1 Morphological herbaceous plant parts utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay 37
4.4.2 Morphological browse plant parts utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ....... 40
4.5 Goat Feeding and Management System .............................................................................. 45
4.6 Estimation of Annual Dry Matter Production and Feed Balance for Goats........................ 47
4.6.1 Annual Dry Matter Production for Goats from different land use system in Hamer and
Bena-Tsemay Woreda ........................................................................................................... 47
4.6.2 Annual Dry Matter Production from Crop Residues for goats in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay................................................................................................................................... 47
4.6.3 Total Dry Matter Production from different Feed Resource Base for goats in Hamer
and Bena-Tsemay .................................................................................................................. 48
4.6.4 Dry Matter Requirements by Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ................................ 49
4.7 Feed Balance for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ........................................................ 50
5. Discussion ................................................................................................................................. 51
5.1. Major herbaceous species................................................................................................... 51
5.2. Major browse forages for goats .......................................................................................... 51
5.3 Major crop residues for goats .............................................................................................. 52
iv
5.4 Feed Availability to goats ................................................................................................... 52
5.4.1 Herbaceous feed Availability to goats .......................................................................... 52
5.4.2 Browse feed resource availability for goat ................................................................... 53
5.6 Browse plant parts utilized by goats ................................................................................... 54
5.7 Dry matter requirements and feed balance for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ............. 55
6. Conclusion and Recommendation ........................................................................................... 56
7. Acknowledgments..................................................................................................................... 56
8. REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 57
9. APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................... 64
v
List of Tables
Table 1 Physical Characteristics of Adult Woyto-Guji Goats ....................................................... 5
Table 2: The list of major herbaceous species and their ranks as goats feed in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woreda ............................................................................................................................ 19
Table 3: The list of major browse species for goats with their ranks in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Woredas ........................................................................................................................................ 21
Table 4 List of major source of crop residues for goats in to study areas ................................... 23
Table 5 Herbaceous Feed Resource Availability for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
....................................................................................................................................................... 25
Table 6 Browse feed resource availability for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda ......... 27
Table7: The major source of crop residues availability for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay ... 29
Table 8 The seasonal dynamic of herbaceous goats feed resources in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
....................................................................................................................................................... 31
Table 9 The seasonal dynamic of browse goat feed resources in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Woreda .......................................................................................................................................... 34
Table 10: The seasonal dynamic of Crop residues as goat feed resources in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay districts. ........................................................................................................................... 36
Table 11 List of Morphological herbaceous plant parts utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woreda ............................................................................................................................ 38
Table 12 List of Morphological herbaceous plant parts utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woreda ............................................................................................................................ 41
Table 13: The total estimated annual dry matter productions from different land use system in
Hamer and Bena-Tsemay .............................................................................................................. 47
vi
Table 14 Esimated dry matter crop residue yields produced from different major crop types
grown in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas ............................................................................... 48
Table 15 Total amount of dry matter produced per year for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay . 49
Table 16 Annual dry matter requirements for goats/year in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda 49
Table 17 Annual dry matter requirements by goats and feed balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Woreda .......................................................................................................................................... 51
List of Figure
Figure 1 : Illustrated the Map of the Study Areas ..................................................................................... 14
vii
Terminologies Used in this Study
Browsing: The consumption of edible leaves and twigs from woody plants (trees and shrubs) by
goats.
Browse: Leaf and twig growth of shrubs, woody plants and trees available for goats’
consumption.
Dry matter: Dry matter is the amount of feed remaining when all the water has been removed from it.
Feed: Edible material having nutritive value for gats.
Forage: Feeds available for browsing by herbivores and also commonly include browse
Feed Inventory: The inventories are an assessment of vegetation resources or physical features
at one point in time.
Feed Balance: Feed balance is the balance between availability of feed to goats and oats feed
demand.
Herbaceous forage: Is the non-woody component of the vegetation, which includes all grass
and forbs.
Natural pasture: The land that periodic cultivation is used to maintain introduced (non-native)
forage species and agronomic inputs such as irrigation and fertilizer are applied annually.
Rangeland: Land supporting indigenous or introduced vegetation that is either grazed/browse or
has the potential to be grazed/browse and is managed as a natural ecosystem.
viii
Executive Summary of Study
A goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted inthe Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woredas in South Omo Zone with the aim of assessing the current status of major goat
feed resources, their dry matter availability and the overall goat feed balance within the regions.
Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three kebeles from Hamer were selected for the purposes of
conducting the studies. In each of these woredas, between eight and twelve herders were
recruited for focus group discussions (FGDs) aimed at compiling local feed inventories. These
verbal reports collected from the pastoralists and agro pastotalists were additionally confirmed
by field observations and monitoring, and compared with similar previous studies and other
secondary information from the study districts. Pastoralists and agro pastoralist were
interviewed about the major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and
the morphological plant parts utilized by goats. They were also asked to make comment on goat
feeding practices, including the role of special feeding and the use of planted fodder species and
crop residues. In addition to the FGDs, in each kebele engaged, a subset of the most
experienced participating pastoralists were asked to collect samples of each of the rangeland
goat forage species nominated during the interviews. These samples were photographed and
catalogued in code corresponding to the local names for each species. Botanical identification
was later made by Adami Tulu of the Agriculture Research Centre Laboratory. The findings from
this study revealed that there were 22 and 20, 51 and 40 different herbaceous and browse forage
species were identified as major goat feeds from Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda respectively.
Pertaining to goat feed resource availability and seasonal dynamics, herders reported that the
majority of nominated feed resources for goat were in surplus supply during wet seasons
(particularly from April to August) and that these reserves then declined declined during the dry
seasons, with many of the species becoming unavailable to goats from January to February. The
overwhelming proportion of dry matter available to goats in Hamer Woreda comes from
naturally grown rangeland plants while small contributions was comes from crop residues. The
opposite is true for Bena-Temay Woreda, where agro-pastoralists depend heavily on crop
residues for animal survival during dry seasons. There are an estimated 205,300 and 75,573
goats (Tropical Livestock Unit) kept in the districts of Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively.The
working on an average body weight and an assumed dry matter intake of 2.5% and the estimated
total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for all goats across these districts are likely to
ix
be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons respectively. This figure far exceeds the estimated
dry matter produced in the study areas (370,000 and 40,000 for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
respectively) and equates to estimated deficits of roughly 94,000 and 129,000 tons of dry matter
for each respective Woreda. These figures are inherently unreliable and can only serve as
approximations due to the desktop nature of the calculations, the number of plant species
comprising total yield and their spacious-temporal variance in frequency, density, growth and
yield. Frequent droughts as a result of climate change, the conversion of rangeland browsing
area in to cropping land, lack of skill and knowledge in goat feeding and husbandry in
combination with increasing goat populations represent as major challenges to goat production
in the study areas. The general conclusions of this study are that presently, in both of the
Woredas investigated, aggregate goat stocking numbers cannot be supported by the estimated
dry matter available to goats and do not match to support profitable from the goat production in
the study areas. This is likely to represent an on-going problem for goats’ survival, productivity
and household incomes, while also threatening to further degrade the naturally occurring
browse resource species. These is suggest that the primary focus of development efforts to
support pastoralists and agro-pastoral goat production need to be improving the existing feed
resources through area enclosure, treating poor quality feeds for goats, forage banking from
range land during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated
fodder species and enhancing the utilization of native browse species as a local protein
supplements.
Key Words: Goats, Feed Resources, Feed Resource Availability, Feed Resources dynamics and
Feed Balance
1
Goat Feed Resource Inventory and Feed Balance In Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of
South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
1. Background and Justification
The goat (Capra hircus) is thought to have been the first animal to be domesticated for economic
purpose about 7,000 BC in South West Asia (Peacock, 2004) and has helped people to survive
and thrive for countless generations. It has been estimated that there are 172 million goats on the
African continent, which equates to approximately 29% of the world's population (Peacock,
2004). It is estimated that excluding some non-sedentary pastoral areas of the Afar and Somali
regions, Ethiopia is home, approximately 32.74 million goats (CSA, 2017).
Within Ethiopia, most of the goats are found in the lowland areas predominantly inhabited by
nomadic pastoralists who have a long history of goat keeping. Goats are also kept as livestock in
other parts of Ethiopia, though not in any numbers comparable to the predominantly pastoralist
lowlands (FAO, 2004). Goats play vital role for poor communities in providing milk, meat,
skins, and manure and also serve as a source of much needed cash income for smallholder
farmers and pastoralists, particularly in areas where issues of scale limit the keeping of large
livestock or crop production (Zewdu et al., 2003).
In many agro-pastoralist societies on the continent, cattle are strongly associated with status and
wealth and pastoralists are extremely relictant to sell or exchange these animals except for dowry
payment or extreme circumstances. Goats on the other hand, are viewed much more as a liquid
asset and pastoralists will readily sell or exchange a goat for immediate needs and necessities.
Another advantage of goats is that decisions regarding their management are often made at a
2
household level rather than at the community or clan level, as is often the case with cattle. This
means that households with goats can respond and adapt to challenges as they arise much more
readily than those without them. Goat production is also advantageous in that women and
children can easily manage the animal physically and in terms of feed intake. It is also much
cheaper to produce goats compared to other animals. In many parts of Africa, especially in the
drier regions, goat rearing is favoured because subsistence farmers and pastoralists can keep a
significant number of goats instead of one cow. Moreover, immediately after a disaster, goats
can ensure household livelihoods and food security issues (Peacock, 2004).
Despite the significant contribution of the goat to rural communities, both the animal production
and reproductive performance of the animal is generally quite poor across Ethiopia (FOA, 2018).
This is often attributable to either socio-economic or technical limitations (CSA, 2017). The
FAO (2018) reports that shortfalls in both quantity and quality of feed in one of the major
nutritional impediments affecting goat production in Ethiopia. Similarly in the areas covered by
the present study, goat production suffers from nutritional constraints which are aggravated by
fluctuations in seasonal availability of range forage due to recurrent and prolonged drought
(Denbela et al., 2017; Berhanu et al., 2017; Admasu et al., 2010). The nutritional stress, which
gives rise to slow growth rates, loss of body condition and increased susceptibility to diseases
and parasites all contribute to lower animal production and reproductive performance of goats
within the study regions (Tolera et al., 2000).
Moreover, in the study regions it is apparent that pastoral communities do not have full
appreciation and understanding of both the availability and supply of major feed sources
available for goat production. This adds credence to the need for research approaches that focus
on appraising both overall goat feed inventories and the balance of feed supply and demand in
3
study regions. There is a need to asses’ data regarding the composition, availability and
distribution of various feed resources within the focal regions. The monitoring and assessment
of available goat feed resources is essential for the provision of data that can the development
and implementation of policies aimed at the sustainable improvement of goat production.
Furthermore, information provided by goat feed inventories could be of immense utility for
policy makers, government agencies, NGOs, intergovernmental agencies and development
agencies in formulating and implementing sustainable goat development activities and for
preparing and coping with climatic variations, such as droughts, floods, severe winter weather
events and global climatic change.
Furthermore, feed is recognized as the most important element in goat production in the study
regions, accounting for up to 70-90 % of the cost of production (Alemayehu, 2004). To date on
the assessment of goat feed supply and demand has not been carried out in Hamer or Bena-
Tsemay and therefore, building a better understanding of the major goat feed resources and feed
balance in these Woredas would greatly enable the provision of practical recommendations for
goat keepers and other stakeholders.
1.1 Objectives of Study:
To assess the current status of major goat feed resource base and availability in Bena-
Tsemay and Hamer Woredas of South Omo Zone.
To calculate amount dry matter available to goats from different the major goat feed
resources and goats feed balance in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer Woreda of South Omo
Zone.
4
1.2 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study was carried out in the woredas of Hamer and Bena-Tsemay in the South Omo
Zone, in the Southern Nation’s Nationalities and People’s Regional (SNNPR) State. This
research study had been examined the major goat feed resources, seasonal goat feed dynamics,
dry matter production from different feed resource bases and goat feed balances. The findings
from this study is only limited to data from the Farm Africa, livestock for livelihoods(L4L)
project mandated kebeles in both Woreda and hence the agro-ecological effect on goats feed
resources availability and seasonal dynamics were not considered due to all project mandated
kebeles were located in same agro ecologies. Furthermore, data on dry matter yield production
per year for goats in both Woreda is limited on potential estimation rather than actual estimation
due to shortage of time and limitation of budgets.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Description of Woyto-Guji goats
The Woyto-Guji goat is one of over 14 goat breeds that are kept as livestock in Ethiopia and
Eriteria (Farm Africa, 1996). Also known as the Konso goat, and related to the Arsi-Bale breed
(FARM Africa, 1996), the animal is reared for milk, meat, skins and manure production, while
also playing an integral part in socio-cultural functions (ESGPIP, 2011). The animal is
distributed across semi-arid and arid areas of south western Ethiopia (North and South Omo,
Southern Sidama and parts of Wolayta). In the South Omo Zone pertaining to the study, the
animals are kept mainly by pastoral ethnic groups such as theTsemay, Male, Hamer, Benna,
Dasenatch, Bumie and Guji, as well as other groups such as the Konso and Gardula.
5
More notably, in some areas of Sidama, this goat inhabits areas infested with trypanosomiasis,
especially from the Gelo Valley to the south of Lake Abaya and the Western Ghenale catchment
area of south western Ethiopia (FARM-Africa, 1996). The physical characteristic of the goats is
presented in Table 1.
The key features of the goat include brown, black or red colour with a shiny, smooth coat and
small head with a straight or concave facial profile. Coat coslours of the goats are often marked
with black or brown stripes along the back, on the underside or on the front of the legs. Woyto-
Guji goat is a medium-sized goat with a mainly straight (89%) to concave (11%) facial profile.
Straight horns occur on 71% of the males, curved on 26%, with polled goats forming 3% of the
population. Horns mainly point backwards (75%) or upward (21%) and in a few cases laterally
(2%). The coat is mainly short, smooth and shiny (76%) with a few goats with coarse hair (6%)
or hair on the thighs (6%) and 11% being hairy. The predominant colors are reddish-brown
(49%) and black (12%) in a patchy pattern (50%). Black or brown stripes on a dark background
are common. A beard is present on 96% of all males, a ruff on 91% and wattles are present on
10% (FARM-Africa, 1996).
Table 1 Physical Characteristics of Adult Woyto-Guji Goats
Sex
Height at
withers (cm)
Weight
(kg)
Chest girth
(cm)
Ear length
(cm)
Horn length
(cm)
Male
72.9±5.0
39.0±6.3
80.8±6.6
12.5±1.3
17.6±7.2
Female
66.4±3.5
28.8±5.0
72.5±4.2
12.5±1.0
10.8±3.7
Source: FARM-Africa (1996)
6
2.2 Role of Goat Production
2.2.1 Socio-Economic Functions
Goat ownership plays a significant role in small farm systems as it it serves several financial,
material, cultural and recreational needs (Devendra, 1988; Ayalew et al., 2001). As well as being
sources of income, investment, security and stability, goats are often the only asset that poor
families have at their disposal in times of trouble or food shortage that can be sold or exchanged
for food, medicine or other immediate needs. Additionally, goats play a critical role in
safeguarding household financial security through the creation of employment opportunities and
the provision of fertilizer, leather and fibre. Furthermore, goats are used for dowry payment,
religious rituals, rites of passage and the utilisation of the by-products of bush control and
clearance (Peacock, 2004; Judith, 2006). In addition, goats’ manure and urine can also be used
for pond aquaculture, enabling the supply of nutrients for phytoplankton or algae growth that can
be used to feed fish such as tilapia (Zewdu and Peacock, 2003).
The management of goats, especially small flocks in village systems is more often the
responsibility of women than that of men (Deere and Leon, 1982; Zewdu and Peacock, 2003).
Because of the animal’s size, women can easily handle the physical management of goats. The
animal is also a source of prestige and financial security for women within their communities,
particularly in the instance of divorce. Given that goats are seen as liquid assets, they also allow
women to meet family and social obligations such as in the purchase of clothes, care of sick
children and ceremonial costs during periods when their husbands are away on seasonal
migrations with cattle (Safilios-Rothschild, 1983).
7
2.2.2 Nutritional Functions
Goats can play a vital role in ensuring the food security of a household, also in supporting
families during drought crisis, accidents, floods, etc. Goats provide animal proteins (milk and
meat) that are important for the nutritional well-being of farmers/pastoralists. One of the
important products of goats is meat and the demand for goat’s meat appears to be on the rise
because it is leaner with little or no fat in its (Peacock, 2004).
Goat's milk is widely consumed throughout the tropics. The daily yield of milk per goat
varies between breeds of goats and depending on effects of the environment in which the goats
are produced. The chemical composition of goat milk also varies with the individual, the breeds
of the goats, season and the type of feed the goats are fed (Judith, 2006; Mengistu, 2007). Milk
yield of most Ethiopian indigenous breeds of goats in their natural habitat is about half a litre per
day (Mengistu, 2007).
Lactating goats have a high persistency in milk production and this is significant to the daily
nutrition of especially pregnant and nursing mothers and children. One liter of milk produces
approximately 32g of proteins, which provides about 46g (79%) of the daily requirements of a
lactating or pregnant mother, but is adequate for the daily needs of a child up to 11 years of age
(Haenlein, 1992). Goat milk contains more of essential fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic
acids) because of which it has a greater percentage of medium and short saturated fatty acids.
These suggest that the fat of goat milk may be more rapidly digested than that of cow milk.
It is noted that goat milk fat contains more caproic, caprylic, capric and lauric acid than cow
milk fat. The contents of palmitic and stearic acids are almost of the same order while oleic acid
is somewhat less than cow's milk (Robert and Sat, 2004). Goats' milk is relatively high in
8
Vitamin A and low in Vitamins B and C. An important feature of goats’ milk is that unlike cow's
milk, it contains low precursors of Vitamin A (Devendra, 1988).
The vitamin content of goat milk as compared to those of cow and human milk are also
presented in Table 2. With the exception for vitamin B6, folic acid and vitamin B12, which are
lower in goat milk, the vitamin content of goat milk is comparable to that of cow milk. Compared
to human's milk, goat milk contains the same amount of folic acid and slightly less B12
(Efthymia, et al., 2007; Peacock, 2004). It is considered that the use of goats’ milk for infants as
food is very essential because goat's milk is nearly as high in vitamin B and twice as high in
vitamin B12 as in human milk. However, it should be noted that Goat's milk is extremely low in
vitamin D (Haenlein, 2003; Wright and Bolton, 1989; Baldo, 1984).
2.2.3 Other Functions of Goats
One of the valuable by-products obtained from goats is its skin. Goat's skins are valuable in
that it earns foreign exchanges at macroeconomic level. It is used for making leather, wallets,
belts, reins and different leather goods and various handicrafts made from leather (Zewdu and
Peacock, 2003). Common goat hair, though have different types, varies with the breed of the
goats. The fibers of goat hair are usually multi-colored and very course in nature. They are
straight, non-elastic and of variable length. This type of hair is used in manufacture of carpets,
ropes, coarse blankets and bags (Zewdu and Peacock, 2003). Mohair and cashmere are very
important fibres of goat hair used in the textile trade and are highly sought after.
They are soft wool or fabric made from the long fine hair of goats. They are used for making
expensive clothes (Peacock, 2004). In addition to goats’ skin there are many other abattoirs
byproducts that are produced from goats. They include tallow, meat, bone and blood meal.
9
Tallow is animal fat that has a wide variety of uses. Among many of the products from tallow are
soap and candles. Goats’ abattoirs by-products are also sources for high-energy animal feed.
Meat, bone and blood meat are known for their valuable protein feed and are widely used by
non-ruminants (Zewdu and Peacock, 2003).
2.3 Rangeland Resource Inventory and Monitoring
Inventory and monitoring of rangeland resource are activities which are essential features of
a rangeland resource management plan. The inventories involve an assessment of vegetation
resources or physical features at one point in time and it is serve as a baseline data to aid in the
development of a range management plan. Inventories include vegetation type, topography, soils,
streams, stock water development, and number of livestock and time of use. The primary
purpose of an inventory is to provide an accurate representation of the existing conditions in
rangeland. Taking stock of the land base and determining its potential as compared to actual
production is the first step in developing an inventory on which to base management decisions.
Monitoring is an evaluation process conducted to determine the response to some management
program (in case any change over time). The monitoring is conducted several times over a fairly
long period of time. A monitoring scheme is used to evaluate a particular grazing systems or
vegetation trends over time.
2.4 Feed Balance
The feed balance is defend as the balance between availability of feed to livestock and
livestock feed demand (FOA, 2018). Generation of feed balance at country level will be possible
with the feed-inventory information, which will assist in proper planning of the livestock
industry; for example, the number of animal heads that can be raised with the existing feed
resources and determining what feed resources should be made available to achieve the set
10
targets. Such efforts will, in turn, translate into enhanced food security. Tally livestock numbers,
classes and forage requirements to determine forage demand for each year. Compare them to
actual amounts of forage produced through the year; this should include carry-over hay, to help
determine where shortages are. In many cases, livestock production is severely restricted by
shortages during critical periods, while apparent forage surpluses occur at other time.
2.5 Goat Feed Resource and Its’ Availability
2.5.1 Natural Pasture
Natural pasture is an important source of goat feed in developing countries (FAO, 2001;
Solomon et al., 2008). Similarly the major contributor of goat feeds in Ethiopia is natural pasture
or grazing lands (CSA, 2015) and it is reported that about 56.23 % of the total feed resource is
derived from grazing on natural pasture. Natural pastures include annual and perennial species of
grasses and herbaceous legumes (FAO, 2001). However, the contribution of natural pasture to
the total goats feed resource base varies from area to area based on management issues (Seyoum
et al., 2001). The reported by Zinash et al. (1995) had demonstrated that the reliability of natural
pasture as a source of goats feed in restricted to the wet seasons.
Feed values of natural pasture for goats fluctuate considerably in quality based on
components such as protein and fiber, which are generally inversely proportional to each other
and categorized as poor quality roughage with low intake by goats (Berhanu et al., 2013). The
available goats grazing area (Natural pasture) diminished faster during the last few years and is
likely to continue in the future which is currently recall any interventions. The increased
population pressure, encroachment of grazing area by cropping and emerging urbanization leads
to further shrinkage of the existing natural pasture land. It has been reported that, the share of
natural grazing pasture at the national level has been reduced from 90% (Alemayehu, 1985), to
11
about 56.23% (CSA, 2015). The productivity of the available grazing lands is estimated to
range between 0.5 and 6 tons of DM/ha, the value of which is characterized as low productivity
as compared to the yield from improved pasture (Adane and Berhan, 2005; Alemayehu, 2006).
2.5.2 Woody Vegetation
Trees are an important component of the rangelands and serve for environmental
conservation; provide fuel wood and building materials. They are also important source of feed
for browsers and their value of tree litter as feed and shade to livestock should not be
underestimated (Alemayehu 2005; Abule et al. 2007). Leguminous plants, which may be trees,
shrubs or dwarf shrubs, are an important component of the feed resources for goats; particularly
the leaves and fruits of tree legumes have superior feeding value for goats (Baumer, 1991).
Forage produced by trees, shrubs and dwarf shrubs is especially important in arid and hyper arid
environments where herbaceous productivity is low due to the highly irregular nature of rainfall.
Trees and shrubs survive harsh climatic condition and are an important perennial source of
browses in the dried conditions, in particular for goats (Herlocker, 1999). Pastoralists living
with goat production in the various rangelands have been known for utilizing the woody
(browser) species as source of traditional medicine for healing/ curing wounds, and treating
diseases of goats (Ahmed, 2003; Abule et al, 2005; Belaynesh, 2006).
2.6 Feed Resources for Goats in to Study Areas
In Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts, 83 and 80% of the major feed sources for goats are
derived from natural rangeland (pasture grasses, legumes, fodder trees and shrubs) (Berhanu et
al., 2017). However, some agro-pastoral households in both districts also use crop residues
mainly in the form of maize and sorghum stubbles, which are grazed following harvest. Grazing
lands are mainly communal and the households have different grazing sites with varying
12
distances. Riverside grazing and enclosures that are owned either communal or private are used
for grazing especially during the dry season. Admasu et al. (2010) reported that many of the
woody species identified for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts as important feed source for goat
production even though some of the leaf biomass was beyond the reach of goats and the
inclusion of animals like camel into the system will help in efficient utilization of the feed
resource and for ecological balance. Similarly, In to study areas, Admasu et al. (2010) also
shown that browse trees and shrubs often have a higher crude- protein and mineral content and
some times higher dry matter digestibility than associated grasses, particularly during the dry
season as an important attendant advantage is a lowered cost of feeding for goat due to a
reduced dependence on purchased energy and protein supplements.
2.7 Feed Resource Availability in to Study Areas for Goats
The study made by Berhanu et al. (2013) had demonstrated that feed resource availability
for goats has been influenced by pattern of rainfall. Accordingly, the higher feed availability for
goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts is in the main rainy seasons which have been started
from March and end to April. They also reported that the rainfall however, is relatively higher
and longer in Bena-Tsemay district and therefore, in Bena-Tsemay district, availability of feed is
higher sometimes extends up to October. Furthermore, Berhanu et al. (2017) also report
demonstrated that the hot dry seasons which has been started from November to February is the
periods of feed scarcity with high mortality of kids and adult goats.
2.9 Goats Feed Management and Feeding
The study made by Buzayehu and Denbela (2015) in to the pastoral communities of Hamer
Woreda demonstrated that pastoral communities have been practicing communal or private
13
natural grazing and browsing, as well as cut-and-carry system during goat feeding systems.
Moreover, also Buzayehu and Denbela (2015) indicated that they have no any practice of
supplementing their goats with agro industrial by product like a concentrate and improved forage
species. However, they have already a practiced of supplementing new born kids and sick animal
with locally available range forage like acacia pod and different tree leaves as supplementary
source especially during the dry seasons. According to a study made by Admasu et al. (2010),
communal and riverside grazing areas were bush encroached which require bush/shrub
management interventions. The communal grazing areas were in poor rangeland condition for
grazing animals and this implies that there is a need to improve the condition of the rangeland.
Similarly, Admasu et al. (2010) also reported that the range land condition of Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woreda is deteriorating from time to time and this is aggravated with livestock product
like milk yield per cow has been reduced significantly that is used to be some years ago. The
increase in livestock population has seriously affected the rangeland condition. Repeated
droughts, overgrazing, the absence of intervention on rangeland improvement are favors bush
encroachment which is correlated negatively to pasture production
3. Study Methodology
3.1 Description of the Study Area
The study was conducted in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of the Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
districts of South Omo Zone. Bena-Tsemay Woreda is located between 04° 59.00″ and 05°
58.40″ N and Hamer is 36° 12.45″ and 37° 30.25″ E. The climate of Bena-Tsemay Woredas is
hot to warm semiarid with altitudinal variation of 500m to 1800m. The average daily
temperatures range between 15.6°C and 26.5°C in Bena-Tsemay while in Hamer Woreda the
average temperature is 37°C and altitude varies from 450 m to 1765m a.s.l with the average
14
annual rainfall is 400 mm. The vegetation of the districts is dominated by varying densities of
Acacia, Grewia and Solanum woody species and 35 herbaceous species of grasses and legumes
can be found (Admasu et al., 2010). The dominant land use in Hamer district is pastoralism
while Bena-Tsemay is predominantly agro-pastoral land use. More than 48% of the total
combined land area of both districts is used for grazing and/or browsing by cattle, sheep and
goats (Admasu et al., 2010).
Figure 1 : Illustrated the Map of the Study Areas
15
3.2 Type of Data and Methods of Data Collection
Focus group discussions (FGDs) and on-farm field observations were the main methods of
data collection employed for the completion of the goat feed inventory study. A questionnaire
was designed for the purposes of guiding FGDs and capturing all information relevant to the
major goat feed resources and their availability.
3.2.1 Focus Group Discussion
Within Bena-Tsemay, FGDs were conducted in the five kebeles of Shaba Arigemenda, Dize
Aman, Bori, Moregolla and Sile. In Hamer, FGDs were conducted in the the three kebeles of
Area Umbule, Area Kiyisa and Dimeka Zuria. Each of the eight FGDs engaged between eight
and twelve pastoralists and was facilitated with the aid of local kebele development agents, who
selected pastoralists for inclusion, taking into consideration of their age and degree of local
experience in regard to goat production and feed management practices. The participating
herders were asked about the major goat feed resource categories (herbaceous forages, browse
forages, and crop residues) that are available within their kebeles. For each of these categories,
they were asked to recall and list all of the species that comprise them, before being asked to
rank each species in order of preference for goat production. For each species the pastoralists
were also asked about seasonal patterns of availability, morphological plant parts utilised by
goats and whether they thought each species was increasing or decreasing in prevalence over the
longer term.
16
3.2.2 On-farm and rangeland field observations
Following the completion of each FGD, five of the most experienced and knowledgeable
herders were nominated by the FGD participants, for the purpose of collecting and identifying
rangeland field samples of the major goat feed species nominated during the FGD activities.
With the assistance of researchers these pastoralists collected, catalogued and photographed a
sample of each nominated species using a numerical code corresponding to indigenous plant
names. Upon return from the field, species were identified and assigned botanical names with the
assistance of trained botanists from the Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre.
3.2.4 Source of Secondary Data
Secondary information on goat population numbers and the total areas of land under
browsing were sourced from the respective Woreda livestock and fisheries resource development
offices. Moreover, the figures for the area of land under each class of crop were collected from
the Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda Office of Agriculture and Natural Resource Development.
3.3 Estimation of Annual Dry Matter Production for Goats
Quantity of feed dry matter produced per year for goats in to study areas was estimated from
the major feed resources base (Browsing land and Crop Residues). The quantity of feed dry
matter obtained annually from different land use type was determined by multiplying the hectare
under each land use type by using the conversion factor of 2.0, 3.0, 1.8 and 0.7 t DM/ha/year for
communal browsing land, private browsing land, fallow land and forest/wood land respectively
(FAO, 1987; Kearl, 1982). The quantity of feed dry matter obtained from crop residues per
study Woreda was estimated from crop residues by using conversion factors according to
17
recommendation of FAO (1987). Accordingly, for a ton of maize stover conversion value of 2.0
was used, for a ton of Teff (Eragrostis abyssinica) straw, the conversion value of 1.5 was used,
while conversion figures of 1.2, 2.5, 0.7, 1.5 and 8 were used for the haricot bean, sorghum ,
finger millet, pigeon pea and Banana leaf and stem respectively.
3.5 Estimation the Feed Requirements and Feed Balance for Goats
Goat holdings per study Woreda was aggregated into TLU (Tropical Livestock Unit) by
considering the annual average goats based on the number of goats by using the species-specific
TLU conversion factors of 0.1 for goats (Gryseels, 1988; Shiferaw, 1991). The dry matter
demand of goats in to study area was estimated based on the expected daily dry matter intake
suggested for the standard TLU of 250 kg at 2.5% of the body weight, which is equivalent to
6.25 kg/day or 2280 kg/year. The Goats’ feed balance at the entire production year was
determined as the difference between the total annual feed dry matter supplies from different
major goat feed resources and the total annual dry matter demands for goats in to study areas.
4. Results
4.1 Major Feed Resources for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
4.1.1 Major Herbaceous Feed Resources for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
The major herbaceous forage species utilized as goat feed resources in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woredas are listed in Table2 below. Participating herders identified 22 and 20 different
herbaceous forage species for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas respectively. During the
FGDs, the pastoralists were asked to rank each of the nominated forage species based on their
importance as goat feed resources and these rankings are also indicated in Table1 below. There
18
was extensive overlap in the species recorded within both Woredas, however Oresoschimperella
verrucosa, Sporobolus pyramidalis, Commelina benghalensis, Cido obata and Colotoria enkana
were only reported from Hamer Woreda and ovyalis abyssinica, Lantana camara and Digitaria
abyssinica were reported only from the Bena-Tsemay district.
20
4.1.2. Major browse forages for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
The major browse forage species used as goats feed resource in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
woredas are listed in Table3 below. Herders identified 51 and 40 browse forage species utilised
by goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas respectively. Forage usefulness rankings assigned
by herders are also displayed in Table2. As was the case with the herbaceous species, there was
extensive overlap in the species recorded within both Woredas, however Boscia coriacea,
Dalbergia sissoo, Combretum molle, Rhoicissus revoilii, Sida ovate, Commiphora erlangerana,
Delonix regia, Grewia bicolor and Seurinega virosa were reported within Hamer district only
whereas, Ficus sycomorus, Piliostgma thonningii and Sclerocarya birrea were reported only in
Bena-Tsemay district.
23
4.1.3 Major Crop Residues for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
The major crop residues used as goats feed resource in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
during harvesting time are listed in Table4 below. The findings from this study shows that agro
pastoralist in the study areas identified 5 and 4 different crops residues that were being fed to
goats as major goats feeds for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas respectively. Agro pastoralists
from these areas had grouped crop type used as goats feed into cereals, legumes and roots and
ranked them in order of their importance as goat feed resources. Accordingly, Phaseolus
vulgaris (L), Eleusine coracana (L.), Ipomoea batatas (L), Sorghum bicolor (L) and Zea mays
(L) were ranked 1 up to 5th by Hamer agro pastoralists and whereas, Phaseolus vulgaris (L),
Sorghum bicolor, Ipomoea batatas (L) and Zea mays (L), were ranked 1 up to 4th by Bena-
Tsemay agro pastoralists.
Table 4 List of major source of crop residues for goats in to study areas
S/No
BENAGNA
Scientific Names
Ranks
HAMEREGNA
Scientific Names
Ranks
1
Bokolo
Zea mays (L)
4
Bokolo
Zea mays (L)
5
2
Alaph
Sorghum bicolor (L)
2
Ensi
Sorghum bicolor (L)
4
3
Fecha
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
1
Ficha
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
1
4
Ayishitaro
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
1
-
-
-
5
Badala
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
1
-
-
-
6
Dincha
Ipomoea batatas( L)
3
Dinsha
Ipomoea batatas (L.)
3
7
-
-
-
Barga
Eleusine coracana (L.)
2
24
4.2 Major Goats Feed Resource Availability in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
4.2.1 Herbaceous Goat feed Resource Availability
As expected, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in the study areas reported that dry matter
from the herbaceous feed resources declined during dry seasons, but and it was became readily
available after the end of the dry seasons. Interviewees both districts also reported that the
availability of important herbaceous forages species such as Tetrapogon teneullus, Tribulus
terrestris, Eupherbia tirucalli, Ormocarpum mimosoides, Tephrosia species and Lantana
camara had declined over the last five years. During FGDs with pastoralists in Hamer Woreda,
one older pastoralist (65 years old) reported that when he was around 14 years of age,
herbaceous grass grew up to his shoulder, and fire was regularly used by pastoralists as a land
management tool, whereas nowadays much of the rangelands are bear with insufficient grass
growth to carry fire.
26
4.2.2 Browse Goat Feed Resource Availability in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
The availability of browse goat feed resources reported by pastoralists in the study areas are
presented in Table 6 below. Herders during FGD reported that the dry matter availability was
low during dry seasons and surplus during the rainy season. They noted that the availability of
browse species such as; Avicennia manna, Mytenus ovatus, Indigofera spicata spira,, Acacia
nilotica, Dichro stachys cinerea, Pithecellobium dulce, Albizia lophantha, Acacia albida,
Seurinega virosa, Acacaia lahali and Grewia villosa had declined in the last five years and this
had negatively affected overall forage availability, forcing herders to graze goats on unusual
patches of land, along riverbanks and forcing them to loop browse leaf and pods from trees for
the animals during dry seasons. Furthermore, herders from Bena-Tsemay district reported that
Bridelia micrantha, Dichro stachys cinerea, Acacia sieberiana, Vitellaria paradoxa, Belanites
aegyptila, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ficus sycomorus, Piliostgma thonningii and Sclerocarya birrea
did not provide goat forage during dry seasons. However, Hamer pastoralists classified these
species as being moderately available to goats during dry seasons. This variation in seasonal
availability is likely to be due to the fact that in Bena-Tsemay Woreda, most of the communities
have transitioned from purely pastoralist livelihoods and into agro pastoralism. This has resulted
in much of the former browsing rangelands being converted to farmland and this is likely to have
led to an increase in stocking pressures on remaining rangeland.
29
4.2.3 Crop Residues Feed Resource Availability for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Agro-pastoralist in the study areas reported that crop residues for goat feeds were only
available during crop harvesting time. However, they also reported that due to the increasing
rates of land conversion to cropping, crop residue dry matter supplies increasing significantly.
Table7: The major source of crop residues availability for goats in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay
Benagna
Name
Scientific Names
It’s
dynamics
Hamerg
na
Scientific Name
It’s
dynamics
Bokolo
Zea mays (L)
*
Bokolo
Zea mays (L)
*
Alaph
Sorghum bicolor (L)
*
Ensi
Sorghum bicolor (L)
*
Fecha
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
*
Ficha
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
*
Ayishitaro
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
*
-
-
-
Badala
Phaseolus vulgaris (L)
*
-
-
-
Dincha
Ipomoea batatas( L)
*
Dinsha
Ipomoea batatas( L)
*
-
-
-
Barga
Eieusine coracana
*
Marks= * = Increasing;, - = Not reported.
4.3 Seasonal Dynamic of Feed Resource for Goat in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
4.3.1 Seasonal Dynamic of Herbaceous Feed Resource for Goat in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay
The seasonal dynamics of herbaceous forages for goats in the study districts are presented in
Table 8. Herders from both study districts reported that dry matter from major herbaceous
species are completely unavailable to goats from January to February except those herbaceous
species such as Eupherbia tirucalli and Capparis tomentosa which were highly available. It was
mentioned in the FGDs that during critical dry seasons, all goats were fed on browse species of
leaves and stems shattered from herbaceous feed resource base as mitigation strategies. On the
other hand, they reported that availability of dry matter to goats from herbaceous feed resource
30
base is low in December and then moderately available as from September, October, November
and March. These were however more readily available from April up to August. Furthermore,
they also reported that rains start in moderately and increase from April to August. During these
periods, all disappeared herbaceous forage begins to re-emerge and is available in plenty as from
July and August.
33
4.3.2 Seasonal dynamic of browse species for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
The seasonal dynamic of browse species in the study areas have shown similar seasonal
dynamic trends to those of herbaceous species shown in Table 8 above. During FGDs herders
reported that browse species classified as highly available in Table 9, were available all year
round as dry matter source to goats. However, the seasonal dynamics of dry matter supplies from
browse species classified as not available during some months of the year as detailed in Table 9,
which totally declined from January to February. Pastoralists also reported a similar seasonal
dynamic trend for feeds from the all browses in the study areas from April to August and a
moderate feed availability from September to October except for deciduous browse species.
36
4.3.3 Seasonal Dynamic of Crop Residues for Goat in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
The seasonal dynamic of crop residues is presented in Table 9. The herders in the study area
reported during FGDs that dry matter supply from crop residues is generally highest from June to
July while being completely unavailable from November to May. They also reported that crop
residues are highly available in the study areas from August to October. This is due to the fact
that this period coincides with the short rainy season when many of the agro-pastoralists plant
crops.
Table 10: The seasonal dynamic of Crop residues as goat feed resources in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay districts.
Benagna
Hamergna
Scientific
Months in year
Jan.
Feb
.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Bokolo
Bokolo
Zea mays (L)
*
*
*
*
*
****
****
***
***
***
*
*
Alaph
Ensi
Sofghum bicolor (L)
*
*
*
*
*
****
****
***
***
***
*
*
Fecha
Ficha
Phaseolus vulgaris
(L)
*
*
*
*
*
****
****
***
***
***
*
*
Ayishitar
o
-
Phaseolus vulgaris
(L)
*
*
*
*
*
****
****
***
***
***
*
*
Badala
-
Phaseolus vulgaris
(L)
*
*
*
*
*
****
****
***
***
***
*
*
Dincha
Dinsha
Ipomoea batatas( L)
*
*
*
*
*
****
****
***
***
***
*
*
-
Barga
Eleusine
coracana(L)
*
*
*
*
*
****
****
***
***
***
*
*
****months with high Crop residues availability; *** months with good Crop residues availability; -*months with no Crop
residues availability
37
4.4 Morphological plant parts utilized by the goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
4.4.1 Morphological herbaceous plant parts utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
The herbaceous morphological forage parts utilized by goats in to study areas are presented
in Table11. Pastorals and agro pastorals in to study areas reported that herbaceous plants such as
Businta, Kuntsale, Melo and Palik were only leaf plant part eaten by goats and whereas, plants
such as Mara and Buska goats both leaf and stem were eaten by goats. However, remaining
herbaceous forage species, all plant parts (leaf, stem, seed and pods) were edible by goats.
40
4.4.2 Morphological browse plant parts utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
The browse plant parts that are eaten by the goats in the study areas are presented in Table 12
below. Herders reported that during wet seasons (April to August), goats show a preference for
eating leaves over other plant parts, as the leaves are readily accessible , highly palatable and
rich in more nutrients. The pastoralists also, reported that the pods and seeds are readily
consumed by goats in the study areas at the beginning of dry seasons. During this time most of
herbaceous and browse plants disappear from the grazing areas and the goats begin to experience
nutrient deficiencies, therefore they feed on pods and seeds. Plant stems, are generally only
consumed by goats in the study areas towards the end of harsh dry seasons that usually intensify
in February, and sometimes extend into mid-March. During this period, the useful parts of most
plants (leafs, seed and pods) have disappeared and pastoralists are often forced to rely only on
stem and bark to keep goats alive until rains arrive.
45
4.5 Goat Feeding and Management System
The nutrition of goats is the most important factor affecting performance of goats in to
pastoral and agro pastoral areas. This is because feed is the principle limiting factor in most parts
of this whereby goats are seldom allowed to express their genetic potential. Thus, a generally
low level of production from the goat production is due to poor feeding and nutritional
management of goats. Poorly fed goats give low output of meat and milk and poor feeding and
managements lead to delayed age of onset of puberty, long parturition intervals, low conception
rates and low overall lifetime reproductive performance. Under poor feeding conditions goats
take too long to reach optimum slaughter weight and the meat produced by such animals may not
satisfy the desired quality attributes to fulfill the demand of the consumers. Therefore, the proper
feeding, health care and overall management of goats is a pre-requisite for realizing the potential
benefits of the huge goats’ resources in to study areas.
During focus group discussion with pastoralists and agro pastoralists in to study areas, they
reported that they have been practiced generally poor goat feeding and husbandry (very
extensive feeding system) whereby no concentrates, salt or mineral licks are provided to goats.
According to them, there are three goat feeding periods in to study Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
districts. The first one is the main rainy season (April August) when feed is adequate from the
range forages and goats allowed freely grazing /browsing grazing on range forages, crop residues
and green fodder and weeds from crop harvested areas. The second is the dry seasons
(December-February) during this periods goats relied only leaf, stem and pods of deciduous(ever
green) trees due to feed from other plants and crop residues gradually had been declined and
become not available to goats.
46
The third is called the worst season which have been started from February extends in to mid-
March, all goats lost their body conditions and goats mostly had relied on leafs fell down on to
the ground naturally and inedible and unpalatable stem trees before by goats in order to sustain
alive until rain season begins.
Moreover, during this time communities in to study areas, have trends of giving special
supplements for new born kids, milking does and sick goats with locally available range forage
like acacia pod and different tree leaves by the cut and carry system in addition to allowing them
to browse in enclosed pasture land as basal diet for this purpose near to resident area.
Furthermore, they also, had reported that they have no any practices of supplementing their goats
with agro industrial by product like a commercial concentrate and meals from improved forage
and forage conservation in the form of hay, silage or conserved crop residues for goats in to
study area which is recalled the further interventions around the area in order to improve goats
production and communities livelihoods. Also, they reported that government have been
promoted area enclosure program and they have been started resting private pastureland which
ranges from 0.5 to 5ha on average per house hold for certain periods as feed shortage mitigation
strategies for dry seasons with objective of increasing production and reproduction performances
of goats and cattle.
The lastly, but not the least, pastoralists and agro pastoralists had mentioned that frequent
occurrence of drought due to climate change, converting browsing area in to cropping land, lack
of skill and knowledge in goat feeding and husbandry and increasing goat population were
major shocks that challenges the goats production in to study areas.
47
4.6 Estimation of Annual Dry Matter Production and Feed Balance for Goats
4.6.1 Annual Dry Matter Production for Goats from different land use system in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woreda
The total estimated annual dry matter productions from different land use system for Hamer
and Bena-Tsemay are presented Table13. The estimated the highest amount of dry matter
production from Hamer district for goats comes from communal browsing land and whereas, in
case of Bena-Tsemay district comes from private browsing area. On the other hand, the lowest
estimated dry matter production for goat from both districts comes from forest/woody land
Table 13: The total estimated annual dry matter productions from different land use system in
Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Land use type
Amount(ha)
Produ
ctivity
/ha
Total dry matter(t/ha)
Hamer
Bena-Tsemay
Hamer
Total DM
as %
Bena-
Tsemay
Total DM
as %
Private browsing
10759.5
1, 182
3
32,278.5
8.9
3, 546
54.38
Communal browsing
150, 400.20
1, 288
2
300,800.40
82.95
2,576
39.51
Road side browsing
7951.80
77.25
1.8
14,313.24
3.95
139.05
2.13
Fallow land browsing
6648.75
152
1.5
9, 972
2.75
228
3.50
Forest/woody land
7500
44.75
0.7
5, 250
1.45
31.33
0.50
Total
548, 673.75
2,744
-
362,614.14
100
6, 520.34
100
4.6.2 Annual Dry Matter Production from Crop Residues for goats in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay
The total estimated annual dry matter productions from different major crops for Hamer and
Bena-Tsemay are presented Table14. The estimated highest amount of dry matter production
comes from Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts for goats from sorghum crop and whereas, the
48
lowest dry matter comes from Finger millet and Banana leaf for Hamer and Bena-Tseamy
respectively. Generally, from this study it is observed that higher amount of crop residues
produced from Bena-Tsemay than Hamer. This is due to most of communities in Bena-Tsemay
Woreda have been gradual turning into crop field and they have been shifting from the
pastoralism to agro pastoralism ways of life in order to secure self-food and hence higher crop
residues have produced than that of Hamer.
Table 14 Esimated dry matter crop residue yields produced from different major crop types
grown in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas
Crops
Amount(ha)
Productivi
ty/ha
Total dry matter(tons /ha)
Hamer
Bena-Tsemay
Hamer
Total DM
as %
Bena-Tsemay
Total DM
as %
Zea mays(L)
1565
7539
2
3, 130
28.82
15,078
41.35
Sofghum bicolor(L)
2769.65
6493
2.5
6,924
63.76
16,232.5
44.52
Teff
-
752
1.5
-
-
1, 128
3.09
Eleusine coracana
23.49
-
0.7
16.44
0.15
-
-
Phasseolus vulgaris
657.33
3182
1.2
788.79
7.26
3,818.40
10.47
Cajanus cajan
-
152
0.7
-
-
-
-
Banana Leaf and
Stem
-
13
8
-
-
104
0.28
Total
5,015.5
18, 131
-
10,859
100
36, 466.90
100
4.6.3 Total Dry Matter Production from different Feed Resource Base for goats in Hamer
and Bena-Tsemay
The feed base for goats in to study areas varied depending on feed resources used in to study
areas. Based on the overall dry matter produced in the case of Hamer Woreda the dominant
feed types generated from rangeland followed by crop residues and whereas, for case of Bena-
49
Temay higher percentage of dry matter comes from crop residue followed by browsing land.
Accordingly, for Hamer Woreda the 97% of dry matter for goats comes from the rangeland
browsing (communal, private, fallow land, roadside and forest/woody land) and whereas, only
3% of dry matter comes from crop residues (maize, sorghum, finger millet and haricot bean).
However, for case of Bena-Tsemay Woreda, the higher percentage of dry matter around 84.83%
comes from crop residues (maize, sorghum, teff, pigeon pea and haricot bean) and whereas, the
lowest percentage of dry matter comes from the Browsing rangeland.
Table 15 Total amount of dry matter produced per year for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Feed Resource base
Total estimated dry matter production
(tons/Woreda/year
% of shares of feed resource
bases
Hamer
Bena-Tsemay
Hamer
Bena-Tsemay
Rangeland browsing
362,614.14
6, 520.34
97
15.17
Crop Residues
10,859.24
36,466.90
3
84.83
Total
373, 473.38
42,987.24
100
100
4.6.4 Dry Matter Requirements by Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
According to Livestock offices of Hamer and Bena-Tsemay report, Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay Woreda have 2,053,006 and 755,732 live goats population respectively which is
equivalent to 205,3000 and 75, 573.20 tropical livestock units and need 468,085.37 and 172,
306.89 total nutrients in dry matter based which are presented in Table16.
Table 16 Annual dry matter requirements for goats/year in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda
Livestoc
k
species
Total number of
goats
Total number of goats in
TLU
Amount of DM
required for goats
tons/day
Total amount of DM
required for goats /year
Hamer
Bena-
Hamer
Bea-
Hamer
Bea-Tseamy
Hamer
Bea-Tseamy
50
Tsemay
Tseamy
Goat
2,053,
006
755, 732
205,300
75,573.20
2.28
2.28
468,085.4
172,306.89
4.7 Feed Balance for Goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
The total dry matter produced (tons/year) and total dry matter required for maintenance
(tons/year) for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay are presented Table 17. Assuming that DM
requirement for maintenance of one TLU is 6.25 kg/day (2.28 ton/year/TLU); thus the total
annual the maintenance dry matter requirement of goats in Hamer and Bana-Tsemay is about
468, 085.37 and 172, 306.89 ton of dry matter respectively shown in Table 16. As can be seen
from Table 15 the estimated dry matter had been produced were 373, 473.38 and 42,987.24 for
Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively. However, in both study areas from this study observed
that the estimated dry matter produced in Woreda and the minimum maintenance dry matter
required by goats have been showing a deficit of 94,611.99 and 129, 373.65 tons of dry matter
for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda respectively. Accordingly, the estimated feed balance
sheet for goats in Bena-Tsemay shows higher minimum dry matter deficit than goats reared by
Hamer pastoralist which indicated that goats that reared by Bena-Tsemay have been more
nutritional severed than goats reared by Hamer pastoralists and this is clearly shows the higher
gap between dry matter supply and goats dry matter requirements. According to agro pastoralists
from the Bena-Tseamay during focus group discussion, they reported that there is higher
browsing rate by goats than the browsing capacity of browsing land and this is due to pastoralist
and agro pastoralist have been gradual turning into crop cultivation and the absence of alternative
feed resources for goats and hence dramatically decline in browsing areas.
51
Table 17 Annual dry matter requirements by goats and feed balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Woreda
Estimated variables
Hamer
Bena-Tsemay
Total dry matter(tons/year)
373, 473.38
42,987.24
Total dry matter required for maintenance for
goats (tons/year)
468,085.37
172,306.89
Feed balance in Woreda
-94, 611.99
-129, 373.65
5. Discussion
5.1. Major herbaceous species
Herbaceous forage is the non-woody component of the vegetation, which includes all grass
and forbs (Kuchar, 1995). In confirmation with our study, Admasu et al. (2010) had reported
about 32 species of grasses, three species of legumes, two species of sedges and seven species of
other herbaceous plants in to study areas that is used as livestock feeds. Moreover, Woruku and
Nigatu (2015) also, identified that a total of 19 grasses, 1 legume, 2sedge and 7 other herbaceous
plant species which used as livestock feed were identified for Dassench Communities in South
Omo Zone.
5.2. Major browse forages for goats
Browse plants, which may be trees and shrubs, are the main important component of the
forage for goats (Baumer, 1991). Admasu et al. (2010) reported that there were 19 and 29 woody
(browse) species used as livestock feeds in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts respectively which
is lower than the findings from our study. Meanwhile, also Worku and Nigatu (2015) reported
52
21 woody (browses) species which have used as livestock feeds for Dassench communities
which are lower than identified values from our study.
5.3 Major crop residues for goats
Crop residues represent a large part of feed resources, most of which are underutilized in
Ethiopia (Alemu et al., 1991). Crop residues described as roughages become available for
livestock feed after crops have been harvested (Nordblom and Shomo, 1995). Goats are able to
subsist and make appreciable gains in long dry season with crop residue based diets that compare
favourably with conventional concentrate rations (Malau-Aduliet al., 2003). Some of the crop
residues and by-products available are potentially good feed resources which degrade readily in
the rumen and some however, have shown poor degradability and hence require some treatments
before they can contribute to animal nutrition. Berhanu et al. (2017) report had demonstrated that
some agro-pastoral households in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts listed crop residues mainly
from Zea mays (L) and Sorghum bicolor harvests as livestock feed resources next to natural
pasture from rangeland which is in line with our findings. Similar to findings from our study,
Admasu et al. (2010) also reported that the Bena-Tsemay and some of the Hamer pastoralists
who live in higher altitude areas where cropping is more prevalent listed maize, sorghum,
wheat, teff and barley as supplementary sources of livestock feed for a number of weeks per year
during harvesting season.
5.4 Feed Availability to goats
5.4.1 Herbaceous feed Availability to goats
The availability and quality of dry matter from herbaceous feed resources for goats in
Ethiopia are not favourable year round. In most years, any productivity gains made in the wet
seasons are totally or partially lost in the dry seasons (Alemayehu, 2003). Inadequate feed supply
53
is a major cause of dry season productivity declines in in goats within study regions (Denbela et
al., 2017). The feed availability within the study areas is also strongly affected by variations in
rainfall amount, distribution, and climate change (Buzayehu and Denbela, 2015; Berhanu et al.,
2017; Denbela et al., 2017). The availability of major herbaceous forages for goats has declined
from the last five years. Pastoralist and agro pastoralists mentioned that overgrazing, the
conversion of browsing land into cropping land and climate change were major shocks that
induced declines in the availability of herbaceous goat forage species. The Berhanu et al. (2017)
and Admasu et al. (2010) also reported that frequent droughts, overgrazing, and the expansion of
cultivation are important determinants in the decrease of herbaceous forage availability within
the rangelands in South Omo. Other research reports have indicated that availability and quality
of grazing resources in the pastoral areas of Ethiopia vary with altitude, rainfall, soil type,
cropping intensity, inappropriate grazing management, rangeland fires and droughts (Angasa,
2002; Benin et al., 2004; Gemedo et al., 2006).
5.4.2 Browse feed resource availability for goat
Along with herbaceous plants, browse species are among the cheapest goat feed resources
available to goat producers in Southern Ethiopia as they which are evergreen, high in nutritional
value with abundant nutritional and available all year round(Gemedo et al., 2006). Most browse
species have the advantage of maintaining their greenness and nutritive value throughout the dry
season when herbaceous vegetation has dried out and deteriorated both in quality and quantity.
In alignment with previous research reported by Denbela et al. (2017), the pastoralists reported
that dry matter availability of browse species declines during dry seasons and are available in
surplus during the rainy seasons. The low dry matter available to goats from browse species in
the study areas has been attributed to climate change, the cutting down of browse trees for
54
charcoal, firewood, house construction, fencing and the expansion of cropping