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Corruption as an obstacle to sustainable development: A regional example

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Corruption in various sectors causes serious damage not only to individual economies, countries, and regions but also to humanity as a whole. This paper analyzes the state of corruption in the Republic of Tatarstan, the manifestations of which restrain the development of the Republic, and presents the results of a pilot sociological study that demonstrate changes in the perception of problems of corruption in society. The sustainable development of a region is influenced by various economic and social factors. The results of this research show that one of these factors is corruption, which is often used as a tool for managing territories at various levels. It is a serious obstacle to the achievement of continuous sustainable development of a region, as it impedes the building of harmonious relations between state, government, society, and business. Sustainable development of a region can be described as a system and as a process. In this study, “sustainable development” refers to the process in which various stakeholder interactions take place that influence the established order of relations in the region. The findings suggest that when assessing the effectiveness of a region’s sustainable development, the level of corruption should be considered as an indicator of its stability. Some measures were proposed to improve the organization of anti-corruption work in the Republic of Tatarstan for leveling social tensions in society.
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ISSN 2345-0282 (online) http://jssidoi.org/jesi/
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CORRUPTION AS AN OBSTACLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
A REGIONAL EXAMPLE
Irina Frolova1*, Olga Voronkova2, Natalia Alekhina3, Irina Kovaleva4,
Natalia Prodanova5, Liudmila Kashirskaya6
1 Kazan Innovative University named after V.G. Timiryasov, Moskovskaya Street 42, Kazan, Russia
2 Altai state University, Lenina Street 6, Barnaul, Russia
3 I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russia, Trubetskaya Street 8/2,
Moscow, Russia
4 Altai state agricultural University, Krasnoarmeysky Avenue 98, Barnaul, Russia
5 Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Stremyanny Lane 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia
6Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Leningradsky Prospekt 49, Moscow, Russia
E-mail: *1 fii@mail.ru;
Received 14 March 2019; accepted 10 July 2019; published 30 September 2019
Abstract. Corruption in various sectors causes serious damage not only to individual economies, countries, and regions but also to
humanity as a whole. This paper analyzes the state of corruption in the Republic of Tatarstan, the manifestations of which restrain the
development of the Republic, and presents the results of a pilot sociological study that demonstrate changes in the perception of problems
of corruption in society. The sustainable development of a region is influenced by various economic and social factors. The results of this
research show that one of these factors is corruption, which is often used as a tool for managing territories at various levels. It is a serious
obstacle to the achievement of continuous sustainable development of a region, as it impedes the building of harmonious relations between
state, government, society, and business. Sustainable development of a region can be described as a system and as a process. In this study,
“sustainable development” refers to the process in which various stakeholder interactions take place that influence the established order of
relations in the region. The findings suggest that when assessing the effectiveness of a region’s sustainable development, the level of
corruption should be considered as an indicator of its stability. Some measures were proposed to improve the organization of anti-
corruption work in the Republic of Tatarstan for leveling social tensions in society.
Keywords: corruption, sustainable development, obstacle, Russia, Tatarstan
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Frolova, I.; Voronkova, O.; Alekhina, N.; Kovaleva, I.; Prodanova, N.; Kashirskaya, L.
2019. Corruption as an obstacle to sustainable development: A regional example, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 7(1): 674-
689. http://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2019.7.1(48)
JEL Classifications: D73, Q01, E26, E65
Additional disciplines law, sociology
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1. Introduction
Recently, research has focused on the sustainable development of territories and the influence of various factors
on it (Baklanov, 2014; Malyutina, 2015; Ponomareva et al., 2019; Sasongko et al., 2018; Tvaronavičienė, 2018;
Zeibote et al., 2019). For a long time at the global level, there has been an integrative influence of various socio-
economic problems on the sustainable development of territories. Sustainable development of a region is aimed at
such development, which levels social tensions in society, sufficiently satisfies its needs, and ensures the stable
economic growth of the territory. Corruption is one of the main social factors impeding the sustainable
development of a territory.
The relevance of the study is due to changes in public perceptions about the role and causes of corruption, its
development, and manifestations, as well as an assessment of the effectiveness of measures in the implementation
of anti-corruption policy in Tatarstan. A number of authors (Asaliev et al., 2014; Badrutdinov and Rakhimov,
2013; Yeparkhina, 2013; Kochurova, 2017; Lipatov et al., 2017; Nagimov and Nagimov, 2015; Poltaradneva and
Goverdovskaya, 2014; Savchenko et al., 2018; Papakostas, 2016) point to the need to measure the level of
corruption among the population, the importance of anti-corruption monitoring (Kabanov, 2012; Pankratov, 2011;
Saltykova, 2018; Feschenko, 2014; Shumakova et al., 2016), pay attention to corruption in various authorities and
spheres of activity and anti-corruption measures (Vlasenko, 2015; Volkonskaya, 2018; Garipov et al., 2014;
Golubovsky and Sinyukova, 2015; Dyatlov and Isakova, 2018; Eli, 2016; Kochurova, 2017; Temnikov, 2017;
Frolova and Bibarsova, 2017; Chaldayeva et al., 2014; Luzgina 2017). Special attention should be paid to the
works of researchers of the case study of the Republic of Tatarstan (Badrutdinov and Rakhimov, 2013; Garipov et
al., 2014; Kochurova, 2017; Pankratov, 2011; Temnikov, 2017).
At first glance, the terms “sustainable” and “development” can be interpreted as bipolar definitions. Thus,
sustainability implies some kind of stability or constancy, and “development” indicates a change or a process.
Therefore, the symbiosis of definitions of “sustainable development” is interpreted as a constant change and
continuous improvement (today is better than yesterday, and tomorrow is better than today). In this regard,
sustainable development should be considered as a basis in territorial management strategies (Pavlyuk et al.,
2018; Voronkova et al., 2019; Prodanova et al., 2019a; Goloshchapova et al., 2018; Fedorinin and Zhuravlev,
2002; Ivanova et al., 2018).
In order to assess the state of corruption in the Republic of Tatarstan, a pilot study was conducted in which 400
respondents aged from 19 to 65 took part, including: from 19 to 29 27.5%; from 30 to 39 23.25%; from 40 to
49 27.75%; over 50 21.5%. Most of the respondents are women (68.25%).
Object of study: the attitude of the population of the Republic of Tatarstan toward various manifestations of
corruption and the assessment by the society of the measures that are being taken to combat corruption in the
Republic of Tatarstan.
The subject of the study is corruption as a factor of obstacles to the sustainable development of the region.
Objectives of the study:
1. To conduct a review of scientific research on the problem of corruption and sustainable development of
territories.
2. To analyze the results of the questionnaire survey on the causes of corruption crimes, the degree of corruption
of officials in various fields, the attitude of the population to the manifestations of corruption in the Republic of
Tatarstan, to interpret the research results.
3. Formulate conclusions and develop recommendations for improving the organization of anti-corruption work in
the Republic of Tatarstan to ensure the sustainable development of the region.
The following hypotheses are put forward:
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- various manifestations of corruption together have a serious impact on the sustainable development of the
region, the growth of social tension in society and the negative perception of anti-corruption measures;
- increasing the level of anti-corruption education and changing the anti-corruption behavior of the population of
the Republic of Tatarstan.
The research results are of an applied nature and can be used as the basis for the development of a separate region
development strategy, as well as programs of interaction between civil society institutions and authorities on anti-
corruption education and anti-corruption issues to ensure sustainable development of the territory and leveling
social tension.
2. Literature review
Corruption is always a companion of new regimes, so the article (Barsukova, 2019) traces the transformation of
informal relations between the state and big business due to changes in the financial and administrative
capabilities of the state, and compares the situations of the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. However, corruption is a
problem in many countries (Pujiyono et al., 2019; Campbell, 2018; Denkers, 2018; Naushad et al., 2018; Kordík
and Kurilovská, 2018; Osipov et al., 2018; Petukhov et al., 2017; Batzilis, 2019). Of particular interest is a study
of China’s experience that measures the impact of anti-corruption efforts on public perceptions of corruption and
trust in government (Zhang et al., 2019; Gulkov et al., 2019). Based on data from twelve Chinese provinces, anti-
corruption efforts, public perceptions of corruption, and government credibility are used as variables in the
empirical framework, and then analyzed with a detailed discussion of the impact of the fight against corruption.
The results show that public perception of corruption affects the attitude to the authority of the government, anti-
corruption efforts mitigate the damage in public confidence in the central government, but do not significantly
reduce the damage in trust to the provincial governments. Based on the results, three political consequences
emerge: (1) anti-corruption efforts should be further improved as an important method of maintaining the health
of the ruling party and as a method of winning public support (Prodanova et al., 2019b; Sharafutdinov et al.,
2019); (2) the government should increase diversification of efforts to curb corruption, introduce innovative anti-
corruption mechanisms (Zhuravlev et al., 2018; Mullins, 2019; Korableva et al., 2019; Ige, 2019; Ilyina et al.,
2019) and increasing public participation in anti-corruption efforts, and (3) measures to combat corruption should
be strengthened.
3. Methods
The study was conducted by a questionnaire survey in various cities of the Republic of Tatarstan. The
questionnaire included 29 questions aimed at studying and analyzing the causes of corruption crimes, the degree
of corruption of officials in various spheres, the public attitude toward corruption, and public assessment of the
measures taken to combat corruption in the Republic of Tatarstan.
Sampling for the questionnaire survey consisted of two stages. At the first stage, four settlements in the Republic
of Tatarstan were selected: Kazan, Naberezhnye Chelny, and Almetyevsk as the largest cities in terms of
population, and for comparison Nizhnekamsk, as the youngest city in the Republic. Then there was a sampling
of respondents based on traditional selection criteria: age and gender, as well as the employment status (student,
employed, unemployed). The pilot survey was conducted in large shopping centers. The method of data collection
was based on the willingness of respondents to independently answer all the questions of an anonymous
questionnaire on the research problem. The collection of survey data made it possible to process and systematize
the information received. In the processing of empirical data, the authors used the methods of typology, ranking,
grouping, and comparative analysis.
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4. Data Collection
The empirical basis of the study was a secondary analysis of research data on corruption and sustainable
development, as well as the results of own sociological research.
The sample survey consisted of 400 respondents aged from 19 to 65 years, including: from 19 to 29 27.5%;
from 30 to 39 23.25%; from 40 to 49 27.75%; over 50 21.5%. Most of the respondents are women
(68.25%). 69% of respondents are employed, 8.5% are in search of a job, 4.25% of respondents are unemployed.
18.25% of survey participants study at educational institutions of the Republic; some of them also combine work
and study.
For half of the participants in the sociological survey (51.5%), corruption is a significant problem, 27.75%
attribute it to extremely acute problems, for 15.75% of respondents this problem is insignificant, and for 5% this
is not a problem at all. Among respondents, 102 people (25.5%) are residents of Kazan, 160 people (40%) live in
Naberezhnye Chelny, 80 respondents (20%) are residents of Nizhnekamsk and 58 (14.5%) live in Almetyevsk.
According to the results of a concrete sociological study, the population classifies as corruption various acts. Most
of the participants consider the following actions: receiving a bribe (92%), giving a bribe (86%); a crime
committed by an official for personal gain in personal interests, in the interests of other persons/organizations
(75%), and any crime committed by an official using his/her official position (74.25%).
The lowest grades of corruption have been received for the following: giving gifts to officials; any crime
committed by an official and provision of any lawful services by an official 9.5%, 6%, and 5%, respectively.
The main goals of giving a bribe to an official are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Opinion of the respondents on the purpose of giving a bribe (%)
The purpose of giving a bribe
%
1) violate the established procedure for resolving issues in their own interests (the desire to circumvent the law)
24,25
2) solve the problem with government representatives in their favor
52
3) escape responsibility for committing wrongdoing
37,75
4) get any help, including illegal (get benefits)
25,25
5) conniving at work (close eyes to improper fulfillment of official duties)
14,5
6) promotion (assistance in rapid advancement on the career ladder)
15,25
7) patronage of service (unreasonable appointment to a higher position)
12,5
8) meet personal needs that are expressed in obtaining certain benefits or benefits
36,75
9) meet the interests of third parties
11,5
10) for the purpose of gratitude to the official unforeseen by law, advance due remuneration for already
committed lawful action in service
15,25
11) for the purpose of remunerating the official after the commission of a specific action (inaction) in favor of
the bribe giver
11
12) for the purpose of bribing (for committing (evading from committing) a particular action in the interests of
the briber)
35
13) Hard to answer
5,25
Source: own research
According to the respondents, the main objectives for which people resort to giving a bribe to an official are the
following:
solving the problem with representatives of public authorities in their favor 52%;
avoiding responsibility for committing unlawful actions 37.75%;
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meeting personal needs, which are expressed in obtaining certain preferences or benefits
36.75%;
committing/evading from committing a particular action in the interests of the briber 35%.
Rarely, people resort to giving a bribe to an official with the goal of satisfying the interests of third parties
(11.5%) and remunerating an official after he/she has committed a certain action (inaction) in favor of the briber
11%.
It should be noted that out of 208 people who indicated a solution to the problem with representatives of state
authorities in their favor, 94 respondents are from Kazan (92.12% of the Kazan sample) and 104 people from
Naberezhnye Chelny (65% of the Naberezhnye Chelny sample).
The main causes of corruption crimes, according to residents of the Republic of Tatarstan, are: insufficient control
over the activities of officials, poorly identifying corruption crimes (52%), insufficient effectiveness of
punishment for corruption crimes (50.75%), imperfect laws, leading to the appearance of officials, using
loopholes for personal gain (31%).
36.25% of respondents believe that the opinion in the team does not matter for the commission of a corruption
offense by an official.
To a large extent, officials agree to bribe because of self-interest (51.5%), confidence that they will go unpunished
(48.25%), insecurity in material well-being in the future (35%), as well as the corruption of the very system of
authorities (30%). The reasons for extortion of a bribe by officials are also largely due to self-interest (62%),
confidence in impunity (52.5%), and difficult financial situation (35.5%).
With regard to anti-corruption measures in the Republic of Tatarstan, it is possible to state a positive attitude of
the population: more than half of respondents believe that giving a bribe (54.5%) can be avoided to solve their
own problems, 28.5% of respondents indicate the need to avoid it. Only 15% of survey participants consider
bribes a necessary part of life.
Meantime, respondents are more convinced (56%) that without a bribe, problems are not solved or are solved with
great difficulties.
5. Data Analysis
The main elements of the analysis were chosen as follows: the attitude of the population toward corruption,
opinions on the level of corruption of various authorities and areas of activity, the presence of corruption
situations in the life of respondents, the attitudes toward publications in the media about corruption, the opinion of
respondents about the effectiveness of measures to combat corruption.
First, it is necessary to analyze the results obtained regarding the attitude of the respondents toward corruption
(see Fig. 1).
Only 44% of respondents show a sharply negative and a negative attitude toward corruption (see Fig. 1). 43%
indicated a tolerant or neutral attitude toward manifestations of corruption, and 7% referred to it positively.
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15,25
28,75
15,75
54,5
7
6
010 20 30 40 50 60
%
hard to answer
positively
neutral
tolerated
negatively
sharply negative
Fig. 1. Attitudes of respondents toward corruption (%)
Source: own research
When assessing the level of corruption of various authorities and spheres of activity, it was found that the
majority of respondents noted the highest degree of corruption in the traffic police (76%), the housing (76.25%),
the prosecutors (75.75%), the public administration (75.25%), and the police (74%) (see Fig. 2).
76,25 76 75,75
75,25
74
70,25 70,25
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
%
housing traffic police
prosecutors public administratio
police health care
municipal service
Fig. 2. The most corrupt areas of activity, according to respondents (%)
Source: own research
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In addition to individual responses, the respondents identified a high level of corruption in the military sphere
(4%) and the Russian Orthodox Church (2.75%). The respondents allowed a low level of corruption in the drug
control bodies (40.75%), the consumer rights protection authorities (40.5%) and the Federal Security Services
(FSB) (29.75%). Some respondents still admit the absence of corruption in the FSB (7.25%), the investigative
bodies (5.25%), in the sphere of culture and sports (4%), the municipal services (3.5%), the prosecutors (3%), the
police (1%), as well as in the economic sphere (0.5%) and the traffic police (0.25%). It should be noted that all
survey participants believe that to one degree or another, corruption is present in the legislative and judicial
bodies and the political sphere. Thus, more than half of the respondents (56.5%) point out a high level of
corruption in the political sphere.
In terms of increasing the social tension of the population, there are also concerns about the results of the fact that
51.75% of respondents assess with a high level of corruption the investigative bodies, 48% the legislative and
registering bodies, 47.5% judicial bodies, a quarter of respondents (26.5% ) indicate a high degree of corruption
in the FSB. A high level of corruption in the business sphere (50.75%), in the tax authorities (46.75%), in the
education (40.75%) and the economic sphere (34.5%) potentially cause the low growth of the Republic’s
economy due to the development of the business environment and entrepreneurial competencies. This state of
affairs hampers the economic development of the territory, thereby reducing its competitiveness. Mostly, when a
crime of corruption is committed, respondents condemn the one who extorts a bribe (52.25%), and 40% equally
condemn all (the extortionist, briber and intermediary).
Over the past 2 years, 339 people out of the number of respondents (84.75%) got into corruption situations, which
were more related to the traffic police (57.42%), healthcare (29.58%), and education (13.34%). Of the 12 people
who refused to give a bribe, the main reason (66.64%) was the “not affordable” amount of the bribe, only one
person said about his principled attitude not to give a bribe. The population believes that publications in the media
about facts of corruption mostly pursue political goals to remove a competitor, an “inconvenient” person, etc.
(93.75%) and clearly aim to create for people a picture of a successful fight against corruption, regardless of its
results (87.25%). Only 6.5% of respondents rated the objectivity of the information in the media about the fight
against corruption at maximum points, and 32.25% of the participants in the survey put the minimum points for
this indicator. This more testifies to the populism of coverage of anti-corruption issues in the media than to the
real picture of the current state of affairs.
From the point of view of survey participants, the most effective measures to combat corruption (maximum
effectiveness of 4-5 points) are the following (see Table 2):
use technical means to openly see the activities of officials 96.25%;
verification of the accuracy and completeness of information on income, property and property obligations
represented by officials, their spouses and minor children 91%;
public control over the activities of officials 90%;
strengthening state control over the activities of officials 88.5%;
criminal prosecution and punishment without any exceptions 88.5%;
toughening criminal penalties for corruption 83.75%;
free access to public services 80.75%;
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formation of intolerance in society towards corrupt behavior 63.25%;
improvement of legislation, effective implementation of existing regulations 60%;
reduction in the number of state and municipal employees 53.25%.
Table 2. The effectiveness of measures to combat corruption, according to respondents (%)
1 point
2 points
3 points
4 points
5 points
10,75
14,25
15
18
42
41,25
22,75
35
1
-
0,25
2
9,25
16
72,5
3,75
3,25
3
14,5
75,5
4,25
4,75
7,25
26
57,75
-
5
53,75
32,75
8,5
1
10,25
25,5
28,75
34,5
3,5
6,25
9,5
30,25
50,5
5
35,75
31
26,25
2
15,25
18,25
24,5
36
6
23
18
5,75
23
30,25
31
40,5
22,5
2
4
3,5
5,25
2,75
12,25
76,25
8,75
9,75
46
17
18,5
0,5
2,5
0,75
45,5
50,75
8
26
60,25
4
1,75
15,25
28,5
51,25
2,25
2,75
1,75
1
6,25
13,25
77,75
Source: own research
The measures of a moderate degree of effectiveness (3 points) in the fight against corruption are the following:
development of institutions of public and parliamentary control over the observance of anti-corruption
regulations 60.25%;
wider coverage of anti-corruption activities in the media 53.75%;
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introduction of qualification requirements for citizens applying for positions of state or municipal service
51.25%.
71.75% of respondents mentioned raising the material and social security of officials, as well as motivation for the
continuous, flawless and efficient performance of duties by an official (64%) as an ineffective measure to combat
corruption.
The majority of respondents are positive about toughening criminal penalties for giving a bribe: 43.5% do not
allow any doubt, and 52.25% are more positive than negative.
Of the economic penalties for corruption crimes, 94.75% of respondents consider confiscation, but not a fine,
effective (see Table 3).
Table 3. The choice by respondents of effective penalties for corruption crimes (%)
Effectiveness of penalties
1 point
2 points
3 points
4 points
5 points
Economic
Confiscation
-
1,75
3,5
15,5
79,25
Penalty
25,75
54,75
19
0,5
-
Imperative
Long imprisonment
-
-
-
9,5
90,5
The death penalty
7
3,5
6,25
8,5
74,75
Source: own research
Among the mandatory measures of punishment, 100% of those surveyed mentioned long-term imprisonment and
83.25% death penalty as the measures having maximum effectiveness. The results show that the population
does not trust the solution of their questions by the authorities and the protest mood of the population, the lack of
tolerance for power and the social tension of the society.
At the same time, answering the question about the acceptability of death penalty for committing a corruption
offense, only 42.25% of the respondents were categorically against the death penalty, because it can become a
way of getting rid of “undesirable” people, and corruption will still flourish.
6. Discussion
When analyzing the data obtained, a contradiction arises: the respondents consider the death penalty to be an
effective punishment, but they show humanism in this connection.
One can see a negative attitude of the population regarding the prospects of fighting corruption in the next 3-5
years 70.25% of respondents believe that the situation is unlikely to change. This may also be due to this reason:
65% or 313 survey participants are not ready to report corruption facts that have become known to them.
Consequently, the population, to a greater extent, places the responsibility for fighting corruption on the
authorities, demonstrating at the same time a low level of readiness to express their citizen stand and report on the
fact of corruption.
Of the 87 people who are ready to report a crime of corruption, 37 people (42.55%) will report to the prosecutor;
33.35% (29 people) to the anti-corruption commission and 24.15% (21 people) to the helpline.
According to the results of the survey, applying to the police, or via e-mail to the law enforcement agencies and to
own leadership does not arouse confidence in the population.
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Table 4. Reasons for keeping silent about the facts of corruption (%)
Why do you think people with certain information do not report corruption?
%
1) consider it useless, still measures will not be taken
43,5
3) it is dangerous not only for them, but also for their loved ones due to possible negative consequences
42,75
2) they do not wish to bother themselves (to appear upon the call of the investigator, etc.)
13,75
4) do not consider it necessary, believing that this will inevitably become known to law enforcement agencies
0
5) difficult to answer
0
Source: own research
Survey participants name two main reasons why they do not report corruption: the futility is 43.5% and the
presence of danger and negative consequences for families 42.75%.
Over the past 2 years, 18 people out of those polled have turned to law enforcement agencies about a corruption
offense.
Fig. 3. Opinion of respondents about the attention shown to them by the law enforcement agencies when addressing the fact of corruption
offense (%)
Source: own research
44% of them (8 people) rated the attention to them rather negatively than positively. 27.5% of respondents (5
persons) were completely satisfied with the attention to solving the problem.
The data on the possibility of exemption from criminal responsibility of participants in a corruption offense were
also of interest. Thus, 87.75% of respondents believe that it is possible to exempt a bribe-giver from criminal
liability in the following cases: existing extortion against him/her by an official; repentance and voluntary
reporting of the incident to the internal affairs bodies (57.75%) and rendering maximum assistance in solving the
crime (54.25%). The population is also quite loyal to the intermediary in a corruption offense and allows
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exemption from criminal liability in cases of active assistance in solving and/or stopping a crime (69.75%) and
voluntarily reporting to the authorized body on mediation in bribery (63.5%).
A categorical “no” about the possibility of exemption from criminal responsibility was chosen by the respondents
for the bribe-taker in cases if an official receives an offer from a briber (76%) and repentance and voluntary
reporting about the incident to the internal affairs bodies (67%).
Thus, there is a duality and ambiguity of the respondents in relation to the various participants in a corruption
offense. This may also be due to the insufficient level of anti-corruption training.
Conclusions
According to the results of the study, it is possible to formulate the following conclusions:
there is an integrative effect of various socio-economic problems on the sustainable development of
territories;
corruption is one of the main social factors impeding the sustainable development of a region.
According to the results of a sociological study of the population in the Republic of Tatarstan, the hypotheses
were confirmed that various manifestations of corruption have a serious impact on the sustainable development of
the region, its economic growth, and hidden social tensions in society. The negative perception of anti-corruption
measures was also confirmed, which confirms the low level of trust and the lack of tolerance of the population
towards the authorities in solving problems of corruption.
The hypothesis of increasing the level of anti-corruption training and anti-corruption behavior of the population of
the Republic of Tatarstan was partially confirmed: on the one hand, a positive change in the public’s attitude to
avoid giving a bribe; on the other hand, the negative attitude of the respondents based on the coverage of anti-
corruption issues in the media, which may be due to populism, rather than presenting a real picture of the current
state of affairs. Further research is needed to identify the relationship between the level of corruption and
indicators of the region’s development effectiveness.
In order to improve the organization of anti-corruption work is proposed:
1. To continue the work on the formation of anti-corruption behavior among the population.
2. Develop mechanisms that provide opportunities to fearlessly report on the facts of corruption crimes and the
protection of persons providing such information.
3. Organize work in the media to form a positive image of law enforcement agencies in the fight against
corruption on a regular basis.
4. To ensure transparency of reporting on the fight against corruption in the law enforcement agencies themselves
and the measures taken, to place information in the public domain.
5. Organize a transparent system of public feedback with the authorities throughout the vertical on issues of
corruption.
6. Ensure a wide and open discussion on the websites of law enforcement agencies and official web pages on the
problems of corruption, survey results, provide the opportunity to leave open reviews without the possibility of
their removal with the creation of the tab “Fact of corruption”.
7. To ensure discussion in the mass media of the role of civil society in the participation of public control in the
field of combating corruption.
8. Develop and implement mechanisms for the use of various public control tools.
9. To ensure the conduct of public control on the basis of continuous analysis of indicators of public anti-
corruption monitoring.
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10. Develop monitoring indicators for assessing the effectiveness of the region’s sustainable development,
incorporating the level of corruption as an indicator of sustainability.
11. Expand the pilot study toolbox to organize and conduct further integrated research together with economists to
identify the correlation of the measured level of corruption with the economic indicators of the region's
development.
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Irina FROLOVA is the PhD (Sociology), Associate Professor, Deputy Director on scientific work Kazan Innovative
University named after V.G. Timiryasov, Kazan, Russia. Research interests: entrepreneurship and regional development;
innovation and small firms; small firm internationalization; sustainability.
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8707-6336
Olga VORONKOVA, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor of management, business organization and innovation
Department, Altai state University. Has the status of an expert of the Eurasian technological platform "Technologies of food
and processing industry of agriculture healthy food". Research interests sustainable development of territories,
innovation, technological and social entrepreneurship, "green" economy.
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3106-4643
Natalia ALEKHINA - Ph.D. of economics, Associate Professor at the Department of regulatory affairs in the sphere of
drugs products and medical devices at Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education I.M. Sechenov
First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Research interests - economics,
macroeconomics, world economy, pharmaceuticals, pharmacoeconomics, medicines, medical devices, regional development,
crisis management, business economics, statistics and analytics.
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-0356-7200
Irina KOVALEVA, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Department of management, Altay State Agrarian University.
Research interests - Development of region and Agricultural brunch, Marketing research, logistics.
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3184 5642
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Natalia PRODANOVA - Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Basic department
Financial Control, Analysis and Audit of the Main Control Department of Moscow, Plekhanov Russian University of
Economics.
Research interests - accounting, integrated reporting, financial control, control and audit in the field of procurement
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0001-5140-2702
Liudmila KASHIRSKAYA, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor of the accounting, analysis and audit department of
the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
Research interests - accounting expertise, state financial control, budgetary establishments, departmental interaction,
efficiency of activity.
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-0234-0223
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