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Abstract

According to recent scientific evidence, Brazil's wildfires are linked to deforestation. The blazes are surging in a pattern typical of forest clearing, along the edges of the agricultural frontiers (Fig. 1). Historical data shows the pattern of events: chainsaws or excavators open the way, then the wildfires, and these are followed by livestock, monoculture, or other forms of economic activity [1]. By August 24th, 2019, Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE) had counted more than 76,000 wildfire spots in the Brazilian Amazon, compared with 22,000 in the same period last year. The Global wildfire Emissions Database project, which includes scientists from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; the University of California, Irvine; and Vrije University in Amsterdam, sees the same trend, although the numbers are slightly higher [1]. The situation, especially ecologically, is critical. Brazil contains about 60% of the Amazon, the largest rainforest in the world. Several million plants, animal and insect species live in the Amazon, in addition to dwellers, and the Amazon acts as an enormous carbon sink that helps to cool global temperatures, of utmost importance in the context of climate change and global warming [2]. Forest wildfires (Fig. 1), in this scenario, release this stored carbon, causing a major impact on health. For example, high air pollution immediately. The long-term impact is more considerable and challenging to estimate. The effects will be determined by the type of change in the ecosystem (landscape, fauna, flora, environment) [3,4]. During the period August 16th-17th, 2019, a group of international experts held a meeting on Zoonoses and One Health, in Pereira, Colombia, under the auspices and networking of the Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases and its Committee on Tropical Medicine, Zoonoses and Travel Medicine. This group has analyzed the situation in Brazil and set a position regarding the potential impact of the 2019 Amazon wildfires (Fig. 1) on vector-borne and zoonotic emerging diseases.

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... South America faces region-specific meteorological challenges through the El Niño-and La Niña-Southern Oscillation, which causes significant variation in climatic conditions that influence wildfires in the Amazon (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Gómez Gómez Peláez et al., 2020;Nawaz and Henze, 2020;Pivello et al., 2021). Moreover, according to the 2018 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), regions in South America are projected to face an increase in environmental health risks linked to warmer and drier conditions due to climate change, which will promote increases in wildfires and drought (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2018, p. 5). ...
... South America faces region-specific meteorological challenges through the El Niño-and La Niña-Southern Oscillation, which causes significant variation in climatic conditions that influence wildfires in the Amazon (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Gómez Gómez Peláez et al., 2020;Nawaz and Henze, 2020;Pivello et al., 2021). Moreover, according to the 2018 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), regions in South America are projected to face an increase in environmental health risks linked to warmer and drier conditions due to climate change, which will promote increases in wildfires and drought (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2018, p. 5). Brazil, which encompasses approximately 60% of the Amazon Basin, is notorious for experiencing wildfire episodes during the Amazonian dry season which occurs from June to November) (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Carmo et al., 2012;United Nations, 2019). ...
... Moreover, according to the 2018 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), regions in South America are projected to face an increase in environmental health risks linked to warmer and drier conditions due to climate change, which will promote increases in wildfires and drought (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2018, p. 5). Brazil, which encompasses approximately 60% of the Amazon Basin, is notorious for experiencing wildfire episodes during the Amazonian dry season which occurs from June to November) (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Carmo et al., 2012;United Nations, 2019). Brazil's wildfire season typically starts in early August and lasts approximately 14 weeks (GFW, 2022). ...
Article
Background: There is currently a scarcity of air pollution epidemiologic data from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to the lack of air quality monitoring in these countries. Additionally, there is limited capacity to assess the health effects of wildfire smoke events in wildfire-prone regions like Brazil's Amazon Basin. Emerging low-cost air quality sensors may have the potential to address these gaps. Objectives: We investigated the potential of PurpleAir PM2.5 sensors for conducting air pollution epidemiologic research leveraging the United States Environmental Protection Agency's United States-wide correction formula for ambient PM2.5. Methods: We obtained raw (uncorrected) PM2.5 concentration and humidity data from a PurpleAir sensor in Rio Branco, Brazil, between 2018 and 2019. Humidity measurements from the PurpleAir sensor were used to correct the PM2.5 concentrations. We established the relationship between ambient PM2.5 (corrected and uncorrected) and daily all-cause respiratory hospitalization in Rio Branco, Brazil, using generalized additive models (GAM) and distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). We used linear regression to assess the relationship between daily PM2.5 concentrations and wildfire reports in Rio Branco during the wildfire seasons of 2018 and 2019. Results: We observed increases in daily respiratory hospitalizations of 5.4% (95%CI: 0.8%, 10.1%) for a 2-day lag and 5.8% (1.5%, 10.2%) for 3-day lag, per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 (corrected values). The effect estimates were attenuated when the uncorrected PM2.5 data was used. The number of reported wildfires explained 10% of daily PM2.5 concentrations during the wildfire season. Discussion: Exposure-response relationships estimated using corrected low-cost air quality sensor data were comparable with relationships estimated using a validated air quality modeling approach. This suggests that correcting low-cost PM2.5 sensor data may mitigate bias attenuation in air pollution epidemiologic studies. Low-cost sensor PM2.5 data could also predict the air quality impacts of wildfires in Brazil's Amazon Basin.
... Bats are the reservoirs for several viruses; hence, the role of bats in the present outbreak cannot be ruled out (140). In a qualitative study conducted for evaluating the zoonotic risk factors among rural communities of southern China, the frequent human-animal interactions along with the low levels of environmental biosecurity were identified as significant risks for the emergence of zoonotic disease in local communities (141,142). ...
... Human-wildlife interactions, which are increasing in the context of climate change (142), are further considered high risk and responsible for the emergence of SARS-CoV. COVID-19 is also suspected of having a similar mode of origin. ...
Article
In recent decades, several new diseases have emerged in different geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola virus, Zika virus, Nipah virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus do not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transmission, the possibility of other routes should not be ruled out. Compared to diseases caused by previously known human CoVs, COVID-19 shows less severe pathogenesis but higher transmission competence, as is evident from the continuously increasing number of confirmed cases globally. Compared to other emerging viruses, such as Ebola virus, avian H7N9, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 has shown relatively low pathogenicity and moderate transmissibility. Codon usage studies suggest that this novel virus has been transferred from an animal source, such as bats. Early diagnosis by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing has facilitated the identification of the pathogen at an early stage. Since no antiviral drug or vaccine exists to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic strategies that are currently being evaluated predominantly stem from previous experience with treating SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other emerging viral diseases. In this review, we address epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects, including perspectives of vaccines and preventive measures that have already been globally recommended to counter this pandemic virus.
... Los coronavirus, singularmente los de tipo beta, son zoonóticos es por ello que una completa vigilancia epidemiológica debería incluir también a los animales ya que son hospedadores susceptibles (6) . Lo último hace parte de las iniciativas de "One Health", que promueve y fomenta el estudio integrado de la salud humana, animal y ambiental (7) . ...
... El enfoque de intervención de COVID-19 debe hacerse bajo la óptica de One Heatlh (7) , esto si se tiene en cuenta que un animal tan importante como el murciélago (24) , tenga pocos estudios de prevalencia para identificar la presencia del SARS-CoV2. Si se fortalece la vigilancia de estos animales podemos intervenir de manera importante, su ocurrencia en la población de humanos susceptibles, esto se puede lograr al entender que este COVID-19 es una enfermedad zoonótica. ...
Article
Full-text available
Los coronavirus (CoV) en sentido amplio son un grupo de virus de ARN de cadena simple con envoltura. Estos pertenecen a la subfamilia Orthocoronavirinae, familia Coronaviridae, en el orden Nidovirales. Se clasifican en cuatro géneros: alfa, beta, gamma y Deltacoronavirus. Los dos primeros pueden infectar al ser humano (1,2). Los CoV son agentes patógenos que pueden ser transmitidos a los animales y al hombre; tienen una distribución mundial (3-5). La infección por CoV en animales particularmente en bovinos, cerdos, perros, entre otros, es conocida desde hace muchas décadas; estos al infectarse pueden presentar diarrea; de modo especial las aves desarrollan compromiso respiratorio semejante a una bronquitis. Los corona-virus, singularmente los de tipo beta, son zoonóticos es por ello que una completa vigilancia epidemiológica debería incluir también a los animales ya que son hospedadores susceptibles (6). Lo último hace parte de las iniciativas de "One Health", que promueve y fomenta el estudio integrado de la salud humana, animal y ambiental (7). En estas patologías virales el papel de la cadena de transmisión animal-humano es de impor-tancia, pero, como se ha observado con varios virus del género Betacoronavirus, también se da una transferencia entre humanos (1,8). En los humanos los CoV pueden originar diferentes enfermedades, desde resfriados frecuen-tes, hasta otras más graves como el síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (causado por el SRAG-CoV) y el síndrome respiratorio del oriente medio (causado por el MERS-CoV) (Figura 1). El SARS fue identificado por primera vez a finales del 2002 en Guangzhou (Guangdong, China), cuando provocó 8.422 casos y 916 muertes en 29 países de los cincos continentes, por consi-guiente, se denominó la primera pandemia del siglo xxi (2,9,10) .
... Múltiples factores como el cambio climático, y otros a nivel regional como las quemas del Amazonas, vienen contribuyendo a la emergenciareemergencia de enfermedades clasificadas como zoonóticas - (Aragón & León, 2009;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Brunn, Fisman, Sargeant, & Greer, 2019;Oromí Durich, 2000;Patz, Graczyk, Geller, & Vittor, 2000;Rodriguez-Morales et al., 2019). Así mismo, a nivel nacional enfermedades comunes a los animales y el hombre, o con reservorios animales, han adquirido proporciones endemoepidémicas (Azhari, 2018;Padilla et al., 2017). ...
... Multiple world known factors such as climate change, and others at the regional level, such as forest burns in the Amazon basin, have been contributing to the emergency-reemergence of diseases classified as zoonotic (Aragón & León, 2009;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Brunn, Fisman, Sargeant, & Greer, 2019;Oromí Durich, 2000;Patz, Graczyk, Geller, & Vittor, 2000;Rodriguez-Morales et al., 2019). Likewise, at the national level, diseases common to animals and man, or with animal reservoirs, have been exposing endemoepidemic patterns (Azhari, 2018;Padilla et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study of captive primates has allowed to determine morphometric parameters and investigate key clinical aspects that have facilitated the generation of strategies in preventive medicine for individuals in ex situ conditions. However, the institutions that host wildlife at the national level have high mortality due to the conglomeration caused by the increase in illicit traffic of native species. According to the previous implications, the identification of more frequent pathologies in Saguinus leucopus primates (Gray Marmoset) of the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center of the East of Caldas (CRFSOC) was carried out. That was possible by an analysis of records from 2006 to 2018, in order to evaluate the medical records of the individuals of this species that were admitted during those 12 years. These species were mainly affected by human activities presented in the environment and resulting the alterations of the landscape or the problems of adaptation to these changes. As the endemism of Saguinus leucopus includes the Caldas region, it makes this specie access frequently to the Rehabilitation Center, which is why it was selected as an object of study through the systematization of medical records. Once the treatment of the information was completed, a research base analyzed by means of descriptive statistics was developed to determine etiological groups, correlation between symptoms and identified pathologies. At the same time, the correlation between sex, biological stage and pathologies that are more frequent was found. As a result, several etiological groups were found. The most representative of which are nutritional and infectious factors, that are directly related to the most frequently identified pathologies and the correlation between the symptoms registered. The most frequent pathologies are intestinal parasitosis, the pathologies associated with poor nutrition and enteropathies, highly correlated with symptoms such as low body condition, depression, abdominal nodules, hirsute fur, among others, that occur in the adult stage on males of gray marmoset.
... Múltiples factores como el cambio climático, y otros a nivel regional como las quemas del Amazonas, vienen contribuyendo a la emergenciareemergencia de enfermedades clasificadas como zoonóticas - (Aragón & León, 2009;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Brunn, Fisman, Sargeant, & Greer, 2019;Oromí Durich, 2000;Patz, Graczyk, Geller, & Vittor, 2000;Rodriguez-Morales et al., 2019). Así mismo, a nivel nacional enfermedades comunes a los animales y el hombre, o con reservorios animales, han adquirido proporciones endemoepidémicas (Azhari, 2018;Padilla et al., 2017). ...
... Multiple world known factors such as climate change, and others at the regional level, such as forest burns in the Amazon basin, have been contributing to the emergency-reemergence of diseases classified as zoonotic (Aragón & León, 2009;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Brunn, Fisman, Sargeant, & Greer, 2019;Oromí Durich, 2000;Patz, Graczyk, Geller, & Vittor, 2000;Rodriguez-Morales et al., 2019). Likewise, at the national level, diseases common to animals and man, or with animal reservoirs, have been exposing endemoepidemic patterns (Azhari, 2018;Padilla et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction. River dolphins (Inia and Sotalia) have evolved in the different aquatic ecosystems associated with such Amazon rivers as Grande, Iténez - Mamoré, Araguaia - Tocantis and Orinoco. They witness the evolution and transformation processes of these regions over several million years, and have become the top predators of aquatic ecosystems. They have exceptionally adapted to the extreme changes that ecosystems experience between the dry and rainy seasons. Moreover, they have conquered the greatest diversity of habitats that not only include the main channels of rivers and tributaries, but also lagoons and flooded forests. (Trujillo and Diazgranados, 2012). Objective. The aim of the work was to study the aspects related to distribution, ecological movement, habitat use and conservation threats for river dolphins (Inia and Sotalia) in South America. Methodology. 35,594 georeferenced records of presence, 19 environmental variables and the MaxEnt algorithm were used to create the distribution models generated for the South American river dolphins. The degree of overlap between the distribution of dolphins and the area of influence of the hydroelectric plants was evaluated in different phases: (i) under construction, ii) in operation, and iii) planned projects. Between 2017 and 2018, satellite transmitters were installed to 24 individuals of the Inia genus in the basins of the Amazonas and Orinoco rivers (Colombia), Juruena and Tapajós (Brazil), San Martín (Bolivia) and Marañón (Peru). Additionally, the presence of mercury in the river dolphins of the genera Inia and Sotalia was studied. Mercury concentrations in muscle tissue samples of 46 individuals were analyzed in the Arauca and Orinoco rivers (Colombia), the Amazon river (Colombia), a tributary of the Iténez river (Bolivia) and the Tapájos river (Brazil). Results. A differential representation of the distribution of river dolphins was found within the protected areas of the region (overlap, which ranges between 4,630 and 18,386 km2). On the other hand, a differential degree of overlap between the areas of influence of the hydroelectric projects and the distribution of river dolphins was verified. The high transformation of the habitat of the recently described I. araguaiaensis (54.9% of its distribution within the area of influence of the hydroelectric projects) was highlighted. The influence areas of already built dams represented the greatest overlap with the distribution of the river dolphins (2,704 and 41,843 km2). The operating hydroelectric plants are currently affecting 19.7% of the dolphins ́ distribution (145,278 / 736,458 km2). The projects under construction inicially will add 91,302 km2 to the affected area. Finally, if planned hydroelectric plants are built and operated, the affected area will expand to 177,744 km2. Under this projected scenery, 56.2% (414,324 km2 / 736,458 km2) of the river dolphins ́ distribution area in South American will to be affected. On average, the transmitters broadcast for 103 days, reporting averages of home ranges of 56.5 km2 with 95% (UD) and maximum movements between locations of 55.7 km. The ranges of concentration of total mercury (Hg) in the muscle tissue of the four taxa sampled were: I. geoffrensis humboldtiana 0.003 - 3.99 mg.kg-1ww (n = 21, Me = 0.4), I. g. geoffrensis 0.1 - 2.6 mg.kg-1ww (n = 15, Me = 0.55), I. boliviensis 0.03 - 0.4 mg.kg-1ww (n = 8, Me = 0.1), and S. fluviatilis 0.1 - 0.87 mg.kg -1ww (n = 2, Me = 0.5). The highest concentration of Hg in this study was obtained in the Orinoco basin, recorded in a juvenile male of I. g. humboldtiana (3.99 mg.kg-1ww). Conclusion: A high intensity of the effects generated by the pressure of anthropogenic origin on the populations of river dolphins in South America is evidenced, leading to the transformation of large areas of their current distribution as well as potential effects at the population level.
... Bats are the reservoirs for several viruses, and hence the role is bats in the present outbreak cannot be ruled out (140). In a qualitative study conducted for evaluating the zoonotic risk factors among the rural communities of southern China, the frequent human-animal interactions along with the low levels of environmental biosecurity were identified as the significant risks for the emergence of zoonotic disease in the local communities (141,142). ...
... The human-wildlife interactions, even more in the context of climate change (142), are further considered high-risk and responsible for the emergence of SARS-CoV. The COVID-19 is also suspected of having a similar mode of origin. ...
Preprint
In the past decades, several new diseases have emerged in new geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola, Zika, Nipah, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection has emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus does not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transmission, the possibility of other routes such as food-borne transmission should not be ruled out. Compared to diseases caused by previously known human CoVs, COVID-19 shows less severe pathogenesis but higher transmission competence, as is evident from the continuously increasing number of confirmed cases globally. Compared to other emerging viruses such as Ebola virus, avian H7N9, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 has shown relatively low pathogenicity and moderate transmissibility. Codon usage studies suggest that this novel virus may have been transferred from an animal source such as bats. Early diagnosis by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing has facilitated the identification of the pathogen at an early stage. Since, no antiviral drug or vaccine exists to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic strategies that are currently being evaluated predominantly stem from previous experience with treating SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other emerging viral diseases. In this review, we address epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects, including perspectives of vaccines and preventive measures that have already been globally recommended.
... 2,3 Changes in the way that people manage land in the tropics and subtropics, where most landscape fires occur, has great potential to alter the prevalence and magnitude of these fires. 1,4,5 Landscape fires adversely affect public health in many ways, such as promoting infectious diseases via ecological effects, 6 causing direct mortality, and destroying homes. The most harmful public health effect of landscape fires is the air pollution, and exposure to toxic fine particles, they produce. ...
... *Deaths per 1000 children. 5 29 These alternative indicators provide different and comple mentary information about the intensity of landscape fire smoke exposure. 30 Data sources for these alternative exposure indicators are explained in the appendix (p 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The prevalence of landscape fires has increased, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the impact of exposure to landscape fire smoke (LFS) on the health of children. Methods We conducted a sibling-matched case-control study and selected 552 155 children (aged <18 years) from Demographic and Health Surveys in 55 LMICs from 2000 to 2014. Each deceased child was matched with their sibling(s). The exposure indicators were fire-sourced PM2·5 and dry-matter emissions. We associated these exposure indicators with child mortality using conditional regressions, and derived an exposure–response function using a non-linear model. Based on the association, we quantified the global burden of fire-attributable child deaths in LMICs from 2000 to 2014. Findings Each 1 μg/m³ increment of fire-sourced PM2·5 was associated with a 2·31% (95% CI 1·50–3·13) increased risk of child mortality. The association was robust to different models. The exposure–response function was superlinear and suggested per-unit exposure to larger fires was more toxic. Based on our non-linear exposure–response function, we estimated that between 2000 and 2014, the five countries with the largest number of child deaths associated with fire-sourced PM2·5 were Nigeria (164 000 [126 000 to 209 000] annual deaths), Democratic Republic of the Congo (126 000 [95% CI 114 000 to 139 000] annual deaths), India (65 900 [−22 200 to 147 000] annual deaths), Uganda (30 200 [24 500 to 36 300] annual deaths), and Indonesia (28 900 [19 100 to 38 400]). Interpretation Exposure to landscape fire smoke contributes substantially to the global burden of child mortality. Funding National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Science and Technology of China, Peking University, UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit, Leverhulme Center for Wildfires, Environment and Society, and National Environment Research Council National Capability funding to National Centre for Earth Observation and Energy Foundation.
... Recently, extreme wildfire events shifted to countries where they were a rare or extraordinary event. They were observed in tropical and temperate rainforests of Brazil in 2019 [1] , Chile in 2014 and 2017 [2] , [3] , Bolivia in 2017 [4] , close to the Arctic circle in Greenland in 2017 and 2019 [5] , [6] , and Sweden in 2014 and 2018 [7] , [8] . In some countries, extreme fires may become a regular event. ...
... NA -data is not available. 1 Number of fires in NSW includes only those attended by the NSW RFS. This does not include all vegetation fires but provides a relative measure of fire activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
2019/20 Australia's bushfire season (Black Summer fires) occurred during a period of record breaking temperatures and extremely low rainfall. To understand the impact of these climatic values we conducted a preliminary analysis of the 2019/20 bushfire season and compared it with the fire seasons between March 2000 and March 2020 in the states of New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, and South Australia (SA). Forest and fire management in Australia were asked to provide data on the number of fires, burned area, life and house loss, as well as weather conditions. By March 2020 Black Summer fires burnt almost 19 million hectares, destroyed over 3,000 houses, and killed 33 people. Data showed that they were unprecedented in terms of impact on all areas. A number of mega-fires occurred in NSW resulting in more burned area than in any fire season during the last 20 years. One of them was the largest recorded forest fire in Australian history. Victoria had a season with the highest number of fires, area burned, and second highest numbers of houses lost for the same period. SA had the highest number of houses lost in the last 20 years. Black Summer fires confirmed existing trends of impact categories during the last two decades for NSW and Victoria. It showed that the smoke from the bushfires may be a significant concern in the future for the global community, as it travels to other countries and continents. Based on preliminary data, it will take many years to restore the economy and infrastructure in impacted areas, and to recover animal and vegetation biodiversity.
... In the environmental context, the impact of climate change and land use, including deforestation and intensive farming practices, should also be analyzed [62]. Disruptions in environmental conditions and habitats can provide new opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 and maybe other CoVs to spillover. ...
... In the case of Latin America such disruptions have been seen especially in the Amazon jungle, an area shared not only with Brazil, but with many other countries in South America, observing the impact on zoonotic and vector-borne diseases and pathogens, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Zika, hantavirus, hemorrhagic viral fevers [62,[65][66][67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing and is currently raging in Latin America [[1], [2], [3], [4]]. In this region (including the Caribbean), up to July 3, 2020, 2,746,277 cases have been reported, more than 2,358,756 of them in South America, and 1,496,858 just in Brazil [5,6]. This, the largest country in the region, have reported 61,884 deaths (4.13%). Mexico, the second largest country, has a higher proportion of deaths, 29,189 out of 238,511 (12.23%). On the other side, Chile, although have reported 288,089 cases, only 6,051 deaths have registered (2.1%) [5,6]. In the case of Venezuela, this a country where doubts about the numbers have been raised. Up to July 3, 2020, 6,273 cases have been reported, but, this number could be underestimated because of under-testing and under-reporting [7]. In the region, there have been clear differences in the responses to the disease, with countries such as Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, among others following wide recommendations of quarantine, physical distance and biosecurity education in an early stage of the pandemic, whilst in others such as Brazil or Mexico, this has been delayed, with very well-known consequences. In Brazil, the poorly-urbanized neighborhoods on the margins of city centers, the so called favelas, are focal points for the disease, with precarious living conditions and high population density making social distancing a near-impossibility [8].one
... As expected, several similarities and differences in the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of SARS, MERS, and COVID have been identified [2][3][4][18][19][20][21] . These are enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses isolated from bats and sharing sequence homology with isolates from humans, indicating those animals are natural hosts and reservoirs 8,[22][23][24][25] . ...
Preprint
Introduction: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) begun in December 2019 in China, causing primary concern. Among raised questions, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews have been published on this matter. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of confirmed cases of COVID-19. All the observational studies, and also case reports, were included. The case reports were analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95%CI. Measures of heterogeneity, including Cochran’s Q statistic, the I2 index, and the τ2 test, were estimated and reported.Results: 660 articles were retrieved. After screening by abstract and title, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 19 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For >656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent clinical manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required ICU, with 32.8% presenting ARDS (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock and 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) with a fatal outcome.Discussion: COVID-19 is a new clinical infectious disease, causing considerable compromise, especially in patients with comorbidities, requiring ICU in at least a fifth of them and sometimes with fatal outcomes. Additional research is needed to elucidate factors that may mediate the pathogenesis of the severe and fatal associated disease.
... El enfoque de intervención de COVID-19 debe hacerse bajo la óptica de One Heatlh (7) , esto si se tiene en cuenta que un animal tan importante como el murciélago (24) , tenga pocos estudios de prevalencia para identificar la presencia del SARS-CoV2. Si se fortalece la vigilancia de estos animales podemos intervenir de manera importante, su ocurrencia en la población de humanos susceptibles, esto se puede lograr al entender que este COVID-19 es una enfermedad zoonótica. ...
... There are some triatomines whose involvement in oral outbreaks is suspected due to sporadic domicile intrusion: Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pallescens, R. pictipes, R. colombiensis and R. prolixus in Colombia (Ramírez et al., 2013a;Soto et al., 2014;Hernández et al., 2016a) P. geniculatus in Venezuela (Carrasco et al., 2005) and Triatoma sordida, P. megistus, T. maculata, R. pictipes and T. brasiliensis in Brazil (Shikanai-Yasuda and Carvalho, 2012; Labello- Barbosa et al., 2019). These triatomines can reach human dwellings attracted by artificial light (Coura, 2015) and their domiciliation is attributed to progressive urbanization due to deforestation (habitat loss), extensive agriculture and monocrops that reduce the reservoirs biodiversity forcing the triatomines to move towards dwellings to find food sources thus generating new epidemiological scenarios (Coura and Viñas, 2010;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Suárez et al., 2018). The majority of oral outbreaks are reported in dry and warm season, because is more likely to find a higher number of triatomines, thus increasing the risk of transmission (Zeledón et al., 2001;Botto-Mahan et al., 2005;Santana et al., 2011;Carrasco et al., 2014;Cantillo-Barraza et al., 2014;Péneau et al., 2016;Di Iorio and Gürtler, 2017). ...
Article
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that lately has been highlighted because several outbreaks attributed to oral transmission of the parasite have occurred. These outbreaks are characterized by high mortality rates and massive infections that cannot be related to other types of transmission such as the vectorial route. Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been reported in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina and French Guiana, most of them are massive oral outbreaks caused by the ingestion of beverages and food contaminated with triatomine feces or parasites’ reservoirs secretions and considered since 2012 as a foodborne disease. In this review, we present the current status and all available data regarding oral transmission of Chagas disease, highlighting its relevance as a veterinary and medical foodborne zoonosis.
... [8][9][10][11]. Structurally, these viruses are positivestrand RNA enveloped viruses isolated from bats that share a high degree of sequence homology with human isolates, suggesting their role as likely natural hosts and reservoirs [4,[12][13][14][15]. The aforementioned raises the issue of the role and implications of animals as natural hosts and reservoirs for these viruses [10,16,17]. ...
Preprint
Introduction: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence, 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). Discussion: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.
... Finalmente, en una zona, fuertemente afectada en los últimos años por el cambio climático, la minería ilegal, y la deforestación, entre otros factores que debilitan la salud ambiental de la región (15), y que se asocian con mayor interacción con la fauna silvestre en nichos ecológicos previamente no invadidos por el ser humano, ecotonos o zonas de transición, donde se puede incrementar el riesgo de zoonosis. En tal sentido, el SARS-CoV-2 es en esencia un virus de origen zoonótico, que parte de murciélagos, pero adicionalmente con otros hospedadores intermediarios que pueden estar involucrados, como el pangolín. ...
Article
Durante el curso de evolución de la Enfermedad por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), causada por el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2), esta pandemia, declarada así por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), se ha dado una relativamente rápida expansión del virus y la enfermedad en múltiples territorios (1-3). Originalmente emergido en Wuhan, China, esta enfermedad se extendió en corto tiempo al resto de ese país, luego a otras naciones de Asia, Europa y Norte América, especialmente Estados Unidos. Pero como era de esperar, llegaría también a otros continentes, como África y América Latina (3-7). En América Latina, esta pandemia llegó el 25 de febrero de 2020, por Brasil procedente de Italia, como sucedió posteriormente con muchos otros países en la región (8-10). Entre estos países, por supuesto también se encuentra Colombia, que a la fecha (30 de mayo de 2020), cuenta ya más de 26 mil casos, con 853 fallecidos (11, 12). El primer caso llegó a Bogotá, el segundo a Buga, Valle del Cauca (8). Y se empezó a extender rápidamente por todo el territorio nacional, afectando ya a 34 departamentos y distritos. Lamentablemente, entre los departamentos más afectados, se encuentra Amazonas. A la fecha contando ya con 1.799 casos, lo cual representa 6.74% del total de casos nacional, pero significando una tasa de incidencia de 22.561 casos por millón de habitantes, es decir 2.256,1 casos/100.00 habitantes (2,25 casos por cada 100 habitantes), lo cual lo posiciona como el 1° departamento del país en incidencia (11). Esto significa además, 20,39 veces mayor incidencia en Amazonas que en Bogotá, la capital del país, que tiene una incidencia de 1.106 casos por millón de habitantes (110,6 casos/100.00 habitantes o 0,11 casos por cada 100 habitantes) (Figura 1). Más allá de ello, el departamento de Amazonas, e incluso Leticia, su capital, tienen un gran vulnerabilidad social, que incluye entre otras cosas, una proporción muy elevada de pobreza multidimensional, en múltiples sectores de la capital departamental, incluso por encima del 50% (Figura 2). Además con una proporción considerable de población a riesgo por edad (sujetos mayores de 60 años de edad) (Figura 3), y un número limitado de centros médicos (Figura 4). Esta zona es además compleja, por ubicarse en una triple frontera, con Brasil y Perú (Figura 2), con población indígena en los tres territorios, dispersa, más allá de las zonas urbanas, y con gran biodiversidad, incluyendo abundante fauna silvestre. Más aún Amazonas, es uno de los cinco departamentos de Colombia aún huérfanos de Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo (UCI). Los otros son Guainía, Guaviare, y Vichada. En Arauca hay cuatro camas de UCI. Ello representa un problema particular que limita la atención de pacientes críticos, que en COVID-19 pueden llegar a ser de 10 a 30% (13), dependiendo de los factores de riesgo. Así las cosas, si bien, mucho otros departamentos parece que no llegarán a colapsar sus UCI (9), como han mostrado algunos análisis, dada su capacidad de camas, y el número de casos que se han presentado. No es esa la situación en Amazonas y en general en la región Amazónica de Colombia. Con todo esto, se plantea además que el COVID-19, trágicamente, también está devastando comunidades indígenas frágiles en la región Pan-Amazónica, incluyendo Brasil, Colombia, Perú, y probablemente Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia y Paraguay, poniendo en riesgo culturas enteras y grupos de población (14). Finalmente, en una zona, fuertemente afectada en los últimos años por el cambio climático, la minería ilegal, y la deforestación, entre otros factores que debilitan la salud ambiental de la región (15), y que se asocian con mayor interacción con la fauna silvestre en nichos ecológicos previamente no invadidos por el ser humano, ecotonos o zonas de transición, donde se puede incrementar el riesgo de zoonosis. En tal sentido, el SARS-CoV-2 es en esencia un virus de origen zoonótico, que parte de murciélagos, pero adicionalmente con otros hospedadores intermediarios que pueden estar involucrados, como el pangolín. Además de ello, la evidencia es creciente en indicar el riesgo de transmisión del ser humano infectado hacia diferentes animales, felinos domésticos y salvajes, en cautiverio, así como visones y también perros, entre otros, lo cual en zonas de mayor interacción humano-animal, generan aún más preocupación (2, 16-19). La llegada del COVID-19 a la Amazonía colombiana está teniendo un gran impacto que demanda gran consciencia en todos los sectores, sanitario y no sanitario, en la investigación y en la sociedad. En ello la mirada desde la iniciativa de One Health o Una Salud, que busca integrar la salud ambiental, animal y humana, es clave, dado que tienen gran relación en esta zoonosis viral (2). El trabajo en equipo multidisciplinario en la prevención y control de esta y otras zoonosis virales, será clave para mitigar el impacto de las mismas (5, 20-22).
... As expected with other coronaviruses, SARS and MERS CoVs share many ecological and zoonotic aspects, as well as several clinical, epidemiological, and management features of the disease [8][9][10][11]. Structurally, these viruses are positive-strand RNA enveloped isolated from bats that share a high degree of sequence homology with human isolates, suggesting their role as likely natural hosts and reservoirs [4,[12][13][14][15]. The aforementioned raises the issue of the role and implications of animals as natural hosts and reservoirs for these viruses [10,16,17]. ...
Article
Introduction: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). Discussion: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.
... Little information is available on the levels of protozoa present in water sources according to temporal and climate variations. The Latin American region is subject to alternating rain and dry seasons; therefore, research is needed to delve into this topic (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Yan et al., 2016). Surveillance programs should be established to determine the presence of cysts and oocysts of Toxoplasma, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Cyclospora in water and soil (Shapiro et al., 2019a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Two zoonotic protozoan pathogens, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii, are important causes of waterborne infections in the Quindío region in Colombia. No previous data exist on how contamination occurs at the source for drinking water consumed by the human population in this region. Our aim was to describe the frequency of G. duodenalis and T. gondii DNA in 11 sampling points during a five-month period in water and adjacent soil at the Quindío River basin (Andean region in the central western part of Colombia). The study employed nested PCR for T. gondii, using the B1 gene as the amplification target, and single-round PCR for G. duodenalis assemblage A and assemblage B, amplifying the gdh gene, followed by DNA sequencing. In 50 soil samples, 28% (14/50) were positive for T. gondii. For G. duodenalis, distribution was in equal parts for assemblage A (8%; 4/50) and assemblage B (8%, 4/50). Genotyping of T. gondii sequences showed two soil samples with type I strain, another two samples of soil with type III strain, but most samples were of unidentified strains. In water samples, T. gondii was detected in 9.1% (5/55), G. duodenalis assemblage A in 34.5% (19/55), and G. duodenalis assemblage B in 12.7% (7/55). T. gondii DNA positivity was associated with lower soil temperature (p = 0.0239). Presence of G. duodenalis and T. gondii was evidenced in soil and water samples in the Quindío River basin, indicating soil as the potential source of contamination for the river that it is destined for human consumption. Monitoring these protozoa in drinking water is necessary to prevent public health risks in human populations.
... As expected, several similarities and differences in the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of SARS, MERS, and COVID have been identified [3][4][5][20][21][22][23]. These are enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses isolated from bats that share sequence homology with isolates from humans, suggesting bats as natural hosts and reservoirs [9,[24][25][26][27]. Although the clinical picture of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 seems to be similar, differences were noted [4,5,21,28] since early reports. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. Methods We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5–92.9%), cough (57.6%, 40.8–74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 10.9–80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0–30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7–51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1–9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2–21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). Conclusion COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of over 13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.
... As expected, several similarities and differences in the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of SARS, MERS, and COVID have been identified [3][4][5][20][21][22][23]. These are enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses isolated from bats that share sequence homology with isolates from humans, suggesting bats as natural hosts and reservoirs [9,[24][25][26][27]. Although the clinical picture of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 seems to be similar, differences were noted [4,5,21,28] since early reports. ...
Preprint
Introduction: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) begun in December 2019 in China, causing a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Among raised questions, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews have been published on this matter. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies, and also case reports, were included and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 660 articles were retrieved (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening by abstract/title, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 19 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), with 32.8% presenting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock and 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients with fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR).Conclusion: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and this group was associated with a CFR of over 13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure, and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.
... It is imperative to prevent the spark (origin at the new place) and spread (transmission between susceptible and infected) risk both to avoid the conversion of COVID-19 epidemic to pandemic and for this purpose rigorous surveillance screening should be done to know-how the pattern of emerging zoonotic epidemics 71,72 . Individual protection and community protection both need to be robust. ...
Article
During December 2019, a novel coronavirus virus (2019-nCov) emerged in China, which posed an International Public Health Emergency in a couple of weeks, and very recently attained the position of a very high-risk category by World Health Organization (WHO). This virus was named the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), and the disease referred to as Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). Till March 8, 2020, the virus has claimed the lives of nearly 3,600 humans out a total of approximately 110,000 confirmed cases affected by this infection. The present editorial is a brief overview highlighting the most salient features and facts with regards to COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection, its causative virus (SARS-CoV-2), the current worldwide scenario, recent developments and currently ongoing progresses to contain and control this disease which have now spread to more than 100 countries across the globe. Of note, worldwide researchers and various health agencies are all together doing their best to halt the spread of this virus and avoid any possible pandemic situation to be faced, which otherwise would threaten the lives of millions of human beings.
... In a broad sense, the integrated health results from the interaction between humans, animals, and the environment, including other living beings, such as the plants. This initiative is of great importance to the extent that we can discuss it in the context of infectious disease ecology, where both animals and the environment have significant relationships and relevance for the occurrence of emerging zoonotic diseases in animals and humans (Dhama et al., 2013;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019). Furthermore, thorough knowledge of the relationships between host, pathogen and environment along with their ecology is crucial to counter infectious pathogens. ...
... Another study conducted in Chile reported that 9.5% of 15,000 bats captured were naturally infected (Escobar et al., 2015). As a of the destruction of natural habitats, closer interaction between bats and humans has grown significantly, especially in mining areas (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019). Rabies transmission primarily occurs via direct bites or scratches from infected bats (Calderon et al., 2019a); secondary transmissions in humans take place through contact with infected pets. ...
Article
Bats have populated earth for approximately 52 million years, serving as natural reservoirs for a variety of viruses through the course of evolution. Transmission of highly pathogenic viruses from bats has been suspected and linked to a spectrum of emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Examples of such viruses include Marburg, Ebola, Nipah, Hendra, Influenza A, Dengue, Equine Encephalitis viruses, Lyssaviruses, Madariaga and Coronaviruses, involving the now pandemic Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the diversity, reservoirs, and geographical distribution of the main bat viruses and their potential for cross-species transmission.
... Under rapid ongoing global change, a proper understanding of the links between the environment, animal movement and social behaviour will be crucial for understanding how disruptions and natural disasters such as fires, floods and hurricanes will impact wildlife disease . Studies have already connected ongoing ecological tragedies such as fire with animal movement and one health consequence (Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019), and spatial-social analysis is set to be an invaluable tool for anticipating and combatting their effects. Popularising these methods will increase the breadth, flexibility and reliability of network analyses of disease ecology, offering new and exciting insights that may ultimately bolster the strength of our interventions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social network analysis has achieved remarkable popularity in disease ecology, and is sometimes carried out without investigating spatial heterogeneity. Many investigations into sociality and disease may nevertheless be subject to cryptic spatial variation, so ignoring spatial processes can limit inference regarding disease dynamics. Disease analyses can gain breadth, power, and reliability from incorporating both spatial and social behavioural data. However, the tools for collecting and analysing these data simultaneously can be complex and unintuitive, and it is often unclear when spatial variation must be accounted for. These difficulties contribute to the scarcity of simultaneous spatial-social network analyses in disease ecology thus far. Here, we detail scenarios in disease ecology that benefit from spatial-social analysis. We describe procedures for simultaneous collection of both spatial and social data, and we outline statistical approaches that can control for and estimate spatial-social covariance in disease ecology analyses. We hope disease researchers will expand social network analyses to more often include spatial components and questions. These measures will increase the scope of such analyses, allowing more accurate model estimates, better inference of transmission modes, susceptibility effects and contact scaling patterns, and ultimately more effective disease interventions.
... En los campamentos humanos provisorios o semipermanentes, se incrementa el riesgo de LC por hacinamiento, exposición en bosques riparios y el nivel de analfabetismo (30,31). Este es un conglomerado con escenarios epidemiológicos muy dinámicos, que requieren monitoreo continuo debido al cambio masivo del uso de la tierra, el crecimiento de ciudades colindantes con la selva y los incendios a gran escala, lo que genera presión para la dispersión y adaptación del ciclo de transmisión de la LC a ambientes antropizados (32,33). En el conglomerado Andino, las barreras físicas y las diferencias de altitud generan gran heterogeneidad de ecosistemas en áreas bastante reducidas, que resultan en la variedad de parásitos, vectores y reservorios asociadas a este conglomerado. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. Determine and characterize potential risk areas for the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Latin America (LA). Method. Ecological observational study with observation units defined by municipalities with CL transmission between 2014-2018. Environmental and socioeconomic variables available for at least 85% of the municipalities were used, combined in a single database, utilizing the R software. The principal component analysis methodology was combined with a hierarchical cluster analysis to group clusters of municipalities based on their similarity. The V-test was estimated to define the positive or negative association of the variables with the clusters and separation by natural breaks was used to determine which ones contributed the most to each cluster. Information on cases was also incorporated in the analyses to attribute CL risk for each cluster. Results. This study included 4,951 municipalities with CL transmission (36.5% of the total in LA) and seven clusters were defined by their association with 18 environmental and socioeconomic variables. The historical risk of CL is positively associated with the Amazonian, Andean and Savannah clusters in a decreasingly manner; and negatively associated with the Forest evergreen, Forest/crop and Forest/populated clusters. The Agricultural cluster did not reveal any association with the CL cases. Conclusions. The study made it possible to identify and characterize the CL risk by clusters of municipalities and to recognize the epidemiological distribution pattern of transmission, which provides managers with better information for intersectoral interventions to control CL.
... In the last three decades tuxtla Gutiérrez has experienced significant growth of the urban area, leading to changes in land use 21 . Also, recent wildfires in the Mactumatzá Hill may be changing the habitat and behaviours of the specie 22 , inciting bug dispersion and shifting preferred blood-feeding sources. the loss of conserved areas increases the likelihood of the vector coming into contact with humans 23 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The recently described Triatoma huehuetenanguensis, has been reported in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras. In Mexico, the species has been collected primarily in rural areas; it has the potential to colonize human dwellings, however, its contribution to Chagas outbreaks remains unclear. In 2021, T. huehuetenanguensis was first observed at Tuxtla Gutierrez city, Chiapas; then a collection for the species was performed. A total of 308 houses were inspected in the intra and peridomestic structures. Only 3 houses (0.97%) were infested. Triatoma huehuetenangensis was the only triatomine specie recorded and four males were collected. None of the bugs tested positive for Trypanosoma infection. We do not have evidence to suggest that urban human-vector contact still limited, and a possible domestication process is possible. The presence of reservoirs, the vector species and the parasite demonstrate that Tuxtla Gutierrez could be at risk of a Chagas disease outbreak.
... Incêndios são eventos que ganham maior visibilidade quando atingem as proximidades de áreas urbanas, mas acontecem quase que constantemente em paisagens distantes das vistas cosmopolitas. Em 2019, mais de 76.000 pontos de incêndios florestais foram oficialmente contabilizados apenas na floresta amazônica brasileira (BONILLA-ALDANA et al., 2019). Quatro anos antes, cerca de 10 milhões de acres foram queimados nos Estados Unidos (WOLTERS, 2019). ...
... Both animals and the environment have considerable relationships for the occurrence of emerging zoonotic diseases in animals and humans (Bonilla, Suarez, Franco, and Vilcarromero 2019). There is a wide range of infectious diseases within zoonotic diseases, caused by parasitic, fungal, viral, and bacterial. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Chinese government at the end of 2019, informed the World Health Organization (WHO) that many cases of uncommon etiology pneumonia have been investigated in the Hunan seafood market and infected more than fifty persons. This seafood market sold snakes, bats, frogs, birds, marmots, and many other animals. On 12 January 2020, the National Health Commission of China released information concerning this outbreak, proposed that the causative agent of pneumonia is viral. However, depending on the genetic sequence and the sequence-based analysis of specimens of the infected patients, the diagnosed virus was named Coronavirus. WHO officially stated on 30 January 2020, that the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak as an international health emergency was rapidly extended throughout China. Europe has also become a new epicenter of COVID-19. These cases have been spread across the world with the worst situations reported in Italy. As per the WHO report on March 17, 2020, the cases outside China have exceeded. However, investigations revealed that this viral disease could be transmitted from human to human. Meanwhile the common symptoms of this viral disease involved, sore throat, fever, fatigue, cough with shortness of breathing. The greatest cases showed mild symptoms, while other cases exhibit progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure particularly in patients suffering from underlying diseases and the elderly.
... Múltiples factores como el cambio climático, y otros a nivel regional como las quemas del Amazonas, vienen contribuyendo a la emergenciareemergencia de enfermedades clasificadas como zoonóticas - (Aragón & León, 2009;Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2019;Brunn, Fisman, Sargeant, & Greer, 2019;Oromí Durich, 2000;Patz, Graczyk, Geller, & Vittor, 2000;Rodriguez-Morales et al., 2019). Así mismo, a nivel nacional enfermedades comunes a los animales y el hombre, o con reservorios animales, han adquirido proporciones endemoepidémicas (Azhari, 2018;Padilla et al., 2017). ...
Research
Full-text available
the objective of this research focused on the development of anatomical structures of wildlife using 3D modeling and printing, based on the Monkey Titi ́s bone structures from Caquetá (Plecturocebus Caquetensis), described according to the terminology of the Veterinary Anatomical Payroll (ICVGAN, 2017). That was made in order to encourage the teaching-learning processes in Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, information and material that are not available in many places worldwide. In the generation of 3D models, a skull perfectly treated by the INBIANAM Andean Amazon Biodiversity Research Center was proceeded to work with. This bone structure went through a process of acquiring multiple images that were edited and processed by A3D reconstruction software. It allowed exporting a file in STL format with the geometry of the object, so that it was possible to replicate the digital figure in a physical one, with the help of a 3D printer reference Anet A8.The ABS filament, mainly known for its resistance to low temperatures and its light weight was used. This material was used above in the development of synthetic replicas based on acceptable 3D models within the academic and scientific world
... It is crucial to avoid the possibility of spark (originating at the new site) and spread (transmission between susceptible and infected). Both to prevent the transformation of the COVID-19 outbreak into a pandemic and, for this reason, intensive monitoring should determine the trend of emerging zoonotic epidemics [51,52]. The protection of individuals and the community must both be robust. ...
... It is crucial to avoid the possibility of spark (originating at the new site) and spread (transmission between susceptible and infected). Both to prevent the transformation of the COVID-19 outbreak into a pandemic and, for this reason, intensive monitoring should determine the trend of emerging zoonotic epidemics [51,52]. The protection of individuals and the community must both be robust. ...
Article
Full-text available
A novel coronavirus virus (2019-nCov) emerged in China in December 2019, which posed an International Public Health Emergency in a couple of weeks, and very recently entered World Health Organization (WHO) status as a very high-risk group. The International Committee on Virus Taxonomy (ICTV) called this virus the Extreme Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease is known as Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 caused nearly 1,913,391 individuals, out of a total of around 88,861,041 confi rmed cases affected by this infection until January 8, 2021. This edition offers a brief overview of the most outstanding features and information about the emerging coronavirus infection, the present worldwide scenario and mechanism of illness, replication and dissemination, as well as ongoing progress in the control and management of this disease, which has now spread to more than 100 countries around the world. Note that researchers worldwide and various health agencies are all working together to stop the spread of this virus and avoid any possible pandemic situation that would otherwise endanger millions of people’s lives.
... We are "living on the edge", the edge of neglect and of a surge of many emerging infectious diseases with no hope for resolution in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, "it sure ain't no surprise" that poverty, inequality, climate change, deforestation, migration, urbanization, wildlife trade, among many other factors, have all contributed to the emergence of novel tropical diseases and the resurgence of other endemic diseases (171). There is no spare place for the arrival of emerging pathogens, and over time pathogens tend to adapt to new environments leading to unforeseen consequences. ...
Article
Emerging diseases have significantly marked the last few decades (1-10). The emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Africa, Asia, and Latin America which have reshaped these continents' the epidemiological landscape of these continents. The impact of these diseases, the establishment of local transmission in traditionally non-endemic areas, due to migration and travel, have been revealed over the last years. Diseases such as Chikungunya (11-16), Zika (17-24), Yellow Fever (25-28), Dengue (29-33), Oropouche, Madre de Dios virus, Iquitos virus (34, 35), Mayaro Fever (36, 37), Ebola (38-42), Nipah virus, arenaviruses such as Lassa (43), Machupo (44, 45), Chapare (45, 46), Junin (47), zoonotic Malaria (48), Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (49), Plague (50), Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Acute Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease (51-54), Visceral and Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (55, 56), Toxoplasmosis (57-59), Tick-Borne Diseases (60, 61), Rift Valley Fever, Tuberculosis (62), Leprosy (63-67), Avian Influenza (68-70), Orthohantavirus (71-75), and Toxocariasis (76, 77), have posed a significant impact to human health. Furthermore, zoonotic epidemics and pandemic coronaviruses, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) (78-82), and the ongoing SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 (83, 84) pandemic have caused a profound economical and social disruption threatening to overwhelm public health systems globally (85). Most of these pathogens can even cocirculate and coinfect a significant proportion of inhabitants within the same territories (11, 86-93). For example, in arboviral diseases, the occurrence of coinfections has been widely reported –Dengue with Chikungunya and/or with Zika virus– also affects diverse populations, including for example pregnant women and immunocompromised patients (93-96). This may obscure clinical suspicion, as signs and symptoms for many of these pathogens may overlap. In endemic areas, this becomes a particularly pressing issue that must be taken into account in order to ensure accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate management. The ChikDenMaZika syndrome has been previously adopted as a mnemonic device to include Chikungunya, Dengue, Mayaro, and Zika in the broad differential of acute febrile illnesses due to arboviral agents (94). More recently, emerging coinfections, including bacterial and parasitic diseases, such as tuberculosis and Chagas disease, have also been reported (97).
... Unfortunately, factors such as climate change represents a major negative factor that could potentially favor the spread of malaria-to-malaria-free areas [9, [35][36][37][38][39][40]. Mass deforestation, landscape change, wildfires, and other anthropogenic threats [41] influence the distribution of vector-borne diseases such as malaria [42]. Furthermore, the etiological agents of human malaria have been already detected in non-human primates, especially in Asia [17,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50], but also in LAC, particularly in Brazil [51][52][53] illustrating the risk of humans amplifying the spread of malaria to animal species. ...
Chapter
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Malaria has been a major parasitic disease affecting humankind over centuries, with a disproportionate impact among populations, regions of the world and living conditions [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Caused by five well-accepted species, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi [6] malaria remains a global public health threat due to multiple reasons [7, 8] including biological, social and climatic factors [3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13] influencing the distribution of Anopheles vectors, especially A. darlingi in the Americas [14, 15]. There is an ongoing debate regarding the potential role of Plasmodium cynomolgi as the sixth etiological species of human malaria [16, 17]. The etiological diagnosis and the epidemiological and clinical management of malaria remains a major challenge in many settings, populations, and during specific clinical scenarios including cases of severe malaria in travelers [18, 19, 20].
... We have the fault. These events are linked to disordered human development and their conse-quences, as the anthropogenic impacts on the environment, led to climate change (15). We are responsible for this situation. ...
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Over the last decades, zoonoses have increased in number and magnitude (1, 2). For a long time, the aetiology of infections transmitted between animals and humans has been diverse, including multiple organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and even prions (3-6). The turnover of recent events has led to multiple pathogens jump from animals and humans and cause infection, disease and even death (7, 8). Many of them previously did not affect humans (9). Then, the spillover is a genuine threatening concern that is also associated with emerging epidemics and pandemics, such as those recently affecting globally, as occurred with Swine A H1N1 Influenza in 2009 or the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), that has led to the most significant social disruption in over the last century, only compared with the 1918 H1N1 Influenza pandemic (5, 10, 11). COVID-19 has affected more than 182 million people globally, causing almost four million deaths (June 30, 2021). Most of this, not saying probably all, is due to human actions (12-14). We have the fault. These events are linked to disordered human development and their consequences, as the anthropogenic impacts on the environment, led to climate change (15). We are responsible for this situation. As it was wisely stated by a fictional character of the Netflix's series Dark (16) the Stranger: "In the end, we will all get just what we deserve", and as another character in that acclaimed series said: "Things only change when we change them. But you have to do it" (Mikkel Nielsen). That means we need to change the course of the events actively. Unbalanced and vulnerable social and environmental issues that are prone, or multiple risk factors, eventually led to emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. As occur with many tropical diseases, and global public health threats, the determinants are especially social and environmental (17-19). Zoonoses are indeed socio-environmental diseases (20). Among zoonoses, many of them, such as Ebola, rabies, multiple viral haemorrhagic fevers, have a high case fatality rate (5, 17-19). How to avoid this in the near future? How to arrest a Dark future? A future where multiple scenarios or realities may become the worst nightmares of microbe hunters, physicians, veterinarians, and other infectious diseases. Maybe is not too late, but education on these topics, substantial investment in research, enhanced human-animal-environment interfaces surveillance with a One Health approach, as well as better diagnostic approaches (multiplex) and therapeutics and vaccines, are urgently needed to avoid a near-apocalyptic future (20-24). "There are moments when we must understand that the decisions we make influence more than just our own fate" (Claudia Tiedemann character)(16). We need to make the right decisions right now, on all levels, locally, nationally, regionally and globally. A multidisciplinary approach must prevail in all the public policies that should address the concerns of zoonotic diseases, known and unknown. There are no reasons to consider that we will not witness more spillovers and new zoonoses in the future. Recently, with alpha and delta coronaviruses, new potential zoonoses, in addition to COVID-19, have been reported from canine and swine species in humans, respectively, in Malaysia and Haiti, in reports published in 2021, but corresponding with samples of patients in 2017-2018 and 2014-2015, respectively. Then, research on coronavirus beyond COVID-19 is needed not only in those countries but globally (25, 26). With COVID-19, not only animal to human transmission occur, but the opposite. Studies have shown that even in Latin America, especially domestic cats may become infected from humans with COVID-19 (27). Human-to-cat transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries and continents (28, 29). Other domestic animals, such as dogs, are also affected (30, 31). In other settings, such as farms, minks have become among the most frequently infected animals, and the COVID-19 pandemic has led to devastating animal and economic losses, especially in Europe (31). Wildlife, domestic animals and pets are susceptible and suffering from these spillovers from humans to animals during the COVID-19 pandemic (33, 34). At the same time, interactions between pathogens have also led to coinfections, including those with COVID-19, such as dengue and less considered viral pathogens, such as Lassa (35, 36). With viruses previously considered more anthroponotic, such as dengue, growing evidence indicates multiple animals may serve as reservoirs, implying potential zoonotic cycles in some ecological sites (37). "But it ain’t the end of the world" (George Segal and Blu Mankuma song played in the Roland Emmerich’s film 2012, 38), yet, nevertheless we need to work on this in multiple ways and improve our world, reset the suitable balance between human, animal and environmental health, and make the development ecologically-friendly and sustainable as ideally desired.
... En los campamentos humanos provisorios o semipermanentes, se incrementa el riesgo de LC por hacinamiento, exposición en bosques riparios y el nivel de analfabetismo (30,31). Este es un conglomerado con escenarios epidemiológicos muy dinámicos, que requieren monitoreo continuo debido al cambio masivo del uso de la tierra, el crecimiento de ciudades colindantes con la selva y los incendios a gran escala, lo que genera presión para la dispersión y adaptación del ciclo de transmisión de la LC a ambientes antropizados (32,33). En el conglomerado Andino, las barreras físicas y las diferencias de altitud generan gran heterogeneidad de ecosistemas en áreas bastante reducidas, que resultan en la variedad de parásitos, vectores y reservorios asociadas a este conglomerado. ...
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Objetivo. Determinar y caracterizar áreas de riesgo potencial de la ocurrencia de leishmaniasis cutánea (LC) en América Latina (AL). Método. Estudio observacional ecológico con unidades de observación definidas por municipios con transmisión de LC entre 2014-2018. Se utilizaron variables medioambientales y socioeconómicas disponibles para al menos 85% de los municipios, combinados en una sola base de datos, a través del software R. Se combinó la metodología de análisis de componentes principales con un análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos para la formación de conglomerados de municipios en función de su similitud. Se estimó el V-test para definir la asociación positiva o negativa de las variables con los conglomerados y separación por divisiones naturales para determinar cuáles contribuyeron más a cada conglomerado. Se incorporaron los casos para atribuir el riesgo de LC para cada conglomerado. Resultados. Se incluyeron en el estudio 4 951 municipios con transmisión de LC (36,5% del total en AL) y se definieron siete conglomerados por su asociación con 18 variables medioambientales y socioeconómicas. El riesgo histórico de LC se asocia de manera positiva y en forma decreciente con los conglomerados Amazónico, Andino y Sabana; y de manera negativa con los conglomerados Boscoso/perenne, Boscoso/cultivo y Boscoso/poblado. El conglomerado Agrícola no reveló ninguna asociación con los casos de LC. Conclusiones. El estudio permitió identificar y caracterizar el riesgo de LC por conglomerados de municipios y conocer el patrón propio epidemiológico de distribución de la transmisión, lo que proporciona a los gestores una mejor información para las intervenciones intersectoriales para el control de la LC.
... Due to deforestation, economic development, and climate change, an increase in human interactions with these zoonotic hosts is expected; thus, knowledge of the natural and intermediate reservoirs of this virus can help us control and prevent related infectious diseases in humans, avoiding possible epidemics in the future (Wong et al. 2020;Bonilla-Aldana et al. 2019). Besides, a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach must be adopted globally to achieve the best possible health outcomes for people, animals, plants, and their shared environment (Bonilla-Aldana et al. 2020c). ...
Chapter
Coronaviruses are eminently present in animals since they were discovered over half a century ago. In 2002 and 2012 two major zoonotic emerging epidemics occurred in Asia, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China, and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), in Saudi Arabia, both extended to other countries in the regions and beyond. In 2019 the SARS-CoV-2 and the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) begun to be apparent due to the first epidemic in Wuhan, China. All of them had a zoonotic origin, in the first two, clearer, than the current pandemic virus. In the current chapter, we discuss and explore a different point of views regarding the COVID-19 and the roles of zoonotic spillover, based on the available evidence, still on developing (March 2021).
... Indeed, more studies are required, especially from some areas of the world, as is the case of Africa and Latin America, where although significantly affected by millions of cases, still have not developed a significant number of studies in the One Health interphases of human, animal and environmental health in the context of coronaviruses such as the SARS-CoV-2 [54][55][56]. In countries such as Brazil and Mexico, with a vast jungle threated by often anthropogenic wildfires, experts are concerned about the SARS-CoV-2, and other new coronaviruses may emerge from wild animals [57][58][59][60][61][62]. There is a consensus that the question is not "if" novel zoonotic viruses will rise but "when" [62]. ...
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In recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique and country. We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess coronavirus (CoV) infection in bats and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We carried out random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In all, 824 articles were retrieved (1960-2021). After screening by abstract/title, 43 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of these, 33 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From the total of studies, the pool prevalence by RT-PCR (n=14,295 bats) for CoV was 9.8% (95% CI 8.7-10.9%); Italy reported the highest pooled prevalence (44.9%, 95% CI 31.6-58.1%), followed by the Philippines (29.6%). Regarding the ELISA, the pool prevalence for coronavirus from 15 studies, including 359 bats, was 30.2% (95% CI 14.7-45.6%). The results for coronaviruses with the MIF were significantly lower, 2.6% (95% CI 1.5-3.7%). A considerable proportion of infected bats tested positive, particularly by molecular tests. This essential condition highlights the relevance of bats and the need for future studies to detail their role as potential reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2. In this meta-analysis, bats were positive in almost 10% by RT-PCR, suggesting their relevance and the need to understand their potential participation in maintaining wild zoonotic transmission.
... Some factors associated with the increase of VL cases in endemic areas include internal (nationwide) displacement, forced migration of susceptible hosts into endemic areas, and disturbance of sandfly habitats (e.g. deforestation, climate change) [14][15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans in different tropical and subtropical regions and even beyond, with variable prevalence among infected hosts. To date, there have been no systematic reviews on human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence in Latin America. We therefore performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using six databases to assess prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in human patients in Latin American countries. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). In all, 10,435 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1950-2019). After initial screening, 120 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 97 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Overall, VL pooled prevalence was estimated at 38.8% (95% CI 33.8-43.8%), derived from 97 studies, including 44,986 individuals. Many aspects of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania and the exact burden of this parasitosis on public health remain largely unknown. Although the elimination of zoonotic VL in the Americas appears an unrealistic goal, additional efforts need to be put in place to achieve better diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VL.
Preprint
Introduction: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalences and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence, 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). Discussion: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), an essential condition that highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.
Chapter
This chapter proposes that one mechanism by which positive peace could be achieved is the integration of grassroots environmentalism in academic settings. It is suggested that increasing student involvement in bettering their schools and acknowledging youth as valuable allies in the discussion regarding climate change results in more efficient climate action and an increase in the life satisfaction of students. This mechanism facilitates accessibility to a sustainable lifestyle for all students regardless of socioeconomic background.
Preprint
In the past decades, several new diseases have emerged in new geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola, Zika, Nipah, and coronaviruses (CoV). Recently, a new type of viral infection has emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus does not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transmission, the possibility of other routes such as food-borne transmission should not be ruled out. Compared to diseases caused by previously known human CoVs, COVID-19 shows a less severe pathogenesis but higher transmission competence, as is evident from the continuously increasing number of confirmed cases. Compared to other emerging viruses such as Ebola virus, avian H7N9, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 has shown relatively low pathogenicity and moderate transmissibility Codon usage studies suggest that this novel virus may have been transferred from an animal source such as bats. Early diagnosis by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing has facilitated the identification of the pathogen at an early stage. Since no antiviral drug or vaccine exists to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2, potential therapeutic strategies that are currently being evaluated predominantly stem from previous experience with treating SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other emerging viral diseases. In this review, we address epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects, including perspectives of vaccines and preventive measures that have already been globally recommended.
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Coronaviruses (CoVs) belong to a large family (Coronaviridae), have a global distribution, and cause respiratory and intestinal infections in animals, birds, and humans. Usually, these viruses cause common cold, which is typically mild in humans, although rarer forms such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome can be lethal. CoVs cause an upper respiratory disease in chickens, but diarrhea in cows and pigs. The newly emerging pandemic, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (nSARS-CoV-2), which first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and thereafter spread throughout the globe and declared as a pandemic disease by the World Health Organization. It has been postulated that the virus was transmitted to humans from bats through an evolutionary process termed as ‘host jump’, resulting in a cross talk about animal-human interface and zoonotic links of nSARS-CoV-2 and urging an intensive investigation of the involvement of animals or birds. Later, several animals such as dogs, cats, tigers, pangolins, ferrets, and minks were found to be naturally infected with nSARS-CoV-2. Additionally, laboratory animals such as mice, ferrets, and monkeys were successfully infected with the virus. Animal CoVs share some common features with nSARS-CoV-2. Although nSARS-CoV-2 is of animal origin, the roles of animals in the course of the pandemic are still elusive. This chapter discusses the predicted roles of animals in the COVID-19 pandemic, along with comparisons of nSARS-CoV-2 with other animal CoVs.
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Introdução planeta passa por diferentes crises que se entrelaçam na dimensão am-biental, econômica, de saúde, e são agravadas pela crise de governança. Mas tantas crises simultâneas também oferecem à humanidade a rara oportunidade de redirecionar seus esforços de desenvolvimento para um modelo que seja mais sustentável, com menor utilização de combustíveis fósseis e uma utilização menos predatória dos recursos naturais (Pons et al., 2020; Settele et al., 2020). Vivemos a crise aguda causada pela epidemia do coronavírus, exemplo de uma crise no sistema de saúde, com fortes reflexos na economia e que tem como origem a crise ambiental. Sua solução, o desenvolvimento de uma vacina, ocorrerá, na melhor das hipóteses, apenas em 2021 (Le et al., 2020). Conside-rando experiências anteriores, a expectativa na área médica é de que a produção e distribuição em grande escala e disponibilidade de uma vacina para os países em desenvolvimento é algo que poderá demorar de um a três anos, segundo ad-mite a própria Organização Mundial da Saúde (Le et al., 2020). Paralelamente, o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos para o tratamento da doença pode tornar possível a convivência com o vírus causador da Covid-19 (Clososki et al., 2020). Vivemos a crônica crise climática que já vem demostrando seus efeitos e cuja solução deve demorar mais de um século, se conseguirmos de fato diminuir gradativa e continuamente as emissões de gases de efeito estufa (Ripple et al., 2019). De fato, o desejável seria uma rápida descarbonização das economias globais, compatível com os compromissos das Nações no Acordo do Clima de Paris de 2015, o que parece cada vez mais incerto (Fears et al., 2020). E vivemos a crise da biodiversidade, para a qual não há solução conhecida, uma vez que a extinção de uma espécie é irreversível. Mas cujos efeitos podem ser mitigados se lograrmos diminuir a força dos vetores que têm intensificado continuamente a velocidade na qual estas espécies se extinguem. E, desta forma, evitarmos o colapso dos serviços ecossistêmicos imprescindíveis para a sobrevi-vência da humanidade (IPBES 2019a; CBD, 2020). É mais difícil para alguns entender um vínculo entre biodiversidade e servi-ços ecossistêmicos, por conta do que passou a ser conhecido como "paradoxo da Pandemia, biodiversidade, mudanças globais e bem-estar humano
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Over the year 2020, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) impact, caused by the Severe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, has been highly significant in the world. As expected, resource-constrained areas of the world, as is the case of Latin America, have been more affected given their previous epidemiological context, health care systems, and socioeconomic conditions. In this chapter the main epidemiological features of the COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic in this region are revised.
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The 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) continues to expand worldwide. Although the number of cases and the death rate among children and adolescents are reported to be low compared to adults, limited data have been reported. We urgently need to find treatment and vaccine to stop the epidemic. Vaccine development is in progress, but any approved and effective vaccine for COVID-19 is at least 12 to 18 months. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have issued instructions and strategies for containing COVID-19 outbreak to the general public, physicians, travelers and injured patients to follow so that the transmission to a healthy population can be prevented. In this review, we summarize demographic data, clinical characteristics, complications and outcomes and finally prevention and control of this serious pandemic.
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ABSTRACT A review of last three decades on leishmaniasis in Bolivia is presented. Between 1983 and 2015, it has been reported 54540 cases of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), 46406 cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), 8100 Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL), 5 Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (DCL), and 56 Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Most of the patients came from the Amazon river basin (97.9%) while the rest from Rio de la Plata’s basin. Native cases and municipalities with natural transmission sources have increased from 80 municipalities in 2000 to 91 on 2007 and 95 on 2014; increasing from five to seven endemic states. Clinical epidemiological characteristics are similar in Argentina, Perú and Brasil in the border areas; and Bolivian municipalities with Perú and Brasil have higher prevalence. Seven of 121 registered Phlebotominae species are incriminated in the transmission of six Leishmania types circulating the country in a new scenario with autochthonous cases more dispersed in time and space, with multiple cultural patterns in at least 15 eco-regions that vary from 170 to 2700 meters. The under-reporting of cases and the lack of medication has deepened over this last decade; diagnosis is rudiment
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IN 1999, MORE THAN 5 MILLION HECTARES OF THE AMAZON AREA (BORDER WITH BRAZIL) WERE BURNED TO UNDERTAKE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, THE MIGRATION OF ANDEAN POPULATIONS IN A SCENARIO WHICH THE HEALTH SYSTEM IS PRECARIOUS, WE PRESUMED TO HAVE A HEALTH SYSTEM THAT IS DEEMED TO BRING BY VECTORS AND ZOONOSIS.
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Natural infection of dengue virus (DENV) in bats is an unexplored field in Colombia. To detect the presence of DENV in bats, a descriptive prospective study using a nonprobabilistic sampling was carried out; 286 bats in 12 sites were caught. Sample tissues of different animals were obtained; the RNA was obtained from tissues and a nested-RT-PCR was carried out and detected amplicons of 143 fragment of the NS5 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. In nonhematophagous bats Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor captured in Ayapel and San Carlos (Córdoba), respectively, an amplicon corresponding to NS5 was detected. The amplicons showed a high similarity with serotype-2 dengue virus (DENV-2). This is the first evidence of the DENV-2 genome in bats in from the Colombian Caribbean.
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Background: Oil palm plantation establishment in Colombia has the potential to impact Chagas disease transmis-sion by increasing the distribution range of Rhodnius prolixus. In fact, previous studies have reported Trypanosoma cruzi natural infection in R. prolixus captured in oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) in the Orinoco region, Colombia. The aim of this study is to understand T. cruzi infection in vectors in oil palm plantations relative to community composition and host dietary specialization by analyzing vector blood meals and comparing these results to vectors captured in a native palm tree species, Attalea butyracea. Methods: Rhodnius prolixus nymphs (n=316) were collected from A. butyracea and E. guineensis palms in Taura-mena, Casanare, Colombia. Vector blood meals from these nymphs were determined by amplifying and sequencing a vertebrate-specific 12S rRNA gene fragment. Results: Eighteen vertebrate species were identified and pigs (Sus scrofa) made up the highest proportion of blood meals in both habitats, followed by house mouse (Mus musculus) and opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Individual bugs feeding only from generalist mammal species had the highest predicted vector infection rate, suggesting that gener-alist mammalian species are more competent hosts for T. cruzi infection . Conclusions: Oil palm plantations and A. butyracea palms found in altered areas provide a similar quality habitat for R. prolixus populations in terms of blood meal availability. Both habitats showed similarities in vector infection rate and potential host species, representing a single T. cruzi transmission scenario at the introduced oil palm plantation and native Attalea palm interface.
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Background Bats are an important ecological group within ecosystems. The rabies virus is a Lyssavirus, and haematophagous bats are the principal reservoir; however, the virus has also been detected in non-haematophagous bats. The objective was to determine the rabies virus in non-haematophagous bats in the Colombian Caribbean region. Methods In 2017, a cross-sectional study was carried out with a base-risk sampling in twelve geographic zones of the Colombian Caribbean area that included the main ecosystems of two departments. 286 bats were captured, which were euthanized with a pharmacological treatment following the ethical protocols of animal experimentation. The taxonomic identification was done with dichotomous keys. The necropsy was carried out at the capture site, and brain samples were kept in liquid nitrogen. The extraction of the RNA was carried out from the frozen brains with Trizol™; a fragment of 914 bp of the glycoprotein G of the rabies virus was amplified with RT-PCR. The amplicons were sequenced with the Sanger method. Results Twenty-three genera of bats were identified, and, in two frugivorous, Artibeus lituratus and Artibeus planirostris, amplicons were obtained and sequenced as the rabies virus. Conclusions This is the first evidence of natural infection of the rabies virus in frugivorous bats in the Colombian Caribbean area; this result is important for the surveillance and control of rabies.
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The complex transmission ecologies of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases pose challenges to their control, especially in changing landscapes. Human incidence of zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi) is associated with deforestation although mechanisms are unknown. Here, a novel application of a method for predicting disease occurrence that combines machine learning and statistics is used to identify the key spatial scales that define the relationship between zoonotic malaria cases and environmental change. Using data from satellite imagery, a case–control study, and a cross-sectional survey, predictive models of household-level occurrence of P. knowlesi were fitted with 16 variables summarized at 11 spatial scales simultaneously. The method identified a strong and well-defined peak of predictive influence of the proportion of cleared land within 1 km of households on P. knowlesi occurrence. Aspect (1 and 2 km), slope (0.5 km) and canopy regrowth (0.5 km) were important at small scales. By contrast, fragmentation of deforested areas influenced P. knowlesi occurrence probability most strongly at large scales (4 and 5 km). The identification of these spatial scales narrows the field of plausible mechanisms that connect land use change and P. knowlesi, allowing for the refinement of disease occurrence predictions and the design of spatially-targeted interventions.
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Oropouche fever is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Oropouche virus (OROV), an arthropod transmitted Orthobunyavirus circulating in South and Central America. During the last 60 years, more than 30 epidemics and over half a million clinical cases attributed to OROV infection have been reported in Brazil, Peru, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago. OROV fever is considered the second most frequent arboviral febrile disease in Brazil after dengue fever. OROV is transmitted through both urban and sylvatic transmission cycles, with the primary vector in the urban cycle being the anthropophilic biting midgeCulicoides paraensis. Currently, there is no evidence of direct human-to-human OROV transmission. OROV fever is usually either undiagnosed due to its mild, self-limited manifestations or misdiagnosed because its clinical characteristics are similar to dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever, including malaria as well. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment, and in the absence of a vaccine for effective prophylaxis of human populations in endemic areas, the disease prevention relies solely on vector control strategies and personal protection measures. OROV fever is considered to have the potential to spread across the American continent and under favorable climatic conditions may expand its geographic distribution to other continents. In view of OROV's emergence, increased interest for formerly neglected tropical diseases and within the One Health concept, the existing knowledge and gaps of knowledge on OROV fever are reviewed.
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Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects - the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change.
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The isolation of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants, based on traditional use or ethnomedical data, is a highly promising potential approach for identifying new and effective antimalarial drug candidates. The purpose of this review was to create a compilation of the phytochemical studies on medicinal plants used to treat malaria in traditional medicine from the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPSC): Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe. In addition, this review aimed to show that there are several medicinal plants popularly used in these countries for which few scientific studies are available. The primary approach compared the antimalarial activity of native species used in each country with its extracts, fractions and isolated substances. In this context, data shown here could be a tool to help researchers from these regions establish a scientific and technical network on the subject for the CPSC where malaria is a public health problem.
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The Brazilian Amazon is burning — and the world is taking notice. So far this year, more than 76,000 wildfires have burned in Brazil — the majority in the Amazon — amounting to an increase of more than 80% over the same time period last year, according to the country’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE).
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Emerging and reemerging diseases are cause of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO). On February 2018, WHO releases its list of priority pathogens that have the potential to cause a public health emergency, given that for them there is no, or is insufficient, countermeasures, such as drugs and vaccines that help control outbreaks. During the last years, the world has experienced recent significant outbreaks of plague, an infection caused by Yersinia pestis and transmitted by fleas. In Africa, Madagascar,2-4 suffered during 2017 an outbreak, from the August 1 through November 22, 2017, with a total of 2348 confirmed, probable and suspected cases, including 202 deaths (case fatality rate [CFR] 8.6%). There were 1791 cases of pneumonic plague, of which 22% were confirmed
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Emerging infectious diseases research on high impact pathogens, such as Ebola is a matter of concern. As has been described by Garg and Kumar in its recent bibliometric analysis of that zoonotic viral disease [1], other emerging pathogens deserve also more analysis. May be this is the case of Kyasanur forest disease (KFD).
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Background: Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis attributed to multiple reservoirs. Climatic conditions influence the transmission of pathogenic leptospires, which require warm and humid conditions for survival. The influence of seasonality in human and animal leptospirosis in the subtropical region of Brazil remains poorly understood. Methods: We performed a retrospective study to describe the patterns of human and animal exposure to leptospirosis and their association with precipitation events in Southern Brazil. Rainfall data were obtained from satellite images. Serum samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT); samples with titer ≥ 100 were defined as seroreactive. Linear regression and Pearson's correlation were performed to assess whether there is a relationship between these variables. Results: We found that precipitation events were not significantly associated with the exposure to leptospirosis in humans or animal species, except for dogs. The interspecies analysis revealed an association between canine and human exposure to leptospirosis. Leptospira kirschneri serovar Butembo (serogroup Autumnalis) presented the highest seroreactivity in humans. Conclusion: This study provides valuable insights in human and animal leptospirosis in Southern Brazil. These insights will be essential to design intervention measures directed to reduce disease dissemination.
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The resurgence of infectious diseases of zoonotic origin observed in recent years imposes a major morbidity/mortality burden worldwide, and also a major economic burden that extends beyond pure medical costs. The resurgence and epidemiology of zoonoses are complex and dynamic, being influenced by varying parameters that can roughly be categorized as human-related, pathogen-related, and climate/environment-related; however, there is significant interplay between these factors. Human-related factors include modern life trends such as ecotourism, increased exposure through hunting or pet owning, and culinary habits, industrialization sequelae such as farming/food chain intensification, globalization of trade, human intrusion into ecosystems and urbanization, significant alterations in political regimes, conflict with accompanying breakdown of public health and surveillance infrastructure, voluntary or involuntary immigration, loosening of border controls, and hierarchy issues in related decision-making, and scientific advances that allow easier detection of zoonotic infections and evolution of novel susceptible immunocompromised populations. Pathogen-related factors include alterations in ecosystems and biodiversity that influence local fauna synthesis, favouring expansion of disease hosts or vectors, pressure for virulence/resistance selection, and genomic variability. Climate/environment-related factors, either localized or extended, such as El Niño southern oscillation or global warming, may affect host–vector life cycles through varying mechanisms. Emerging issues needing clarification include the development of predictive models for the infectious disease impact of environmental projects, awareness of the risk imposed on immunocompromised populations, recognition of the chronicity burden for certain zoonoses, and the development of different evaluations of the overall stress imposed by a zoonotic infection on a household, and not strictly a person.
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During February 1992, field studies on the epidemiology of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) were carried out in a rural area of Portuguesa State in central Venezuela. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of infection with Guanarito virus, the etiologic agent of VHF, among wild rodents and humans living within an endemic focus of the disease. A total of 234 rodents, representing nine different species, were collected and their spleens were cultured for virus. Thirty-one Guanarito virus isolates were made from two rodent species: 19 from 40 Sigmodon alstoni and 12 from 106 Zygodontomys brevicauda. Guanarito virus antibody rates among these two species were 5.1% and 15.0%, respectively. Nine of the 12 Z. brevicauda that yielded virus from their spleens also had Guanarito virus antibodies in their sera. In contrast, none of the 19 Guanarito virus-positive S. alstoni had antibodies to the virus. These data suggest that S. alstoni usually develops a persistent nonimmunizing infection with Guanarito virus, while Z. brevicauda develops an immunizing infection. Based on knowledge of the behavior of other human pathogenic arenaviruses, these results imply that S. alstoni is the principal rodent reservoir of Guanarito virus in nature. To determine the prevalence of Guanarito virus infection among humans in the same region, 195 people living near one of the rodent collecting sites were bled and their sera were tested for antibodies to the virus. Five individuals (2.6%) had Guanarito virus antibodies; all were adults, and two had been diagnosed previously as having VHF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Previous studies have shown that variation in the distribution of vectors associated to the transmission of Leishmania species may be related to climatic changes. However, the potential implications of these ecological changes in human health need to be further defined in various endemic populations where leishmaniasis carries a substantial burden of disease such as in Northeastern Colombia. Herein, we report the impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation climatic fluctuations during 1985-2002 in the occurrence of cases of leishmaniasis in two northeastern provinces of Colombia. During this period, we identified that during El Niño, cases of leishmaniasis increased, whereas during La Niña phases, leishmaniasis cases decreased. This preliminary data show how climatic changes influence the occurrence of leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia and contributes to the growing body of evidence that shows that the incidence of vector-borne diseases is associated with annual changes in weather conditions.
Yellow fever outbreak in Brazil: the puzzle of rapid viral spread and challenges for immunisation
  • C Possas
  • R Lourenco-De-Oliveira
  • P L Tauil
  • F P Pinheiro
  • A Pissinatti
  • Rvd Cunha
Possas C, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, Tauil PL, Pinheiro FP, Pissinatti A, Cunha RVD, et al. Yellow fever outbreak in Brazil: the puzzle of rapid viral spread and challenges for immunisation. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018;113:e180278.
Zoonoses and climate variability
  • R Cardenas
  • C M Sandoval
  • A J Rodriguez-Morales
  • P Vivas
Cardenas R, Sandoval CM, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Vivas P. Zoonoses and climate variability. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008;1149:326-30.
Human and animal leptospirosis in Southern Brazil: A five-year retrospective study
  • S Jorge
  • R A Schuch
  • N R De Oliveira
  • Cep Da Cunha
  • C K Gomes
  • T L Oliveira
Jorge S, Schuch RA, de Oliveira NR, da Cunha CEP, Gomes CK, Oliveira TL, et al. Human and animal leptospirosis in Southern Brazil: A five-year retrospective study. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2017;18:46-52.
Commission on Travel Medicine, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectología Pediátrica (SLIPE), Panama Carlos Franco-Paredes Division of Infectious Diseases
  • Risaralda Pereira
  • Colombia José Antonio Suárez Investigador Sni Senacyt Panamá
D.Katterine Bonilla-Aldana School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas, Sede Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia Committe on Tropical Medicine, Zoonoses and Travel Medicine, Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), Bogota, Colombia Semillero de Zoonosis, Grupo de Investigación BIOECOS, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas, Sede Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia José Antonio Suárez Investigador SNI Senacyt Panamá, Clinical Research Deparment, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud, Panama City, Panama Committe on Travel Medicine, Pan-American Association of Infectious Diseases (API), Panama City, Panama President, Commission on Travel Medicine, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectología Pediátrica (SLIPE), Panama Carlos Franco-Paredes Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, CO, USA Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, México City, Mexico Stalin Vilcarromero Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Salim Mattar Committe on Tropical Medicine, Zoonoses and Travel Medicine, Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), Bogota, Colombia Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas del Trópico, Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia
Emerging Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Group
  • Erika V Jimenez-Posada
Erika V. Jimenez-Posada Emerging Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Group, Instituto para la Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas -Sci-Help, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia Grupo de Investigación Biotecnología -Productos Naturales, Facultad de Tecnologías, Universidad Tecnologías, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Colombia
Bogota, Colombia Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences
  • J Alfonso
Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales * Committe on Tropical Medicine, Zoonoses and Travel Medicine, Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), Bogota, Colombia Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia Committe on Travel Medicine, Pan-American Association of Infectious Diseases (API), Panama City, Panama Emerging Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Group, Instituto para la Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas -Sci-Help, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Colombia E-mail address: arodriguezm@utp.edu.co.