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Balancing Electricity Demand and Supply in Smart Grids using Blockchain

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... Therefore, point forecasts have limited use in stability and security analysis of power systems. To overcome the limitation of point forecasts, deep learning methods are widely used in the field of WPF and other electricity related forecasting tasks [8][9][10]. Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have the inherent property of automatic modeling of the wind power characteristics [11]. ...
... To mitigate this risk, wind power forecasting is the most popular method. The wind power is forecasted using classical [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17], statistical and artificial intelligent methods. In literature, there are two types of wind power forecasting techniques: time series [12] and multivariate [13]. ...
Chapter
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Due to the depletion of fossil fuel and global warming, the incorporation of alternative low carbon emission energy generation becomes crucial for energy systems. The wind power is a popular energy source because of its environmental and economic benefits. However, the uncertainty of wind power, makes its incorporation in energy systems really difficult. To mitigate the risk of demand-supply imbalance by wind power, an accurate estimation of wind power is essential. Recognizing this challenging task, an efficient deep learning based prediction model is proposed for wind power forecasting. In this proposed model, Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) is used to decompose the wind power signals. Along with decomposed signals and lagged inputs, multiple exogenous inputs (calendar variable, Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)) are used as input to forecast wind power. Efficient Deep Convolution Neural Network (EDCNN) is employed to forecast wind power. The proposed model’s performance is evaluated on real data of Maine wind farm ISO NE, USA.
... The systems also provide the efficient use of devices data. Additionally, the authors in [30,31,32] presented a blockchain-based system to achieve trustfulness and authentication of data in the networks. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In this thesis, a blockchain-based data sharing and access control system is proposed, for communication between the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The proposed system is intended to overcome the issues related to trust and authentication for access control in IoT networks. Moreover, the objectives of the system are to achieve trustfulness, authorization, and authentication for data sharing in IoT networks. Multiple smart contracts such as Access Control Contract (ACC), Register Contract (RC), and Judge Contract (JC) are used to provide efficient access control management. Where ACC manages overall access control of the system, and RC is used to authenticate users in the system, JC implements the behavior judging method for detecting misbehavior of a subject (i.e., user). After the misbehavior detection, a penalty is defined for that subject. Several permission levels are set for IoT devices' users to share services with others. In the end, performance of the proposed system is analyzed by calculating cost consumption rate of smart contracts and their functions. A comparison is made between existing and proposed systems. Results show that the proposed system is efficient in terms of cost. The overall execution cost of the system is 6,900,000 gas units and the transaction cost is 5,200,000 gas units.
... The systems also provide the efficient use of devices data. Additionally, the authors in [30][31][32] presented a blockchain-based system to achieve trustfulness and authentication of data in the networks. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a blockchain-based data sharing and access control system is proposed, for communication between the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The proposed system is intended to overcome the issues related to trust and authentication for access control in IoT networks. Moreover, the objectives of the system are to achieve trustfulness, authorization, and authentication for data sharing in IoT networks. Multiple smart contracts such as Access Control Contract (ACC), Register Contract (RC), and Judge Contract (JC) are used to provide efficient access control management. Where ACC manages overall access control of the system, and RC is used to authenticate users in the system, JC implements the behavior judging method for detecting misbehavior of a subject (i.e., user). After the misbehavior detection, a penalty is defined for that subject. Several permission levels are set for IoT devices' users to share services with others. In the end, performance of the proposed system is analyzed by calculating cost consumption rate of smart contracts and their functions. A comparison is made between existing and proposed systems. Results show that the proposed system is efficient in terms of cost. The overall execution cost of the system is 6,900,000 gas units and the transaction cost is 5,200,000 gas units.
Chapter
The Internet of Things (IoT) industry is growing very fast to transform factories, homes and farms to make them automatic and efficient. In the past, IoT is applied in different resilient scenarios and applications. IoT faces a lot of challenges due to the lack of computational power, battery and storage resources. Fortunately, the rise of blockchain technology facilitates IoT devices in security solutions. Nowadays, blockchain is used to make reliable and efficient communication among IoT devices and emerging computing technologies. In this paper, a blockchain-based secure service provisioning scheme is proposed for Lightweight Clients (LCs). Furthermore, an incentive mechanism based on reputation is proposed. We used consortium blockchain with the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism. Furthermore, we used Smart Contracts (SCs) to validate the services provided by the Service Providers (SPs) to the LCs, transfer cryptocurrency to the SPs and maintain the reputation of the SPs. Moreover, the keccak256 hashing algorithm is used for converting the data of arbitrary size to the hash of fixed size. The simulation results show that the LCs receive validated services from the SPs at an affordable cost. The results also depict that the participation rate of SPs is increased because of the incentive mechanism.
Chapter
Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are facing various challenges. Cost efficiency, low energy consumption, reliable data communication between nodes and security are the major challenges in the field of WSNs. On the other hand, blockchain is also a very hot domain in this era. Blockchain has a remedy for some challenges, which are faced by the WSNs, e.g., secure data transactions and trustworthiness, etc. By keeping in mind the security issues, we induce blockchain into the WSNs. In short, we have proposed a trust model to avoid the malicious attacks and keep the transact data using the blockchain property of immutability. Moreover, an enhanced version of Proof of Stack (PoS), i.e., the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism is being used to add a new node in the network. Additionally, the smart contract is also written to check the working status of nodes. Simulations are performed in order to record the transaction cost and execution cost.
Chapter
The data sharing is the claim of actual scholars datasets to share and reuse in the future from any domain. The rise of blockchain technology has to increase universally and enhancement in share and reuse of scholars datasets. Despite there are numbers of security management frameworks for share data securely. However, those frameworks is a centralize based to make data share digitally. Its has restriction and owned by third party authority. The access and reuse of research datasets have a variety of issues it misinterpretation. In this aspect, the researcher or publisher has not to share data publicly due to reuse and perceive the risk in a data sharing environment. Preparing and storing data is difficult in contents sharing. To overcome the limitation and restriction, we proposed distributed data sharing management based on blockchain network (peer to peer P2P network). To signify on Ethereum framework, we proposed the case study of data sharing on the Ethereum smart contract platform to achieve the access.
Chapter
Nowaday’s energy demand and energy production are increasing. Renewable energy resources will play an important role in managing future production of electricity due to an increase in the development of societies. The centralized energy trading system faces a challenge in terms of fair energy distribution. Centralized existing energy trading system totally relies on a central system or third party, because the third party has many drawbacks in the form of record tampering or record altering. The fair transaction is the main issue in the energy trading sector. When the bitcoin is introduced in the market, the trust of Blockchain technology is increased. We proposed a Blockchain based energy trading system in peer to peer networks. Blockchain technology provides trust, security, and transparency for energy trading. In Blockchain technology, there is no necessary need of the third party in the energy supply sector. In our proposed paper, we facilitate the prosumer who produces renewable energy and sells surplus energy to the consumer. We achieved transparency, accuracy, efficiency in our proposed paper. Using a double auction process, we obtain low energy price and acheived consumer trust in energy trading.
Chapter
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network of nodes connected through a wireless channel. The sensor nodes in the network are resource constrained in terms of energy, storage and computational power. Node failure is a common phenomenon, which occurs due to environmental factors, adversary attacks, draining of battery power, etc. After node failure, recovery is challenging that needs a strong mechanism. In this paper, Blockchain-based Node Recovery (BNR) scheme for WSNs is proposed. In BNR scheme, recovery of failed nodes is on the basis of node degree. The working mechanism of the scheme is that firstly, the failed nodes are detected using the state (active or inactive) of Cluster Heads (CHs). In the second phase, the recovery process is initiated for inactive nodes. The main purpose of this step is to recover the failed CH, which ultimately results in restoring the active states of its member nodes. NodeRecovery Smart Contract (SC) is written for the purpose. The cost analysis for NodeRecovery is also performed in the proposed work. Moreover, the security analysis is performed to ensure the security of the proposed scheme. Effectiveness of the proposed model is shown by the simulation results.
Chapter
With an increase in the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), people have started using medical sensors for health monitoring purpose. The huge amount of health data generated by these sensors must be recorded and conveyed in a secure manner in order to take appropriate measures in critical conditions of patients. Additionally, privacy of the personal information of users must be preserved and the health records must be stored in a secure manner. Possession details of IoT devices must be stored electronically for eradication of counterfeited actions. The emerging blockchain is a distributed and transparent technology that provides a trusted and unalterable log of transactions. We have made a healthcare system using blockchain-based smart contracts which support enrollments of patients and doctors in a health center thereby increasing user participation in remote patient monitoring. Our system monitors the patients at distant places and generates alerts in case of emergency. We have used smart contracts for authorization of its devices and provided a legalized and secure way of using medical sensors. Using the blockchain technology, forgery and privacy hack in healthcare settings is reduced, thereby increasing the trust of people in remote monitoring. We have provided a graphical comparison of costs that verifies the successful deployment of contracts.
Chapter
In healthcare, interoperability has been focused recently, in which, Electronic Health Record (EHR) is patient-centric. However, patient-centered interoperability brings new challenges and requirements, like security and privacy, advance technology, immutability, transparency and trust among applications. Data related to healthcare is an asset of a patient that must be controlled and owned by patient. In this paper, we have proposed a blockchain based patient-driven interoperability and discussed how we can leverage blockchain. Blockchain facilitates us in data liquidity, data immutability, data aggregation, patient identity, digital access rules, incentives and clinical data volume. Our system provides patients an immutable log and easy access to their health data across the healthcare organizations. Furthermore, patient authorize healthcare organizations to access their health data. Stakeholders (patients and healthcare organization) of EHRs are also incentivized if any organization wants to access their health data.
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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network of nodes connected through a wireless channel. The sensor nodes in the network are resource-constrained in terms of energy, storage and computational power. Node failure is a common phenomenon , which occurs due to environmental factors, adversary attacks, draining of battery power, etc. After node failure, recovery is challenging that needs a strong mechanism. In this paper, Blockchain based Node Recovery (BNR) scheme for WSNs is proposed. In BNR scheme, recovery of failed nodes is on the basis of node degree. The working mechanism of the scheme is that, first the failed nodes are detected using state (active or inactive) of the Cluster Heads (CHs). In the second phase, the recovery process is initiated for inactive nodes. The main purpose at this step is to recover the failed CH, which will ultimately result in restoring the active states of its member nodes. NodeRecovery Smart Contract (SC) is written for the purpose. Furthermore, cost analysis for NodeRecovery is performed. Also, security analysis for the proposed scheme is performed to assure the security. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model. 1 Background Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has attracted extensive attention of researchers in recent times. It consists of several sensor nodes, working collectively to monitor the environmental conditions: temperature, humidity, sound and pollution levels. This data is then stored at a central location, which is termed as the sink or the base station. Such nodes have a microcontroller, radio transceiver, wireless communicating devices and an energy source (battery). The nodes have limited energy,
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