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An Incentive Mechanism for Secure Service Provisioning for Lightweight Clients Based on Blockchain

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... To overcome the issues, the authors proposed a blockchain-based trusted system for nodes' routing and recovery. The insecurity and untrustworthiness of data is also identified by the authors in [25,26,27,28,29]. To overcome the issues, blockchainbased systems are presented. ...
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In this thesis, a blockchain-based data sharing and access control system is proposed, for communication between the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The proposed system is intended to overcome the issues related to trust and authentication for access control in IoT networks. Moreover, the objectives of the system are to achieve trustfulness, authorization, and authentication for data sharing in IoT networks. Multiple smart contracts such as Access Control Contract (ACC), Register Contract (RC), and Judge Contract (JC) are used to provide efficient access control management. Where ACC manages overall access control of the system, and RC is used to authenticate users in the system, JC implements the behavior judging method for detecting misbehavior of a subject (i.e., user). After the misbehavior detection, a penalty is defined for that subject. Several permission levels are set for IoT devices' users to share services with others. In the end, performance of the proposed system is analyzed by calculating cost consumption rate of smart contracts and their functions. A comparison is made between existing and proposed systems. Results show that the proposed system is efficient in terms of cost. The overall execution cost of the system is 6,900,000 gas units and the transaction cost is 5,200,000 gas units.
... To overcome the issues, the authors proposed a blockchain-based trusted system for nodes' routing and recovery. The insecurity and untrustworthiness of data is also identified by the authors in [25][26][27][28][29]. To overcome the issues, blockchain-based systems are presented. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a blockchain-based data sharing and access control system is proposed, for communication between the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The proposed system is intended to overcome the issues related to trust and authentication for access control in IoT networks. Moreover, the objectives of the system are to achieve trustfulness, authorization, and authentication for data sharing in IoT networks. Multiple smart contracts such as Access Control Contract (ACC), Register Contract (RC), and Judge Contract (JC) are used to provide efficient access control management. Where ACC manages overall access control of the system, and RC is used to authenticate users in the system, JC implements the behavior judging method for detecting misbehavior of a subject (i.e., user). After the misbehavior detection, a penalty is defined for that subject. Several permission levels are set for IoT devices' users to share services with others. In the end, performance of the proposed system is analyzed by calculating cost consumption rate of smart contracts and their functions. A comparison is made between existing and proposed systems. Results show that the proposed system is efficient in terms of cost. The overall execution cost of the system is 6,900,000 gas units and the transaction cost is 5,200,000 gas units.
... In [24], authors proposed the privacy preserving mechanism through private blockchain. Authors in [25], [26] proposed incentive mechanism and repudiation system through blockchain for data storage of IoT devices on cloud edge network. In [27], [28] and [29] authors used blockchain for data trading and store health records of patients on IPFS. ...
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The growing number of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the energy system provides new market approaches according to price and decentralized generation of electricity. Local markets, on which consumers and prosumers can trade locally with each other by produced renewable generation directly within their community. This approach creates a balance between generation and consumption in a decentralized manner. In this paper, a distributed technology of Blockchain is used, which highlights the decentralized nature of local market. Thus, provides a decentralized market platform for trading locally without the need of central intermediary through Periodic Double Auction (PDA) mechanism. With the introduction of Smart Grid (SG) systems, there have been improvements in how utility companies interact with customers with regards of electricity usage. However, since the readings are done through the internet, there is a tendency for the data to be compromised. However, customers do not know why they pay huge amount of bills. In this proposed system, users are able to do trading through PDA and get access of their own previous history.The Blockchain technology provides transparency and is utilized to mitigate the above mentioned problems. Smart contacts, are used to exclude the third party to provide a transparent system between users on the network.
... While, to ensure the data access and integrity authors in [24,25,26], proposed their model using blockchain. Futher, authors used blockchain in big data, smart grid and wireless sensor network [27,28,29,30]. ...
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Counterfeit medicines are increasing day by day and these medicines are damaging the health of people. Drug Regulatory Authorities (DRAs) are trying to overcome this issue. Synchronized electronic medicine record can mitigate this risk. We proposed a decentralized Blockchain (BC) based medicine licensing and au-thentication system to stop production of counterfeit medicines. Our proposed system provides a convenient way to register medicines by manufacturers with DRA. Vendors will also be registered with DRA, they are intermediate who buy from manufacturer and sale to customers. Furthermore, every transaction between manufacturer and vendor will be saved to BC. We used Proof of Collaboration (PoC) as a consensus mechanism, the manufacturer deals with more vendors will have more mining power. DRA has a different department, i.e., Licensing Department (LD), regulatory Department (RD), and Quality Control Department (QAD). These departments perform many actions, which will be saved in the BC database. LD registers manufacturers and vendors, RD imposes rules and QAD makes random checks to test the quality of medicines. We also propose manufacturer profile scheme, QAD rates manufacturer according to its quality of medicines from the feedback of users. Moreover, we provide an interface to the users, through which they can check the authenticity of medicine. We compare results of traditional licensing system with BC based licensing system.
... However, security mechanism for lightweight clients is missing. Also in [11], an incentive mechanism is proposed on the basis of reputation of edge servers. ...
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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network of nodes connected through a wireless channel. The sensor nodes in the network are resource-constrained in terms of energy, storage and computational power. Node failure is a common phenomenon , which occurs due to environmental factors, adversary attacks, draining of battery power, etc. After node failure, recovery is challenging that needs a strong mechanism. In this paper, Blockchain based Node Recovery (BNR) scheme for WSNs is proposed. In BNR scheme, recovery of failed nodes is on the basis of node degree. The working mechanism of the scheme is that, first the failed nodes are detected using state (active or inactive) of the Cluster Heads (CHs). In the second phase, the recovery process is initiated for inactive nodes. The main purpose at this step is to recover the failed CH, which will ultimately result in restoring the active states of its member nodes. NodeRecovery Smart Contract (SC) is written for the purpose. Furthermore, cost analysis for NodeRecovery is performed. Also, security analysis for the proposed scheme is performed to assure the security. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model. 1 Background Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has attracted extensive attention of researchers in recent times. It consists of several sensor nodes, working collectively to monitor the environmental conditions: temperature, humidity, sound and pollution levels. This data is then stored at a central location, which is termed as the sink or the base station. Such nodes have a microcontroller, radio transceiver, wireless communicating devices and an energy source (battery). The nodes have limited energy,
... The authors in [33] introduce the mechanism of incentive for lightweight client based on blockchain. The authors in [34] introduce the node recovery scheme for wireless sensor network. ...
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Nowadays, technologies like Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are influencing the ways of our traveling. This paper observes closely the development of a decentralized blockchain-based mechanism for providing secure, reliable and real-time availability of AVs for the customers who want to do the ride. The AVs have many advanced control systems and sensors to detect a number of hurdles (Unsafe design of vehicles, Negligence of civilians, etc.) in the environment. Blockchain is a decentralized temper proof business protocol used to facilitate the users with transparent, reliable, secure and cost-effective solutions. The consensus mechanisms are used in blockchain for validation purposes. This paper uses the Proof of Work consensus algorithm for the validation of Demand Response (DR) events. It provides the mechanism for real-time monitoring and real-time supervision to the ride of the end-user. Furthermore, it briefly specifies that the AVs working with blockchain mechanisms provides real-time traffic information to the end-user. The blockchain-based mechanism providing secure services to the end-user also provides the mechanism of Peer to Peer (P2P) car-sharing which removes the need for any bank or any reliable authority. The proposed system is proved in the Ethereum environment by DR events in the network. The simulations portray that our system is much cost-effective, efficient and reliable to meet the demands of customers.
... We also used the storage layer as composed to the cloud-based storage layer. In [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17], authors use of blockchain in wireless sensor networks, Internet of things, smart grids, vehicle networks, etc. ...
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The data sharing is the claim of actual scholars datasets to share and reuse in the future from any domain. The rise of blockchain technology has to increase universally and enhancement in share and reuse of scholars datasets. Despite there are numbers of security management frameworks for share data securely. However, those frameworks is a centralize based to make data share digitally. Its has restriction and owned by third party authority. The access and reuse of research datasets have a variety of issues it misinterpretation. In this aspect, the researcher or publisher has not to share data publicly due to reuse and perceive the risk in a data sharing environment. Preparing and storing data is difficult in contents sharing. To overcome the limitation and restriction, we proposed distributed data sharing management based on blockchain network (peer to peer P2P network). To signify on Ethereum framework , we proposed the case study of data sharing on the Ethereum smart contract platform to achieve the access.
... However, the service providers are not rewarded so they will not provide services effectively. Some other authors also involve blockchain in their research works [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] for multiple purposes. ...
Conference Paper
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Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are facing various challenges. Cost efficiency, low energy consumption, reliable data communication between nodes and security are the major challenges in the field of WSNs. On the other hand, blockchain is also a very hot domain in this era. Blockchain has a remedy for some challenges, which are faced by the WSNs, e.g., secure data transactions and trustworthiness, etc. By keeping in mind the security issues, we induce blockchain into the WSNs. In short, we have proposed a trust model to avoid the malicious attacks and keep the transact data using the blockchain property of immutability. Moreover, an enhanced version of Proof of Stack (PoS), i.e., the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism is being used to add a new node in the network. Additionally , the smart contract is also written to check the working status of nodes. Simulations are performed in order to record the transaction cost and execution cost.
... Using blockchain technology different authors to resolve the different problems such as: data rights management, healthcare problem, data securing and fair sharing of data, data trading, node recovery problems, efficient energy trading, data rights management, edge servers participation. In [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] authors, using blockchain technology also have provided a solution for the above mentioned problem. ...
Conference Paper
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Nowaday's energy demand and energy production are increasing. Renewable energy resources will play an important role in managing future production of electricity due to an increase in the development of societies. The centralized energy trading system faces a challenges in terms of fair energy distribution. Centralized existing energy trading system totally relies on a central system or third party, because the third party has many drawbacks in the form of record tampering or record altering. The fair transaction is the main issue in the energy trading sector. When the bitcoin is introduced in the market the trust of Blockchain technology is increased. We proposed a Blockchain based energy trading system in peer to peer networks. Blockchain technology provides trust, security, and transparency for energy trading. In Blockchain technology there is no necessary need of the third party in the energy supply sector. In our proposed paper, we facilitate the prosumer who produce renewable energy and sell surplus energy to the consumer. We achieved transparency, accuracy, efficiency in our proposed paper. Using a double auction process We obtain less cost and consumer trust in energy trading.
... The authors of [10] have worked on IoT-enabled WSNs and achieved efficient routing. The authors of [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] have implemented blockchain in various domains like IoTs, healthcare, smart grids and crowd sensing networks. They have concluded that blockchain is an effective solution for data trading, remote patient monitoring, energy trading, malicious node detection, electric vehicles and IoT service provisioning. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With an increase in the development of Internet of Things (IoT), people have started using medical sensors for health monitoring purpose. The huge amount of health data generated by these sensors must be recorded and conveyed in a secure manner in order to take appropriate measures in critical conditions of patients. Additionally , privacy of the personal information of users must be preserved and the health records must be stored in a secure manner. Possession details of IoT devices must be stored electronically for eradication of counterfeited actions. The emerging blockchain is a distributed and transparent technology that provides a trusted and unalterable log of transactions. We have made a healthcare system using blockchain-based smart contracts which supports enrolments of patients and doctors in a health centre thereby increasing user participation in remote patient monitoring. Our system monitors the patients at distant places and generates alerts in case of emergency. We have used smart contracts for authorization of IoT devices and provided a legalised and secure way of using medical sensors. Using the blockchain technology , forgery and privacy hack in healthcare setting is reduced thereby increasing the trust of people in remote monitoring. We have provided graphical comparison of costs that verifies the successful deployment of contracts.
... In [6] and [7], authors proposed an incentive mechanism for location privacy protection of users. The proposed structure is divided into sub parts. ...
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The explosive development of Intelligent Vehicles (IVs) has led to a complex network, which is difficult to manage due to the extensive communication of vehicles and storage of vehicles data. Due to increase in number of vehicles, IVs come up with large difficulties. Huge data generated by IVs is very difficult to handle due to limited storage and lack of intelligent management. Many information security and privacy problems are also related to the IV networks. Traditional centralized approaches are used for storage and security purposes to face some issues. Increasing number of vehicles expand the number of links in network and also leads to the intensive data. Lack of coordination of vehicles, reliability of the network and traffic among vehicles are also some of the major issues. These issues hinder the performance of the vehicle industry. We propose a consensus based mechanism using blockchain technology to manage the intensive data and authenticate the data of vehicles in the EV industry. This mechanism also ensures data privacy, security and also promotes data immutability. The transactions are stored in distributed ledger making transparency a realization. In a nutshell, blockchain technology incorporated in EVs sector is a revolutionary thing.
... Several authors used blockchain to solve different problems such as: efficient energy routing, data rights management, securing data, energy trading, data trading, node recovery, edge servers participation, healthcare issues, and fair sharing of data. In [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27], authors used blockchain based solutions for the above mentioned problems. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In healthcare, interoperability has been focused recently, in which Electronic Health Record (EHR) is patient-centric. However, patient-centered interop-erability carries new challenges and requirements with it like security and privacy, technology that can handle different type of problem related to patient-driven inter-operability, immutability, transparency and trust among applications. Data related to healthcare is an asset of a patient that must be controlled and owned by patient. In this paper, we have proposed a blockchain based patient-driven interoperability and discussed how we can leverage blockchain. Blockchain facilitates us in data liquidity, data immutability, data aggregation, patient identity, digital access rules, incentives and clinical data volume. Our system provides patients an immutable log and easy access to their health data across the healthcare organizations. Furthermore, patient authorize healthcare organizations to access their health data. Stakeholders (patients and healthcare organization) of EHRs are also incentivized if any organization wants to access their health data.
... Reputation of IoV nodes are evaluated on the basis of historical interaction either valid or invalid response and recommended opinions either positive and negative rating from other IoV nodes. In [25][26][27][28], authors proposed blockchain-based secure network service provisioning for lightweight clients. They introduce service providers and service codes to be validated on-chain transaction which helps to reduce the overhead of data from different IoT devices. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internet of vehicles (IoV) are connected with each other through Internet. In recent years, IoV provides security mechanisms and quick information sharing schemes, etc. The rapid growth of IoV causes various challenges including data storage, intelligent transport system, selfishness, distrust of nodes and sensor's data leakage of information. To overcome data storage and delay in services, a decentralized , distributed, secure, transparent and scalable management system is proposed using blockchain technology. Provable data possession (PDP) scheme is used to validate the new data blocks. Message transfer process argon2 (MTP-Argon2) technique is used for data filtration. It filters the raw data to remove the duplicate and unnecessary data which is set by threshold. Data storage, less delay in service request or response, more sensor's data sharing and secure communication channel are achieved using proposed system.
... Furthermore, the scheme is validated using Java JDK and all algorithms are implemented using Java Pairing Base Cryptography library (JPBC). [26] have worked on light weight clients based on blockchain. ...
Conference Paper
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With rapid increase in the use of technology, the world is now moving towards smart cities which requires the communication and collaboration of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The smart city enhances the use of technology to share information and data among devices. These devices are producing a huge volume of data that needs to be tackled very carefully. Different works have already been done to provide a communication network for the IoT devices though, nothing is founded more effective in terms of resource utilization. Hybrid network architecture is the combination of a centralized and distributed network. The centralized network is used for the communication of IoT devices with edge nodes and distributed network for communicating miner nodes with edge nodes. In this way, the network utilizes a lot of resources. In this paper, we are proposing a single network which is the combination of both edge nodes and miner nodes. Blockchain is also implemented in this network to provide secure communication between the devices. The evaluation of the proposed model is done using different performance parameters such as time and cost against the number of devices. Limited number of devices are used to perform this evaluation. Furthermore, the results are obtained by utilizing Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus mechanism.
... Several studies in [15][16][17][18][19][20][21] used blockchain as a privacy-preserving mechanism for data aggregation; privacy protection and energy storage; secure classification of multiple data; incentive announcement network for a smart vehicle; crowdsensing applications; dynamic tariff decision, payment mechanism for vehicle-to-grid, data right management [22], and incentive for lightweight clients [23]. However, blockchain solution is inefficient to tackle data mining and linking attacks [24]. ...
Conference Paper
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During the process of charging, electric vehicle's location is usually revealed when making payment. This brings about the potential risk to privacy of electric vehicle. We observe that the trade information recorded on blockchain may raise privacy concern and therefore, we propose a blockchain oriented approach to resolve the privacy issue without restricting trading activities through (ε, δ)-differential privacy. The proposed scheme does not only preserve the electric vehicle's location; however, prevents semantic, linking and data mining based attacks. Simulation results show that as the privacy level increases, the risk revealing decreases as well.
... In [24], authors proposed the privacy preserving mechanism through private blockchain. Authors in [25,26] proposed incentive mechanism and repudiation In [27][28][29] authors used blockchain for data trading and store health records of patients on IPFS. Authors in [30][31][32] performed node recovery in wireless sensor networks and provide secure communication in crowd sensor networks through blockchain (Table 2). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The growing number of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the energy system provides new market approaches according to price and decentralized generation of electricity. Local market, in which consumers and prosumers can trade locally by generation of electricity through RES directly within their community. This approach creates a balance between generation and consumption in a decentralized manner. In this paper, a distributed technology of Blockchain is used, which highlights the decentralized nature of local market. It provides a decentralized market platform for trading locally without the need of central intermediary through Periodic Double Auction (PDA) mechanism. With the introduction of Smart Grid (SG) systems, there have been improvements in how utility companies interact with customers with regards of electricity usage. However, there is a tendency for the data of users to be compromised in SG. In this proposed system, users are able to do trading through PDA and get access of their own previous history. The blockchain provides transparency, traceability and is utilized to mitigate the above mentioned problems. Smart contacts, are used to exclude the third party to provide a transparent system between users in the network.
... Different authors have used blockchain to tackle the several problems such as: data trading, energy trading, node recovery, efficient energy routing, edge servers participation, data rights management, healthcare issues, securing data, fair sharing of data and under water routing problems. In [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] authors, have provided solutions for the above mentioned problems using blockchain. ...
Conference Paper
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Internet of Things (IoT) is growing exponentially and bringing revolution in today's modern society. IoT based smart devices are source of convenience to human life and producing huge amount of data on daily basis. This data is useful for consumers like industries, marketplaces, and researchers to extract valuable and functional data from raw data generated by these devices. This data is used by industries and developers to provide more efficient devices and services to users. Owner of the IoT device can generate revenue by selling IoT device data to interested consumers. However, on the other hand consumers do not trust the owner of IoT device for data trading and are not confident about the quality of data. Traditional systems for data trading have many limitations, such as they are centralized, lack reputation system, security and involve third party. Therefore in this paper, we have leveraged the IoT with blockchain technology to provide a trustful trading through automatic review system for monetizing IoT data. We have developed blockchain based review system for IoT data monetization using Ethereum smart contracts. All transactions are secure and payments are automated without any human intervention. Data quality is ensured to consumer through reviews and ratings about the data. Additionally, Ethereum blockchain system requires gas for every transaction. We have used 2 parameters: gas consumption, string input length and in terms of time and cost, and examined our model.
Chapter
Internet of vehicles (IoVs) are connected with each other through Internet. In recent years, IoV provides security mechanisms and quick information sharing schemes, etc. The rapid growth of IoV causes various challenges including data storage, intelligent transport system, selfishness of nodes, distrusted nodes and sensor’s data leakage of information. To overcome data storage and delay in services, a decentralized, distributed, secure, transparent and scalable management system is proposed using blockchain technology. Provable data possession (PDP) scheme is used to validate the new data blocks. Message transfer process argon2 (MTP-Argon2) technique is used for data filtration. Using this technique, the raw data are filtered to remove the duplicate and unnecessary data which are obtained from different nodes. Data storage, less delay in service request or response, more sensor’s data sharing and secure communication channel are achieved using proposed system.
Thesis
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Decision fusion is used to fuse classification results and improve the classification accuracy in order to reduce the consumption of energy and bandwidth demand for data transmission. Decentralized classification fusion problem was the reason to use belief function based decision fusion approach in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With the consideration of improving the belief function fusion approach, we have proposed four classification techniques namely Enhanced K-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN), Enhanced Extreme Learning Machine (EELM), Enhanced Support Vector Machine (ESVM), and Enhanced Recurrent Extreme Learning Machine (ERELM). In addition, WSNs are fallible to errors and faults because of their different software, hardware failures, and their deployment in diverse fields. These challenges require efficient fault detection methods to be used to detect faults in WSNs in a timely manner. We induced four type of faults: offset fault, gain fault, stuck-at fault, and out of bounds fault and used enhanced classification methods to solve the sensor failure issues. Experimental results show that ERELM has given the first best result for the improvement of belief function fusion approach. The other three proposed techniques ESVM, EELM, and EKNN have provided the second, third, and fourth best results, respectively. Proposed enhanced classifiers are used for fault detection and are evaluated using three performance metrics ,i.e., Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), and Error Rate (ER). In this thesis, the owner of the (Internet of Thing) IoT device can generate revenueby selling IoT device’s data to interested users. However, on the other hand, users do not trust the owner of IoT device for data trading and are not confident about the quality of data. Traditional data trading systems have many limitations, as they involve third party and lack: decentralization, security and reputation mechanisms. Therefore, in this thesis, we have leveraged the IoTs with blockchain technology to provide trustful data trading through automatic review system for monetizing IoT’s data. We have developed blockchain based review system for IoT data monetization using Ethereum smart contracts. Review system encourages the owner to provide authenticated data and solve the issues regarding data integrity, fake reviews and conflict between entities. Data quality is ensured to users through reviews and ratings about the data, stored in blockchain. To maintain the data integrity, we have used Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-256 encryption technique to encrypt data. All transactions are secure and payments are automated without any human intervention. Arbitrator entity is responsible to resolve problems between data owner and users. Incentive is provided to users and arbitrator in order to maintain the user participation and honesty. Additionally, Ethereum blockchain system requires gas for every transaction. Simulations are performed for the validation of our system. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time. Simulations show that the proposed methods outperform the existing techniques and give better results for belief function and fault detection in datascience WSNs. Additionally, blockchain based data trading in IoT system requires gas for every transaction. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time.
Chapter
Internet of Things (IoT) is growing exponentially and bringing revolution in today’s modern society. IoT based smart devices are source of convenience to human life and producing huge amount of data on daily basis. This data is useful for consumers like industries, marketplaces, and researchers to extract valuable and functional data from raw data generated by these devices. This data is used by industries and developers to provide more efficient devices and services to users. Owner of the IoT device can generate revenue by selling IoT device data to interested consumers. However, on the other hand consumers do not trust the owner of IoT device for data trading and are not confident about the quality of data. Traditional systems for data trading have many limitations, such as they are centralized, lack reputation system, security and involve third party. Therefore in this paper, we have leveraged the IoT with blockchain technology to provide a trustful trading through automatic review system for monetizing IoT data. We have developed blockchain based review system for IoT data monetization using Ethereum smart contracts. All transactions are secure and payments are automated without any human intervention. Data quality is ensured to consumer through reviews and ratings about the data. Additionally, Ethereum blockchain system requires gas for every transaction. We have used 2 parameters: gas consumption, string input length and in terms of time and cost, and examined our model.
Chapter
With rapid increase in the use of technology, the world is now moving towards smart cities which require the communication and collaboration of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The smart city enhances the use of technology to share information and data among devices. These devices are producing a huge volume of data that needs to be tackled carefully. Different works have already been proposed to provide a communication in a network for the IoT devices; however, nothing has been founded more effective in terms of resource utilization. Hybrid network architecture is the combination of a centralized and distributed network architectures. The centralized network is used for the communication of IoT devices with edge nodes and distributed network for communicating miner nodes with edge nodes. In this way, the network utilize a lot of resources. In this paper, we are proposing a single network which is the combination of both edge nodes and miner nodes. Blockchain is also implemented in this network to provide secure communication between the devices. The evaluation of the proposed model is done using different performance parameters such as time and cost against the number of devices. Limited number of devices are used to perform this evaluation. Furthermore, the results are obtained by utilizing Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism.
Chapter
Nowadays, technologies like Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are influencing the ways of our traveling. This paper inspects closely the development of a decentralized blockchain-based mechanism for providing secure, reliable and real-time availability of AVs for the customers who want to do the ride. The AVs have many advanced control systems and sensors to detect a number of hurdles (unsafe design of vehicles, negligence of civilians, etc.) in the environment. Blockchain is a decentralized temper proof business protocol used to facilitate the users with transparent, reliable, secure and cost-effective solutions. The consensus mechanisms are used in blockchain for validation purposes. This paper uses the Proof of Work consensus algorithm for the validation of Demand Response (DR) events. It provides the mechanism for real-time monitoring and real-time supervision to the ride of the end-user. Furthermore, it briefly specifies that the AVs working with blockchain mechanisms provides real-time traffic information to the end-user. The blockchain-based mechanism provides secure services to the end-user. It also provides the mechanism of Peer to Peer (P2P) car-sharing that removes the need for any bank or any reliable authority. The proposed system is proved in the Ethereum environment by DR events in the network. The simulations portray that our system is much cost-effective, efficient and reliable to meet the demands of customers.
Chapter
The explosive development of Intelligent Vehicles (IVs) has led to a complex network, which is difficult to manage due to the extensive communication of vehicles and storage of vehicles’ data. Due to increase in number of vehicles, IVs come up with large difficulties. Huge data generated by IVs is very difficult to be handled due to limited storage and lack of intelligent management. Many security and privacy problems are also related to the IV networks. Traditional centralized approaches are used to deal with limited storage and security issues. Increasing number of vehicles expand the number of links in network and also leads to the intensive data. Lack of coordination of vehicles, reliability of the network and traffic among vehicles are some of the major issues. These issues hinder the performance of the vehicle industry. We propose a consensus based mechanism using blockchain technology to manage the intensive data and authenticate the data of vehicles in the EV industry. This mechanism also ensures data privacy, security and also promotes data immutability. The transactions are stored in distributed ledger to provide facility of transparency. In a nutshell, blockchain technology is incorporated in EVs sector to revolutionize the World.
Chapter
During the process of charging, electric vehicle’s location is usually revealed when making payment. This brings about the potential risk to privacy of electric vehicle. We observe that the trade information recorded on blockchain may raise privacy concern and therefore, we propose a blockchain oriented approach to resolve the privacy issue without restricting trading activities through \((\epsilon , \delta )\)-differential privacy. The proposed scheme does not only preserve the electric vehicle’s location; however, prevents semantic, linking and data mining based attacks. Simulation results show that as the privacy level increases, the risk revealing decreases as well.
Chapter
In healthcare, interoperability has been focused recently, in which, Electronic Health Record (EHR) is patient-centric. However, patient-centered interoperability brings new challenges and requirements, like security and privacy, advance technology, immutability, transparency and trust among applications. Data related to healthcare is an asset of a patient that must be controlled and owned by patient. In this paper, we have proposed a blockchain based patient-driven interoperability and discussed how we can leverage blockchain. Blockchain facilitates us in data liquidity, data immutability, data aggregation, patient identity, digital access rules, incentives and clinical data volume. Our system provides patients an immutable log and easy access to their health data across the healthcare organizations. Furthermore, patient authorize healthcare organizations to access their health data. Stakeholders (patients and healthcare organization) of EHRs are also incentivized if any organization wants to access their health data.
Chapter
With an increase in the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), people have started using medical sensors for health monitoring purpose. The huge amount of health data generated by these sensors must be recorded and conveyed in a secure manner in order to take appropriate measures in critical conditions of patients. Additionally, privacy of the personal information of users must be preserved and the health records must be stored in a secure manner. Possession details of IoT devices must be stored electronically for eradication of counterfeited actions. The emerging blockchain is a distributed and transparent technology that provides a trusted and unalterable log of transactions. We have made a healthcare system using blockchain-based smart contracts which support enrollments of patients and doctors in a health center thereby increasing user participation in remote patient monitoring. Our system monitors the patients at distant places and generates alerts in case of emergency. We have used smart contracts for authorization of its devices and provided a legalized and secure way of using medical sensors. Using the blockchain technology, forgery and privacy hack in healthcare settings is reduced, thereby increasing the trust of people in remote monitoring. We have provided a graphical comparison of costs that verifies the successful deployment of contracts.
Chapter
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network of nodes connected through a wireless channel. The sensor nodes in the network are resource constrained in terms of energy, storage and computational power. Node failure is a common phenomenon, which occurs due to environmental factors, adversary attacks, draining of battery power, etc. After node failure, recovery is challenging that needs a strong mechanism. In this paper, Blockchain-based Node Recovery (BNR) scheme for WSNs is proposed. In BNR scheme, recovery of failed nodes is on the basis of node degree. The working mechanism of the scheme is that firstly, the failed nodes are detected using the state (active or inactive) of Cluster Heads (CHs). In the second phase, the recovery process is initiated for inactive nodes. The main purpose of this step is to recover the failed CH, which ultimately results in restoring the active states of its member nodes. NodeRecovery Smart Contract (SC) is written for the purpose. The cost analysis for NodeRecovery is also performed in the proposed work. Moreover, the security analysis is performed to ensure the security of the proposed scheme. Effectiveness of the proposed model is shown by the simulation results.
Chapter
Nowaday’s energy demand and energy production are increasing. Renewable energy resources will play an important role in managing future production of electricity due to an increase in the development of societies. The centralized energy trading system faces a challenge in terms of fair energy distribution. Centralized existing energy trading system totally relies on a central system or third party, because the third party has many drawbacks in the form of record tampering or record altering. The fair transaction is the main issue in the energy trading sector. When the bitcoin is introduced in the market, the trust of Blockchain technology is increased. We proposed a Blockchain based energy trading system in peer to peer networks. Blockchain technology provides trust, security, and transparency for energy trading. In Blockchain technology, there is no necessary need of the third party in the energy supply sector. In our proposed paper, we facilitate the prosumer who produces renewable energy and sells surplus energy to the consumer. We achieved transparency, accuracy, efficiency in our proposed paper. Using a double auction process, we obtain low energy price and acheived consumer trust in energy trading.
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The data sharing is the claim of actual scholars datasets to share and reuse in the future from any domain. The rise of blockchain technology has to increase universally and enhancement in share and reuse of scholars datasets. Despite there are numbers of security management frameworks for share data securely. However, those frameworks is a centralize based to make data share digitally. Its has restriction and owned by third party authority. The access and reuse of research datasets have a variety of issues it misinterpretation. In this aspect, the researcher or publisher has not to share data publicly due to reuse and perceive the risk in a data sharing environment. Preparing and storing data is difficult in contents sharing. To overcome the limitation and restriction, we proposed distributed data sharing management based on blockchain network (peer to peer P2P network). To signify on Ethereum framework, we proposed the case study of data sharing on the Ethereum smart contract platform to achieve the access.
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Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are facing various challenges. Cost efficiency, low energy consumption, reliable data communication between nodes and security are the major challenges in the field of WSNs. On the other hand, blockchain is also a very hot domain in this era. Blockchain has a remedy for some challenges, which are faced by the WSNs, e.g., secure data transactions and trustworthiness, etc. By keeping in mind the security issues, we induce blockchain into the WSNs. In short, we have proposed a trust model to avoid the malicious attacks and keep the transact data using the blockchain property of immutability. Moreover, an enhanced version of Proof of Stack (PoS), i.e., the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism is being used to add a new node in the network. Additionally, the smart contract is also written to check the working status of nodes. Simulations are performed in order to record the transaction cost and execution cost.
Conference Paper
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Crowd Sensing Network (CSN) uses sensor embedded mobile phones for the collection of data for some specific task which can effectively save cost and time. The quality of collected data depends on the participation level from all entities of CSN, i.e., service provider, service consumers and data collectors. In comparison with the centralized traditional incentive mechanisms devised for CSN, we have proposed a decentralized system model where incentives are used to stimulate the involvement among data collectors and motivate the participants to join the network. Moreover, the issue of privacy leakage is tackled by using AES128 technique. Furthermore , the system is evaluated through analyzing the gas consumption of all the smart contracts, whereas, the encryption technique is validated through comparing the execution time with base paper methods.
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