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Digital Innovations, PropTech and Housing – the View from Melbourne

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Abstract

The collection, digitisation and use of housing information in Australia has increased exponen- tially in the past decade. This brings significant implications for land and housing law and governance. The move from ‘analogue’ to digital, then to big data and Artificial Intelligence (Ai) not only speeds up existing social, economic and political relations, but fuels new and different dynamics (Kitchin 2014, pp. 19–20) just as innovations such as the printing press or telephone did in the past. As such, emerging digital and informational geographies and politics demand renewed critical attention (Dalton, Taylor, & Thatcher, 2016). As in many other cities, the proliferation of these technologies is occurring in a context of housing crisis where land prices are escalating and producing significant housing unaffordabil- ity. The confluence of these factors highlights the importance of examining the urban govern- ance implications of the emergence of what is often termed ‘Prop-Tech’ (Shaw 2018) – new technological applications in real estate. Greater understanding of PropTech is vital to sharpen the legal and policy response to the emergent urban governance aspects of digitisation. In this essay, we present results from an initial scoping study into the proliferation of these technol- ogies in Melbourne, Australia.
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Planning Theory & Practice
ISSN: 1464-9357 (Print) 1470-000X (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rptp20
Planning, Land and Housing in the Digital Data
Revolution/The Politics of Digital Transformations
of Housing/Digital Innovations, PropTech and
Housing – the View from Melbourne/Digital
Housing and Renters: Disrupting the Australian
Rental Bond System and Tenant Advocacy/
Prospects for an Intelligent Planning System/
What are the Prospects for a Politically Intelligent
Planning System?
Libby Porter, Desiree Fields, Ani Landau-Ward, Dallas Rogers, Jathan
Sadowski, Sophia Maalsen, Rob Kitchin, Oliver Dawkins, Gareth Young & Lisa
K Bates
To cite this article: Libby Porter, Desiree Fields, Ani Landau-Ward, Dallas Rogers, Jathan
Sadowski, Sophia Maalsen, Rob Kitchin, Oliver Dawkins, Gareth Young & Lisa K Bates (2019):
Planning, Land and Housing in the Digital Data Revolution/The Politics of Digital Transformations
of Housing/Digital Innovations, PropTech and Housing – the View from Melbourne/Digital Housing
and Renters: Disrupting the Australian Rental Bond System and Tenant Advocacy/Prospects for an
Intelligent Planning System/What are the Prospects for a Politically Intelligent Planning System?,
Planning Theory & Practice, DOI: 10.1080/14649357.2019.1651997
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2019.1651997
Published online: 02 Sep 2019. Submit your article to this journal
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Wachsmuth, D., Chaney, D., Kerrigan, D., & Shililo, A. (2018). The high cost of short-term rentals in New York
City. School of Urban Planning, McGill University, Retrieved from https://davidwachsmuth.com/2018/02/
01/the-high-cost-of-short-term-rentals-in-new-york-city/
Digital Innovations, PropTech and Housing the View from
Melbourne
Ani Landau-Ward and Libby Porter
Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
The collection, digitisation and use of housing information in Australia has increased exponen-
tially in the past decade. This brings signicant implications for land and housing law and
governance. The move from analogueto digital, then to big data and Articial Intelligence (Ai)
not only speeds up existing social, economic and political relations, but fuels new and dierent
dynamics (Kitchin 2014, pp. 1920) just as innovations such as the printing press or telephone
did in the past. As such, emerging digital and informational geographies and politics demand
renewed critical attention (Dalton, Taylor, & Thatcher, 2016).
As in many other cities, the proliferation of these technologies is occurring in a context of
housing crisis where land prices are escalating and producing signicant housing unaordabil-
ity. The conuence of these factors highlights the importance of examining the urban govern-
ance implications of the emergence of what is often termed Prop-Tech(Shaw 2018)new
technological applications in real estate. Greater understanding of PropTech is vital to sharpen
the legal and policy response to the emergent urban governance aspects of digitisation. In this
essay, we present results from an initial scoping study into the proliferation of these technol-
ogies in Melbourne, Australia.
Three aspects are important for considering the governance implications of PropTech. First,
PropTech increases the sheer amount of recorded information about land, housing, and
property. Second, data digitisation has speciceects, such as the emergence of digital data
as assets with value in and of themselves, and as data amenable to algorithmic analysis. Third,
PropTech brings new actors, products, and services into housing and real-estate sectors. Most
land registers in Australia have, in the past two decades, been fully digitised and many are now
either partially or fully privatised (on Victorias recent sale see Willingham, 2018). A move to
e-conveyancing has digitised the entire legal process of sale and transfer of land. This is
supported by a Federal Government initiative to secure a national (and privatised) system of
property transfer termed Property Exchange Australia(PEXA) which is now also a listed com-
pany owned by, among others, two major banks (Duran, 2018; PEXA, 2019). Alongside these
increasingly privatised stores of property-related information are other spatial datasets, such as
those oered by the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN), who make
available an ever increasing range of ne grained information about land, property, and housing
trends and behaviours, available to governments, private industry, researchers, students, and the
public (AURIN, 2019).
8INTERFACE
The Housing Context in Melbourne
Melbourne is experiencing signicant population increase and urban densication, in relation to
its history as a dispersed, low-density city. It is also, according to one popular cost of living
index, in the top 100 of the most expensive cities to live in in the world (Numbeo, 2019). The
landscape of housing in Melbourne is dominated by private ownership and freehold title. Yet
this is now shifting from the predominant form of dwelling in privately owned detached homes
with aordable mortgages, towards townhouse and apartment living and more private rental
(ABS, 2016). Strata titles have increased and some researchers and advocates have called for
understanding the large numbers of mum and dadinvestors as business owners, and in the
business of housing provision (Hulse, Martin, James, & Stone, 2018). Overall, increased rental
tenure, declining aordability and an increase in housing precarity and homelessness are all part
of the new housing terrain (ABS, 2016; Hulse, Morris, & Pawson, 2018).
While rental is increasing as a tenure type in the housing landscape, rental housing is still
considered transitional or temporary a step on the path toward home ownership. Signicant
demographic trends have been noted with people under 35 much less likely to own homes than
in previous decades, and low income residents living in areas with greatly increased transporta-
tion costs and poor access to areas of high employment, meaning that some residents who do
own homes are likely to be servicing unaordable mortgages (Raynor, Dosen, & Otter, 2017).
Homelessness and housing insecurity has burgeoned, and across housing types an increasing
number of people live under housing stress (Raynor et al., 2017, pp. 1115). Many advocates,
researchers and policy actors call for renewed attention to public housing, given that the state
has been in active retreat from public housing for decades. This trend is intensifying through
a current program in Melbourne of public housing renewal(Kelly & Porter, 2019). Public
housing is being transferred to social enterprises or not-for-prot organisations and providers,
and there is consensus across policy and housing advocacy groups that public housing is in
woefully inadequate and declining supply, and utterly unable to meet the scale of housing crisis
(Tenants Union, 2015).
Housing for the most disadvantaged in Melbourne has to be sourced in the cracks and
margins in cars, caravan parks, house-less camps, in overcrowded, or subdivided apartments,
or on couches (Moore, 2017). At the same time, the crisis housing sector has become so
disillusioned with the state of short-term emergency shelter options, they have recently told
the Victorian Government that they will refuse to send people experiencing homelessness to
shelters because the shelters are worse than being homeless (North and West Homeless
Networks 2019).
Emerging PropTech in Melbourne
In Melbourne, companies such as CoreLogic have tapped a lucrative business opportunity in
analysing records, valuations, sales and transfers on a database that boasts 4 billion property
decision points. They market themselves as the largest provider of property information,
analytics and property-related risk management services in Australia and New Zealand
(CoreLogic, 2019). This shifting landscape is not only about large private corporations, as social
enterprises are also increasingly part of the mix. These often have the ostensibly more laudable
aims of matching social services and utilising digital platforms for the digital public good. The
most important of these in the housing domain is probably Ask Izzy, a not-for-prot social
PLANNING THEORY & PRACTICE 9
enterprise powered by the giant Info-Exchange, and supported by: transnational tech giant
Google; real estate giant REA group; and media giant News Corp. Ask Izzy is marketed as an
open data platform that oers a range of tools to connect those seeking social services,
including housing and healthcare, to providers of various kinds. These are not just government
and social service providers but range from homeless shelters to private hotels. When we
conducted our search for this paper, the search returned properties belonging to the Ibis
hotel group. They also claim to utilise Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data and Australian
Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data to provide insights into the supply and demand of
services across Australia such as housing, food, health and more(Ask Izzy, 2019).
This newly data rich environment is further catalysing a range of new real estate related
products and services that utilise information in new ways for commercial purposes. These are
generally operated by what have lately come to be known as platformcompanies. In
Melbourne there is great diversity in the PropTech space, from hopeful startups, whose online
presence may look impressive, but are in fact small and risky, to large scale coordinated
operations with huge investors taking up serious market share and expanding into extensive
areas of real estate, property, and housing. The biggest players in Melbourne are the interna-
tional giants REA group and Domain.com who have both invested heavily in numerous new
PropTech products. Like other platform entities, they have various partnerships with other
products, such as the relationship between Flatemates.com.au and the REA group.
There are also a range of ways that such Apps and tech link or connect into other sectors,
especially nance and banking. Experimental startups, like Land LayBy Australia, facilitate the
sale of future land options in Kenya from Australia, and are developing a privately owned,
blockchain land registration system (in Kenya), that they plan to use to secure these options.
(Land LayBy, 2019). There are also a range of small, new fractionalised investment platforms
such as:
BrickX who allow investors to buy any number of shares (bricks) in any number of proper-
ties that the platform manages;
DomaCom which enables investors to pool money to buy property, or to invest in a range
of properties. This App utilises both crowdfundingand peer to peer (p2p) techniques, and
now targets elderly home owners to provide equity releasethrough selling ofractions of
their homes;
CoVesta which was designed as a platform tool to enable multiple buyers to invest in
a property that is rented out and sold after 5 years, but in its current iteration sells its
platform tool as a product for those looking to arrange investments for their own clients;
and
Estate Baron which oers fractionalised co-investment opportunities and (with other
inuential real estate and developer interests) is building a blockchain (an enabled, dis-
tributed registry) where fractionalised shares in land and property interests, or other
securities, can be registered. Called KonKrete, it is expected to come online soon
(KonKrete, 2019)
Other PropTech applications are closely associated with ntech and real estate sales. For
example, the price prediction software REALas, owned by the ANZ bank, claims to have
designed the smartest property price prediction service in Australia(REALas, 2019). There are
10 INTERFACE
many other applications and platforms that provide other nancial services related to housing,
such as insurance, loans and applications.
PropTech is not just conned to the various ways that property can be bought and sold. It is
increasingly used in the range of services, and products associated with both long-term and short-
term rental tenancies. At a recent conference on digital disruptions and housing policy, the chief
economist for the REA group Nerida Cosbee shared a list of at least 50 platforms and businesses that
she saw as disrupting the residential rental sector in the coming twelve months, calling them rent-
techor rent-focusedPropTech in a universe of prop tech businesses(Cosbee, 2018). The most
obvious of these are the big platforms that have disrupted hotels, such as Airbnb, or Booking.com,
but there are others that cross over more with other traditional rental and real estate sectors. Rent.
com.au, for example, is a private company listed and founded in 2016 with major shareholders
a mix of private individuals and investment rms such as HSBC. It aspires to be a one stop shop for
the rental industry, and claims that growing numbers are choosing renting as a lifestyle and
investmentchoice (Rent.com.au, 2019). Rent.com.au products expand well beyond older matching
services and include: RentCheck; RentBond; RentConnect; RenterResume; RentPay; and RentQuote.
It also markets insurance products and is aliated with commercial leasing platform Lease.com.au.
Another PropTech platform, Equiem, who have oces in Melbourne, London and New York, focuses
on landlord experience, claiming that they exist to help landlords unlock new value in their assets
(Equiem, 2019).
More facilitation focussed products have exploded in recent years. Services and products
related to rental tenures have become lucrative opportunities for identifying new markets,
especially in a context like Melbourne where rental share of the housing market is growing.
The PropTech platforms and applications moving into rental tenure are diverse. Bricks
+Agent, for example, is a cloud based marketplace for homeowners and trade profes-
sionals to list, discover and connect with one another to complete property maintenance
jobs(Bricks+Agent, 2019). It also coordinates house inspections. Rex Software, is a cloud
based real estate customer relationship management (CRM) system that provides software
to manage and analyse diverse aspects of the real estate business, focused on interactions
with various types of clients. It claims, for example, to be the single point of truth for
every clientand it stores a rich tapestry of relationships individuals have with other
properties or contacts, and a comprehensive stream of every interaction theyve had with
any other user in your agency(Rex Software, 2019). LeaseInfo, a leasing data provider,
released Accurait last year, a cloud-based software that uses articial intelligence and
machine learning methods for saving time in a document-intensive commercial lease
management environment(Tan, 2018). Finally, Activepipe, whose main business is to
automate and curate messaging and communication between real estate agents and clients
(both landlord and tenant), works by analysing data by Ai algorithm. Melbourne-based but
active Australia wide, in the last 12 months it has secured three Australian business awards
and successfully completed a $5.9 million funding drive.
Impacts and Trends
There is often an assumption that the digitisation of land and housing information, and the
emergence of PropTech, are inherently neutral, or even inherently good. The belief that more
data, more information, and more ecient use of it, will intrinsically benet society, especially
PLANNING THEORY & PRACTICE 11
through enhancing technical knowledge and making older processes quicker, smoother, and
easier seems an unshakeable faith. In our analysis of the technological disruptions in Melbourne,
this is often focused on the range of potential eciencies digital disruptions might create for
example enabling better matching between consumers and housing, or speeding up and
reducing the cost of transactions (eg: Pettit, Crommelin, Sharam, & Hulse, 2018; Sharam,
Byford, Karabay, McNelis, & Burke, 2018).
Consequently, much of the debate about the ethicalaspectsofdigitisationisfocusedonquestions
of privacy, transparency, openness and ownership of what is ultimately considered neutral and
individual data. This maintains a conception of the data as somehow apolitical, and does not engage
with the ways such data is being shaped in the interests of those who control it, or the ways that certain
demographics may be positioned dierently to others in regard to how they are represented or seen
in the data (Crawford, Gray, & Miltner, 2014). We argue that these digital disruptions cannot be viewed
as simply neutral technologies that replace existinganalogueprocesses,butareinsteadfundamentally
social and political processes entwined with existing and emerging power relations (Kitchin 2014,
p. 1920; Dalton et al., 2016;Shaw&Graham,2017;Taylor&Richter,2015). As Crawford and colleagues
note, data sets are not, and can never be, neutral and theory-free repositories of information waiting to
give up their secrets(2014,p.8).Payingattentiontoquestionssuchaswho benets? and who loses?
as the technologies are taken up across city neighbourhoods as well as to which experiences and
perspectives on housing are diminished, erased or made invisible? is urgent and important.
As we have shown in relation to Melbourne, various PropTech products are enabling the
movement of private rental tenancy management to online Apps where applications, bonds,
and matching services occur online often achieved through Ai augmented decision-making. At
the same time, a growing number of platforms foster linkages between social and public
housing, homelessness services, and private real estate companies, creating stores of informa-
tion that potentially complicate traditional divides between public and private. While many may
seem like exciting opportunities to enable greater access to housing services, we must also
remember how information about housing, and housing users, is being leveraged and capita-
lised in new ways. As the CEO of real estate software giant Altus Group stated:
This is a data game . . . The world of real estate is driven by demographics and generational changes,
the risk in assets, type of investors, and lower yields . . . it has become a technology game (Tan, 2017).
PropTech and the big data about individual houses and households is not only an asset in and
of itself, it helps create new kinds of nancial assets. The actors with interests in these
technologies often collate and store large amounts of information about housing, and resident
needs including use, tenancies types and histories, tenancy applications and rejections, transac-
tions and preferences. As such they produce new and dierent types of data. And, as in many
other kinds of sharing applications, users occupy a position not only as consumers, but also
producers of data assets and other kinds of value (Fuchs, 2017). We are only just beginning to
understand these uses and their impacts on housing. Some recent research has shown how
PropTech has enabled the extraction of new kinds of income ows and nancial value for large
scale investors in rental housing in the USA who purchased geographically dispersed property
portfolios after the global nancial crisis(Fields, 2019). As such, the capacity for PropTech to
link housing into volatile and remote nancial markets is in need of inquiry, especially in the
context of the global nancialisation of housing (Aalbers, 2016).
The capacity of PropTech to match property owners with much bigger and more specic
markets has also catalysed other signicant transformations. One of these has been a diusion
12 INTERFACE
among real estate actors of short-term tenancies, where previously regulatory compliance, admin-
istrative, and matching costs forced a more consolidated, and centralised set of actors. The most
well-known PropTech platform in this space is Airbnb who are well known for disruptingthe
hotel business, as well as for battling local regulators both through their hosts, and in court, and
stubbornly resisting responsibility for ensuring hosts comply with local laws (Martineau, 2019).
Airbnb has been widely studied in the Australian context (see: Gurran, 2018). But many other
platforms engage in similar, or more housing focussed aspects of short term tenure. Flatmates.
com for example calls itself Australias biggest share accommodation websiteand crosses the
line between traditional real-estate services and sharing economy innovations. It allows people to
list their spare rooms, nd accommodation themselves, or team up with other people to rent
a place or start a share house. The Melbourne based company has steadily grown from humble
beginnings to the point of claiming in 2016 to have 60% of market share, and 2.8 million visits in
a month, also the year it joined Australias biggest provider of online real estate services, REA
group. While agging compliance with local laws and regulations on its website, Flatmates.com,
like Airbnb (where it can), ultimately leaves this to the responsibility of users (Flatmates.com 2019).
While having obvious advantages for some and potentially making short term tenancies more
accessible, this proliferation of new arrangements may nonetheless increase the scale of precarious
and insecure housing stock as at least some owners wait for lucrative short term tenancies rather
than rent to longer term tenants (see Gurran, 2018; Gurran & Phibbs, 2017). It may also potentially
foster the capacity to discriminate and sort potential tenants which, as these forms of housing access
become more ubiquitous, becomes more pressing to address. Facebook for example is currently
being sued by the US governments Housing and Urban Development agency (HUD) for allowing
advertising for housemates and tenants to restrict the reach of their housing advertisements based
on race, religion or national origin (see Fields this issue).
Beyond these forms of overt discrimination, Virginia Eubanks has shown how inequality can be
automated. Her analysis in the US reveals that the automation of housing decisions, including the
operation of homeless and social service programs, prole, police, and punish the poor(Eubanks,
2018). Henman (2018) has found similar issues with algorithms behind government services in
Australia, stating that certain populations may be increasingly segmented, fragmented, or con-
trolled(p. 71). More generally algorithms and search engines, such as those increasingly built into
PropTech and other aspects of the digitisation of housinginformation, have been shown repeatedly
to have the capacity to learn and reproduce racism, and other forms of discrimination (Noble 2018).
Discrimination and bias in the housing sector, particularly in rental markets, has of course
always been a signicant problem. Rather than accuse new technologies of starting it, we must
ask how they might reproduce and reorganise it. Moreover, just as data is not inherently neutral
neither is it inherently regressive. Many aspects of housing data are of genuine use to housing
advocates and able to serve as a social good, as demonstrated by movements such as the Anti-
Eviction Mapping Project (2019) who even use tech to map the displacement of residents by
Airbnb; or the Indigenous Data Sovereignty (IDS) movement in Australia that critically inter-
rogates questions of consent and collective capacity to choose the way data is used and
disseminated (Kukutai & Taylor, 2016). However, neutral or positive eects are not a foregone
conclusion, which suggests that it is advocacy across the sector, rather than merely the regula-
tion of particular technologies or privacy requirements, where signicant eort is needed.
The rapid pace of these changes, and the sheer scope of digital innovations and transformations,
mean that housing professionals and experts alike areoften at risk of being left behind, especially in
PLANNING THEORY & PRACTICE 13
regard to bigger questions concerning the ethical and social dimensions of such transformations.
A number of issues are immediately clear. First, is that there needs to be a shift towards dierentiat-
ing housing from real estate. Digital disruptions in housing demonstrate clear trends toward the
intensication of commodication of housing, precisely at a time when the limits of that commo-
dication have been laid bare. Second, a policy and legal framework is necessary that conceptualises
housing and its associated data, not as product but as home. Some small inroads have certainly
been made toward this in Victoria, on the back of signicant civil society action, such as recent
changes to the Residential Tenancies Act (Vic) but there is much more work to do. Connections need
to be made between the lived experiences of housing that are witnessed by these groups, and the
structures of access and tenure being fostered in these platforms. Third, the governance solutions,
and interventions necessary in this shifting digital landscape, must transcend questions of individual
privacy, specic domains or uses. This will involve creating new accountabilities and responsibilities
for providers of the diverse range of commercial products and services around housing. All are
questions in need of further research and practice engagement.
Acknowledgements
We acknowledge the Woiwurrung and Boonwurrung speaking peoples of the Kulin Nation on whose
unceded lands this essay was written. This essay is part of a larger study of digital disruption in the
housing sector in Melbourne. The authors would like to acknowledge project collaborators Rebecca
Leshinsky and Paul Battersby.
Funding
The research was funded by RMIT Universitys Urban Futures program.
Notes on contributor
Ani Landau-Ward is a PhD scholar in the Centre for Urban Research at RMIT University. Her current
research is focussed on histories and techno-politics of land administration in global development.
She teaches in the Bachelor of Arts: International Studies, RMIT, and has published in the elds of
public administration, urban geography, and global studies. Email: Ani.landau-ward@rmit.edu.au
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Digital Housing and Renters: Disrupting the Australian Rental
Bond System and Tenant Advocacy
Dallas Rogers , Jathan Sadowski and Sophia Maalsen
University of Sydney, Australia
Introduction
Increasingly more of the things we do with, and in, houses are being mediated and changed by
digital technology. A burgeoning body of work has started to explore these technological
transformations and the issues arising in various parts of the housing sector. The issues explored
in this work present many challenges for tenant advocates in Australia. With these concerns in
mind, in late 2018 we gathered together the key tenant advocate organisations from every state
and territory in Australia for a one-day workshop on digital housing.
The aim of the workshop was two-fold; First, in the short-term the aim was to broaden and
sharpen the focus of our own research by reality checking our academic analysis some of
which we present below with frontline housing practitioners and tenant advocates. A second
longer-term aim is to work with tenant advocates to develop responses to three of the more
pressing ways that technology is changing landlord/tenant relations. These are: the way renters
live in homes; the way properties are rented and managed; and the way real estate is traded and
exchanged. We briey outline each below.
We conclude this essay with one illustrative case of how tech companies are seeking to insert
themselves into the rental housing system by asking the question: how is the rental bond system
likely to be augmented by tech companies and digital platforms, and what will be the ow-on eect
for formal tenant advocacy in Australia? This was an issue that emerged as a major topic of
discussion in the workshop, yet has been little discussed in the academic literature. This case is
important for housing advocacy because it shows that the technology is not the issue per se, but
16 INTERFACE
... According to the current stage of front management application and development, the thesis first sorts out the general rules of front management in many aspects such as management subject, application object, and application scope, after careful comparison and observation of various front management application scenarios, and studies the use of front management ideas and methods to give solutions to countermeasures, to play a role in preventing platform information security problems and ultimately reducing the occurrence of information security problems of public information platforms. Information security problems occur, guarantee the information security of public information platforms, deepen citizens' awareness of the importance of information security of public information, and reduce the negative impact on China's politics, society, and economy caused by the information security problems of public information platform [5]. The main object of this study is the public information platform in China, and the main work of the study is to prevent the information security problems of public information platforms. ...
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This paper conducts in-depth research and analysis on the construction of the public information product APP application platform of urban big media in the context of artificial intelligence and discusses its development. Based on the improvement of the SICAS model, a model of enterprise and user information interaction characteristics in the new media environment is constructed, and social network analysis and semantic analysis methods are used to research enterprise and user information interaction characteristics in the new media environment. The point degree centrality index is used to analyze forwarding and being forwarded behavior in information interaction, the intermediate centrality index is used to analyze following and being followed behavior, the proximity centrality index is used to analyze commenting and being commented behavior, the feature vector centrality index is used to analyze the cohesiveness of information interaction behavior, and the semantic keyword word is used to analyze the semantic keyword word in the research process. The results of the study show that the constructed model can analyze the information interaction behaviors of enterprises and users in the new media environment. The research results show that the constructed model can systematically analyze the information interaction characteristics, and the information interaction between enterprises and users in the new media environment is more timely, more effective, and more satisfying to users. The current situation of the construction of the public information platform and the problems existing in the construction are proposed to achieve the standardization of the construction of the public information platform in the context of smart city, the construction of the platform supervision system, and the strengthening of information security publicity and talent training. To offer a suitable platform and provide efficient solutions for the development of a public information service platform in the city, enhance the professional quality of research papers and dissertations, as well as the solutions’ operability. More public services will be provided in a highly connected way across the boundaries between government, enterprises, society, and citizens and even form a public service market that accepts autonomous choices and becomes an important part of the digital economy, thus finding a good balance between economic development and social welfare. 1. Introduction The development of regional science and technology collaborative innovation information service platform is not sound, and relevant science and technology information cannot be disseminated timely and effectively, which makes it difficult to produce major original science and technology achievements; the promotion and transformation rate of science and technology achievements is low, the duplicate construction and waste of science and technology information resources are serious, and the government, industry, academia, research, and application cannot be effectively united [1]. Therefore, from the theoretical policy of building a public information service platform for regional science and technology collaborative innovation, it is important to study the relevant theories, current situation, domestic and foreign experience, and strategic system of the development of this platform in this paper. The key to creating an innovative Hunan is collaborative innovation between government, industry, university, research, and usage as the primary body, as well as constantly increasing the scientific and technical innovation capacity of businesses. In this paper, by systematically studying the current situation, problems, domestic and foreign experiences, and countermeasure suggestions of Hunan regional science and technology collaborative innovation public information service platform, an effective scheme is formed in theory for the construction practice of Hunan regional science and technology collaborative innovation public information service platform so that the construction of the platform can be carried out in an orderly manner under the guidance of theory [2]. By defining the relevant concepts of regional science and technology collaborative innovation and its public information service platform and drawing on the advanced experience of the construction of regional science and technology collaborative innovation public information service platform at home and abroad, we analyze the problems of Hunan science and technology collaborative innovation public information service platform, make suggestions for the construction of innovative Hunan, and provide a useful reference for the decision of the construction of relevant information platform [3]. Furthermore, the higher externality of public information and the openness and interactivity of China’s public information platform construction define the larger significance of information security guarantee job, and the staff is likely to be under more strain. In many cities, cloud technology is represented in the operations of public information platforms in many areas. In the background of the era of big data, the information security of public information platforms is facing a severe test, and the situation of guaranteeing the information security of public information platforms has become more urgent. After collecting and reading a lot of literature on the construction of public information platforms, a preliminary summary of the current situation of information security of public information platforms shows that the importance attached to the information security of public information in the process of platform construction is gradually strengthened and deepened, and the measures for information security can be started from various aspects such as technology and management, combined with the actual situation and tried to be refined into specific measures [4]. For example, at the level of managers, there are specific suggestions such as increasing the participation of senior managers and integrating the idea of front-end management into the crisis management of public information security. According to the current stage of front management application and development, the thesis first sorts out the general rules of front management in many aspects such as management subject, application object, and application scope, after careful comparison and observation of various front management application scenarios, and studies the use of front management ideas and methods to give solutions to countermeasures, to play a role in preventing platform information security problems and ultimately reducing the occurrence of information security problems of public information platforms. Information security problems occur, guarantee the information security of public information platforms, deepen citizens’ awareness of the importance of information security of public information, and reduce the negative impact on China’s politics, society, and economy caused by the information security problems of public information platform [5]. The main object of this study is the public information platform in China, and the main work of the study is to prevent the information security problems of public information platforms. The issues with the platform’s functioning are first observed from the user’s viewpoint and then evaluated from the manager’s perspective to see what information security issues these issues may bring to the public information platform. We take the sports public platform as the observation object, sort out and categorise the information security problems in the platform, and then apply the predecessor management laws and methods previously summarized to propose countermeasures for the prevention of information security problems that commonly exist in China’s public information platform. The goal of constructing a social public information service platform is to offer public information services to society, which has recently been our government’s top priority in developing an e-government system. At present, our government is in the stage of functional transformation, and we should pay attention to strengthening the construction of public information services. Under the market economy system, our government should take public information services as an important task, and the root of public information services lies in the construction of public information service platforms. SMEs offering physical products are more likely to use social media based on cost-benefit motives, while service-oriented SMEs are more likely to consider interactivity as a key motive. Using Xiaomi as an example of a new kind of Internet business, it is determined that the new effort to enhance the company’s competitive advantage is to increase the company’s ability and efficacy of information contact with its consumers. The information interaction between enterprises and users is value-added, personalized, creative, and not easily replicated and is a new source of overall competitive advantage for business operation planning. With the development of information technology, increased enterprises interact with users through new media platforms, and it is of great significance for enterprises to effectively serve consumers and tap their needs by collecting and analyzing user data to understand their information needs and find out the factors and behavioral patterns that affect their willingness to interact. 2. Current Status of Research To discuss and analyze the overall status and trends of media content production nowadays, the era of smart media is getting better and better, with big data deeply linking smart media and users; robot writing, algorithmic production, and personalization have profoundly changed the way and process of traditional content production [6]. Media convergence has caused a huge impact on the content production of traditional media, so a large part of scholars discuss content production in the context of “how traditional media can adjust and transform content production to adapt to the new media ecology,” more from the operational level to discuss production strategies and model transformation. Many scholars hope that libraries can fully exploit their unique resource advantages in terms of providing scientific and technological information services to businesses, as they have the functions of preserving human cultural heritage, developing information resources, and participating in social education, so they can become an important part of the public information service platform for collaborative innovation development of businesses in science and technology. University libraries, it is believed, can implement market-oriented operation mechanisms, formulate a complete set of operation mechanisms based on enterprise user target selection, service level management assessment, cooperative operation mode, and reasonable fee standard, and propose to set up professional consulting staff, training staff, service staff, and other operational teams to provide necessary information resources for enterprises and make their exploitation possible. It is proposed that public libraries should fundamentally improve their service concepts and change their roles, share the successful experience of TEDA Library in providing information services based on enterprise customer orientation, and elaborate on the necessity of libraries to provide information on science and technology innovation from various perspectives such as enterprise market distribution, enterprise needs, enterprise problem orientation, collection information updating, librarian quality improvement, and scientific and technological support. By analyzing the feasibility of the library to provide science and technology information services for the development of SMEs, a specific organization and coordination method for information provision and a detailed operation plan are formulated [7]. Summarizing the development characteristics and information resource needs of these enterprises, a digital e-commerce information service platform that includes a combination of internal information resource management and external information infrastructure platform for enterprises was built through modern information service technology and concepts, and a specific and feasible integrated operation model was designed [8]. Recognizing the importance of creating an information service system for SMEs’ scientific and technological development, it is proposed that government departments create a public information service platform for collaborative scientific and technological innovation that includes higher education institutions, SMEs, and research institutes [9]. On the one hand, rapid socioeconomic development has given rise to rigid changes in the demand for public services in the time dimension, showing a shift from survival-oriented to security-oriented, enjoyment-oriented, and development-oriented, with increasingly diversified public service demands and a more complex supply process [10]. On the other hand, digital technology has the potential to lower the cost of government-provided public services while also opening up new opportunities for accurate, diverse, and personalized public services. However, it also poses significant challenges: dissatisfaction with public services is amplified by the network, the government’s slow response appears more unacceptable, and individual demands are more likely [11]. In addition, cloud computing, big data, and other popular technical service functions are also incorporated into the public information service platform with the Internet as the main carrier. The policy promotion actions of digital cities and e-government also provide a stronger impetus for the development and maturation of China’s public information service platforms. However, public information platform is the gathering place of a large amount of public information, and its flourishing development is bound to be accompanied by the hidden danger of information security problems, and reasonable prevention of information security problems is one of the important tasks to realize good public information services [12]. Public services have a greater value importance in the context of governance modernization, and they are not only a touchstone for social governance reform but also an essential assessment indicator for analyzing and evaluating numerous changes in the area of social governance. Meeting the residents’ demand for more comprehensive and systematic development-oriented public services will provide strong support and practical guarantee at the micro level for the realization of the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity. There are fewer terms specifically referring to public information platforms, and the research theme is more focused on achieving a networked and electronic e-government system for providing a better level of public information services. The importance of how public information services are accessed, utilized, and preserved in a networked manner is emphasized, advocating that attention should be paid to the selection and implementation of each linking approach, as there may be potential information security risks in these processes. 3. Analysis of the Construction of the App Application Platform of Public Information Products of Urban Big Media in the Context of Artificial Intelligence 3.1. Artificial Intelligence Background City Big Media Public Information Product APP Application Platform Development Design Along with the rapid development of ecological stations, they have gradually realized the use of Internet technology for data query and visualization, but the current monitoring platform of ecological stations is inadequate in data analysis, still lacks in data visualization, and lacks a real-time feedback mechanism for changes in station conditions [13]. It is worth noting that the data visualization in the monitoring platform of the ecological station is mostly based on the initial data collected by the equipment and instruments, which is fine from the level of real-time data presentation, but is insufficient if used for scientific research analysis, so data preprocessing is needed on this basis, and data analysis and visualization are carried out using data such as mean and median values with hourly, daily, and monthly time granularity. The presentation will be better. In summary, the overall application of the current monitoring platform of ecological stations is lacking, and to a certain extent, it cannot meet the daily work needs of ecological stations, and mobile applications are needed to improve the monitoring system. Since the system integrates data from several ecological stations, the system needs to divide the users’ rights and read the data of the corresponding stations according to the rights to prevent data leakage. Furthermore, users of the “Internet+Ecological Station” APP are restricted to ecological station personnel and do not facilitate the access and registration of visitors. If a user accidentally forgets the password, he or she can use his or her email information to change the password. Its use case diagram is shown in Figure 1.
... Other online housing platforms potentially distribute information in even more unequal ways, constructing filter bubbles in the residential search and sorting process. In fact, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) recently sued Facebook for violating fair housing laws, claiming their platform limits who can see advertisements for housing based on their race/ethnicity, religion, and current location (Benner, Thrush, and Isaac 2019;Porter et al. 2019). As cities and citizens increasingly turn to technology platforms to mediate urban processes, more unanticipated consequences, such as these housing information filter bubbles, will likely appear. ...
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