Success in Creative Industries. A Discussion About Critical Success Factors 87
Success in Creative Industries. ADiscussion
About Critical Success Factors
e goal of this article is topresent adiscussion about the critical success factors increative
industries and recommendations for the managers within them. In the article we positively
verify the thesis that sectors increative industries have general as well as sector-specic
critical success factors. Additionally, we formulate the thesis that organisations increative
industries, due totheir nature, are specically managed. is has justied an increase
inthe number of research on management inorganization on creative industries, which
enable us toraise the knowledge about those sectors and formulate recommendations for
Keywords: creative industries, creative economy, critical success factors, success
Dziurski P., Success in Creative Industries: A Discussion About Critical Success Factors, "Journal of Management and Financial
Sciences" 2016, Vol. IX, Issue 24, s. 87-100.
Patryk Dziurski 88
Managers increative industries, due totheir nature, face many management chal-
lenges and as aconsequence, success is dicult toachieve. Success can be measured
by critical success factors (CSF). An organisation that meets CSF will have achance
tobecome asector leader. Critical success factors inuence the competitive position
of an organisation and growth possibilities. Knowing and fullling critical success
factors is crucial inorder tosucceed. us, the goal of this article is topresent adis-
cussion about CSF increative industries and recommendations for the managers
within them. In the article we verify the thesis that sectors increative industries have
general as well as sector-specic critical success factors.
e article consists of three parts. In the rst part, we present the essence of
creative industries. In the second part, we indicate the key characteristics of creative
industries, which make them dierent from other sectors. Additionally, we place an
assumption that those properties inuence how organisations increative industries
are managed and we formulate the thesis that organisations increative industries
are specically managed. In the last sectionwe answer the question of how tosuc-
ceed increative industries by indicating the critical success factors and presenting
some practical recommendations for managers from creative industries. e applied
research methods are: critical analysis of the literature and deduction.
2.The Essence of Creative Industries
e concept of creative industries is acombination of adiversied set of activities.
Primarily, it merges sectors, which are highly capitalized and industrialized intheir
modes of production and distribution (e.g. music industry, lm industry) with
labour-intensive sectors, which can be broadly dened as crasmanship (e.g.arts,
cra, design). Secondly, it joins highly commercial sectors (e.g. advertising and
marketing) with activities, which are mainly driven by public subsidies (e.g. visual
and performing arts)
. us, the concept of creative industries synthesise art and
business. On the one hand, cultural has been ‘economized’, which means that the
business standards have been implemented towidely understood cultural activities.
1 T.Flew, S.Cunningham, Creative Industries after the First Decade of Debate, “The Information
Society” 2010, vol.26, no.2, pp.113–123.
Success in Creative Industries. A Discussion About Critical Success Factors 89
On the other hand, we deal with the acculturation of the economy2. is means that
the economy is asystem, which is inuenced by culture and ethic values3.
e concept of creative industries was born inthe United Kingdom inthe late 90 s
of the XX century and then it was spread rapidly around the world
. Recently, creative
industries are common topic inpublic as well as academic discourse5. e concept
of creative industries was created as aresult of political decisions6, but it responds
totwo key changes, which occurred at the turn of the century. e rst change is the
rapid development of new information and computing technologies (ITC), which
has inuenced supply (e.g. productivity increase) as well as the demand (e.g. new
ways of consuming creative and cultural goods and services) sectionof the market.
e second change is the growth of socio-economic complexity and uncertainty7.
us, inthe concept of creative industries art, media and design are merged with
digitalization, creativity and intellectual capital8. It is an interface between creativity,
culture, economics and technology inthe rapidly changing world9.
In the article creative industries are understood as dened by the Department
for Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS) inGreat Britain. Creative industries are those
industries which have their origin inindividual creativity, skill and talent and which
have apotential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation
of intellectual property10. Creative industries entail activities such as: (1) advertising
and marketing, (2) architecture, (3) cras, (4) design, (5) lm, TV, video, radio and
C.Bilton, Management and Creativity. From Creative Industries toCreative Management, Blackwell
Publishing, Malden, Oxford, Victoria 2012, p.159 and next; J.Szomburg, Kultura iprzemysły kultury
szansą rozwojową dla Polski, in: Kultura iprzemysły kultury szansą rozowjową dla Polski, ed. J.Szom-
burg, Instytut Badań nad Gospdoarką Rynkową, Gdańsk 2002, pp.9–12 as quated by K.Stachowiak,
Problemy metodologiczne badania sektora kreatywnego, “Rozwój Regionalny iPolityka Regionalna” 2015,
3 L. E.Harrison, S.Huntington, Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, Basic Books,
New York 2001; K.Kostro, Zagadnienie kulturowe wekonomii, “Gospodarka Narodowa” 2009, vol.20,
issue 3, pp.27–59.
4 C.Bilton, op.cit., p.164.
5 See: P.Dziurski, Przemysły kreatywne jako obszar badawczy wzarządzaniu. Analiza bibliomtery-
czna, in: Marketing. Zarządzanie, eds. K.Poznańska, K.Kraj, Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH, Warszawa 2015,
6 C.Bilton, op.cit., p.164; T.Flew, S.Cunningham, op.cit., p.113.
7 H.Collins, Creative Research. The Theory and Practice of Research for the Creative Industries, AVA
Publishing SA, Case Postale 2010, p.19.
J.Howkins, The Creative Economy. How People Make Money from Ideas, Penguin Books, Lon-
Creative Economy Report 2008. The Challenge of Assessing the Creative Economy: towards Informed
Policy-making, UNDP –UNCTAD, http://unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf (25.03.2016), p.4.
Foreword, in: Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001, Department for Culture, Media & Sport,
word2001.pdf (24.03.2016), p.5.
Patryk Dziurski 90
photography, (6) IT, soware and computer services, (7) publishing, (8) museums,
galleries and libraries, (9) music, performing and visual arts11.
3.Creative Industries as an Interesting Topic toExplore
Creative industries are an interesting topic toexplore, because organisations oper-
ating therein produce goods and/or provide services that are account for the Gross
National Product (GNP), export earnings and employment statistics. Moreover, they
are described as amechanism for social inclusion. Additionally, creative industries
dier from other activities inthe rest of the economy. M.Lavanga and I.Rozentale
indicate that the worldwide discourse addressing creative industries (...) rely almost
exclusively on aset of commonalities proposed inthe early works on creative industries
outlining why they are “notjust another business”12. Moreover, authors indicate that
those properties are replicated inresearch as well as policy-making13.
J.Lampel et al. indicate that cultural industries14 are clearly dierent from most
other industries: eir products evoke intensely private experiences, and they tap values
and aspirations that are neither utilitarian norcommercial. For the most partthey
bank on the successful use of creativity, which is aresource that ultimately cannot be
controlled15. As authors cite, it makes cultural/creative industries dierent from other
businesses and, as aconsequence, it raises alevel of ambiguity and dynamism totheir
environment, but it should be noted that it is nottypical only for cultural/creative
industries, it is acommon characteristic for all organisations. us, an unfavourable
Creative Industries Economic Estimates Methodology, Department for Culture, Media & Sport,
ogy.pdf (3.04.2016), p.6.
12 I.Rozentale, M.Lavanga, The “Universal” Characteristics of Creative Industries Revisited: The Case
of Riga, “City, Culture and Society” 2014, vol.5, p.55.
14 In the article J.Lampel et al. use term ‘cultural industries’, which was widely use inXX century.
In XXI century, inmost cases, the term ‘cultural industries’ was replaced by the term ‘creative industries’.
Nevertheless, both terms are still inuse (See e.g. S.Cunningham, From Cultural toCreative Industries:
Theory, Industry, and Policy Implications, “Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy:
Quarterly Journal of Media Research and Resources” 2002, vol.102, pp.54–65). Due todefinitional and
notional chaos both terms can refer tothe same activities as well as tothe different ones. It is necessary
todefine precisely used terms. Please note that conclusions of the cited article can also refer tocreative
J.Lampel, T.Lant, J.Shamsie, Balancing Act: Learning from Organizing Practices inCultural
Industries, “Organization Science” 2000, vol.11, no.3, p.268.
Success in Creative Industries. A Discussion About Critical Success Factors 91
and turbulent environment does notmake creative industries notjust another business,
but their internal contradictions do. J.Lampel et al. note ve polarities16:
– artistic values versus mass entertainment,
– product dierentiation versus market innovation,
– demand analysis versus market construction,
– vertical integration versus exible specialization,
– individual inspiration versus creative systems.
Managers inorganisations operating increative industries should consider those
contradictions. It does notmean choosing one extreme against another, but choosing
balanced solutions inorder toachieve set goals. For example, an organisation focuses
on mass entertainment and cannot ignore the artistic value. Likewise, an organisa-
tion, where artistic value is dominant, can take nonotice of commercial realities.
Finding acorrect balance between contradictions is acrucial task for managers
R. E.Caves indicates seven characteristic which dierentiate creative industries
from other businesses: nobody knows (demand uncertainty), art for art’s sake (cre-
ative people care about their output; they focus more on the artistic value than on
gaining revenues), motley crew (creative process require diverse skills), innite variety
(products are dierentiated), Alist/B list (vertically dierentiated skills), time ies
(time is crucial increative process) and ars longa (products are durable as well as
rents). R. E.Caves, based on the theory of contract and industrial organisation studies,
examines how these properties inuence the activities of organisations increative
industries. He explains the structure of organisations, deals and contracts increative
industries. He concludes that organisations increative industries dier insubstantial
and systematic (if notuniversal) ways from their counterparts inthe rest of the economy
where creativity plays alesser (if seldom negligible) role17. It can also be stated that,
thought prosperities of creative industries, the organisation operating therein have
aspecic way of management.
An interesting insight into the commonalities of creative industries is also made by
H.Collins. He identies that the creation of anew content and intellectual property is
the key activity for organisations increative industries. Businesses increative indus
tries are idea-based. ey operate inexisting markets, but they also create new ones
e sectors increative industries are polarized. is means that interms of numbers
16 Ibidem, pp.265–268.
17 R. E.Caves, Creative Industries: Contract between Art and Commerce, “Harvard University Press”,
Cambridge 2001, pp.2–18.
18 H.Collins, op.cit., p.18.
Patryk Dziurski 92
of organisations they are dominated by small and medium sized organisations, but
interms of strength they are dominated by large organisations19. C.Bilton stresses
that small and medium sized organisations create new ideas, which are economically
explored by large organisations
. Risk, due tothe domination of the option contract
inthe creative industries21, has been transferred tosmall and medium sized organi-
sations22. Organisations increative industries are project-based organisations23 and
they work within complex supply chains
and provide products and services toother
. Organisations increative industries ourish increative clusters
Informal networks are crucial toenable the creation and the circulation of creative
. K.Stachowiak and P.Tomczak additionally indicate that, incontrast
totraditional industries, activities increative industries cannot be easily relocated
–intrastate or internationally. Creative industries thrive through so as well as hard
infrastructure28 and insome cases the rst one can be even moreimportant29.
e assumption that creative industries have aset of commonalities has been
criticized. Some indicate that the concept of creative industries combines distinct
. Others argue that generalisation is impeded due toalack of solid theoretical
foundations and extended empirical research. Some others indicate that, especially
19 C.Bilton, op.cit., p.75 and next; J.Howkins, The Mayor’s Commission on the Creative Industries,
in: Creative Industries, ed. J.Hartley, Blackwell Publishing, Malden–Oxford–Carlton 2005, p.119.
20 C.Bilton, op.cit., p.75 and next.
21 R. E.Caves, op.cit., p.15.
22 C.Bilton, op.cit., p.75 and next.
23 K.Stachowika, P.Tomczak, Przestrzenny wymiar sektora kreatywnego, Bogucki Wydawnictwo
Naukowe, Pozanań 2015, p.49.
24 C.Bilton, op.cit., p.96; R.Davies, G.Sigthorsson, Introducing the Creative Industries. From Theory
toPractice, SAGE, London 2013; See: J.Hartley, J.Potts, S.Cunningham, T.Flew, M.Keane, J.Banks, Key
Concepts inCreative Industries, SAGE, London 2013, pp.28–31.
25 J.Foord, Strategies for Creative Industries: An International Review, “Creative Industries Journal”
2008, vol.1, no.2, pp.92–93
26 H.Collins, op.cit., p.18; K.Stachowiak, P.Tomczak, op.cit., p.57 and next.
27 C.Bilton, op.cit., p.138 and next; J.Potts, S.Cunningham, J.Hartley, P.Ormerod, Social Network
Markets: ANew Definition of the Creative Industries, “Journal of Cultural Economics” 2008, vol.32, no.3,
pp.167–185; H.Collins, op.cit., p.18; T.Flew, Global Creative Industries, “Polity Press” 2013, Cambridge,
p.79 and next.
28 K.Stachowiak, P.Tomczak, op.cit., p.49.
CompareR.Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure,
Community and Everyfay Life, Basic Book, New York 2002.
P. D z i u r s k i , Kluczowe czynniki sukcesu dla przemysłów kreatywnych, Zeszyt Naukowy “Studia
iPrace Kolegium Zarządzania iFinansów” 2015, no.143, p.99–117; J.O’Connor, The Cultural and
Creative Industries: ALiterature Review, 2nd edition, Creativity, Culture and Education, Newcastle 2010;
A.Markusen, G. H.Wassall, D.DeNatale, R.Cohen, Defining the Creative Economy: Industry and Occu-
pational Approaches, “Economic Development Quarterly” 2008, vol.22, no.1, pp.24–45.
Success in Creative Industries. A Discussion About Critical Success Factors 93
inthe policy-making, solutions should notbe uncritically reproduced31, but they
should be adopted considering the specicities of place32 and history background33.
Nevertheless, taking into consideration critics, it seems that the assumption that
creative industries have key characteristics, which dier them from other sectors, is
true. In general, creative industries can be distinguished from the whole economy,
but analyses should be conducted taking into consideration the local conditions.
Consequently, the presented characteristics inuence how organisations increative
industries are managed. It allows the formulation of the thesis that organisations
increative industries are specically managed.
4.Success inCreative Industries
Success can be measured by critical success factors, which are key factors that
managers have totake into consideration inorder toachieve alevel of performance
allowing them togain preparation goals34. CSF inuences the competitive position
and growth possibilities of the organisation
. Analysis of the critical success factors is
based on the Pareto principle (80/20). According tothis principle 20% of the factors
guarantee 80% of the success. is means that only asmall number of factors are
important inorder tosucceed. Managers have toconcentrate on few critical factors,
noton many trivial ones.
G.Gierszewska and M.Romanowska point out six business areas, where critical
success factors can be found: market position, cost position, brand and image of
the company, technology, protability and investments possibilities as well as the
organisation and management36. It is worth nothing the dierence between CSF and
the market success factors (MSF), which are appreciated by clients. us, MSF can
G.Evans, Creative Cities, Creative Spaces and Urban Policy, “Urban Studies” 2009, vol.46, no.5–6,
32 C.Taylor, Developing Relationships Between Higher Education, Enterprise and Innovation inthe
Creative Industries, in: Entrepreneurship inthe Creative Industries: AInternational Perspective, ed. C.Henry,
Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham–Northampton 2008, pp.178–196.
33 Making Competitive Cities, eds. S.Musterd, A.Murie, John Wiley & Sons, Oxford–Ames 2010.
34 R.Hackney, D.Dunn, Business Information Technology Management: Alternative and Adaptive
Future, Palagrave, New York 2000 as quoted by T. C.Sebora, S. M.Lee, N.Sukasame, Critical Success
Factors for e-Commerce Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Study of Thailand, “Small Business Economics”
2009, vol.32, no.3, pp.303–316.
35 G.Gierszewska, M.Romanowska, Analiza strategiczna przedsiębiorstwa, wyd. IV zmienione, PWE,
Warszawa 2014, p.128.
36 G.Gierszewska, M.Romanowska, op.cit., p.129; Strategor, Zarządzanie firmą. Strategie. Struktury.
Decyzje. Tożsamość, PWE, Warszawa 1996, p.69.
Patryk Dziurski 94
be found inbusiness areas such as market position as well as the brand and image
of the company. Both analyses –CSF and MSF –are relevant and they should be
conducted simultaneously. ese analyses are notsubstitutable, but complementary.
Nevertheless, analysis of the critical success factors allows alarger picture, because
it is awider examination. In many cases, the sector leader (CSF) is also amarket
leader (MSF), which is notalways the case. For example, market leadership interms
of market share expressed invalue can be achieved by limiting investments, reducing
margin and as aconsequence protability. As aresult, it can cause nancial problems
and impede growth possibilities. Focusing on market success factors can be deceptive
for managers. Indicators measuring market success are relatively simple as well as
their changes being seen quickly by stakeholders (e.g. managers, employees, clients,
shareholders). On the contrary, positive changes inother business areas (e.g. nance,
logistic) are harder tosee and, inmost instances, it takes much more time toachieve
desirable performances. However these second changes are more beneciary for
the organisation. Moreover, it is easier for organisations toconcentrate only on one
success indicator (e.g. market share) instead of focusing on many complementary
ones, which is recommended due tothe complexity of the business nowadays. To
sum up, if market leadership is aresult of excessive concentration on MSF instead
of CSF, the existence of an organisation can be threatened due toapossible crisis.
Here one more threat has tobe considered –the wrong list of CSF. is threat
arises when the analysis is concentrated more on the company than on the sector
as whole. As aresult, the created list can include factors, which are the strength of
the organisation instead of factors that are important tosucceed inthe sector. Con-
sequently, mangers can make wrong strategic decisions and as aresult crisis inthe
organisation can occur. Managers have tocarefully make alist of CSF and check
created list. One possibility is tocheck the critical success factors against the industry
life cycle –on each phase of the industry life cycle dierent types of critical success
factors are important37.
Critical success factors analysis is achallenging task consisting of afew phases,
which are presented ingraph 1. However, analysis, due torelative simplicity (e.g.com-
pared tothe strategic balance), can be easily conducted by managers and employees,
who can be supported by consultants. It has tostart with gathering data on the
analysed sector. en people, who undertake the analysis can identify CSF and
determine their operation. Aer that they have toallocate weights toeach factor
and evaluate organisations. As aresult, the strengths and weaknesses of an organi-
sation are identied. e recommendation, at this point, would also be toevaluate
37 Strategor, op.cit., p.69.
Success in Creative Industries. A Discussion About Critical Success Factors 95
asector leader or the nearest competitor (if it is justied, more competitors can be
evaluated), because it allows the formulation of awider analysis and the making
of proper strategic decisions. Aer the phases 2, 3 and 4 ndings, verication is
needed. If verication is positive, analysists can move tothe next phase, if not, they
have togo back to phase1 or 2 depending on the nature of the problem. e evalu-
ation of an organisation and its competitor/competitors allows for the preparation
of strategic proles and recommendations. e analysis of strategic proles allows
the comparison of an organisation’s strengths and weaknesses with acompetitor’s
strengths and weaknesses or with an ideal organisation (an organisation, which meet
all CSF). In practice it is very rare that one encounters the ideal organisation. More
oen, organisations have dierent strategic proles. e analysis of critical success
factors indicates areas and problems, which have tobe improved. An organisation
grows and thrives when critical success factors are met.
Graph 1. Phases of Critical Success Factors Analysis
Source: own elaboration with changes based on G.Gierszewska, M.Romanowska, op.cit., pp.128–134.
Patryk Dziurski 96
Table 1. Critical Success Factors inCreative Industries
General Critical Success actors inCreative Industries
High ability toadopt new technologies
High ability toattract and maintain talents
High ability toprotect and toexplore intellectual property
Great cooperation capabilities
Diversified funding sources
Effective brand management
Innovative business model
Successful international expansion
Sector-specific Critical Success actors inChosen Sectors inCreative Industries
Advertising agencies Computer programming
activities Architectural activities Photographic activities
Experience inspecific proects
Success of previous
Wide range of products and
Experience inspecific proects
High ability toengage clients
High familiarity and
understanding of clients’
High intuitiveness of solutions
High uality of software
Great number of
High diversity of proects
High uality of products
Wide range of products
Source: own elaboration based on: P.Dziurski, Analiza strategiczna przemysłów kreatywnych wPolsce, research report,
Kolegium Zarządzania iFinansów, Warszawa 2014, p.54 and the next.
Each sector has dierent critical success factors38. is is partly true increative
industries. Due tothe characteristics of creative industries, we identify that each sector
therein has asector-specic CSF as well as general critical success factors that hold
true for creative industries as awhole. General and sector-specic critical success
factors for chosen sectors39 increative industries are presented inTable 1. We iden-
tify eight general critical success factors and ve sector-specic CSF for advertising
agencies and computer programming activities and four CSF for architectural and
photographic activities. General CSF refers todierent business areas: technology,
human resources, law, cooperation, nance, marketing, business model and inter-
nationalization. Sector-specic critical success factors also refer todierent business
areas, but the greatest number of factors are MSF. Here, the threat of overestimation
market critical factors is notsignicant, because key factors from dierent business
38 G.Gierszewska, M.Romanowska, op.cit., p.128; Strategor, op.cit., p.109.
39 Sectors increative industries were divided into four groups: (1) tangible character of outputs and
low technology influence toacreative process; (2) tangible character of outputs and high technology
influence toacreative process; (3) intangible character of outputs and low technology influence toacre-
ative process; (4) intangible character of outputs and high technology influence toacreative process.
Sectors with the greatest number of organisation therein ineach group –advertising agencies, computer
programming activities, architectural activities and photographic activities –were chosen for the critical
success factors analysis. SeeP.Dziurski, Kluczowe czynniki suckesu…, op.cit., pp.103–108.
Success in Creative Industries. A Discussion About Critical Success Factors 97
areas are included inthe general list of CSF. For chosen sectors increative industries
some CSF are recurred (e.g. quality is acritical success factor inthe computing pro-
gramming activities as well as inphotographic activities), but some are unique (e.g.
localization of the photographic activities and reputation inthe advertising agencies).
However, each of the analysed sectors have adierent combination of sector-specic
CSF. It allows us topositively verify the thesis that sectors increative industries have
general as well as sector-specic critical success factors.
Reections inthe article provide the basis for apositive verication of the the-
sis that sectors increative industries have general as well as sector-specic critical
success factors. Additionally, we formulate the thesis that organisations increative
industries, due totheir nature, are specically managed. us, extended research on
management inorganization increative industries is needed. It enables the increase
of knowledge about those sectors and the formulation of recommendations for the
managers within them.
oughts present inthe article are mainly theoretical and the lack of empirical
studies is the main disadvantage of the article. Nevertheless, present reections raise
knowledge about the management increative industries and enable the formulation
of references for further researches:
due tothe nature of creative industries –mainly art for art’s sake property –suc-
cess can be understood dierently therein than inother sectors; thus empirical
studies have toanswer the questions how people increative industries understand
success? What are its measurements? If thinking about success inthe sector is
connected with CSF?40;
– empirically conrm the dierence between market success factors and critical
– identify sector-specic critical success factors (and their empirical verication)
for other sectors increative industries;
– empirical verication of indicated lists of CSF increative industries;
– study which enables the answering of questions towhat extent the critical suc-
cess factors analysis is used by managers increative industries; what are the
CompareP.Klimas, Czynniki sukcesu oraz przewagi konkurencyjnej wbranży gier komputerowych
iwideo, in: Zarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem inteligentnym. Wybrane zagadnienia, eds. S.Gregorczyk,
W.Mierzejewska, Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH, Warszawa 2016, p.346.
Patryk Dziurski 98
main advantages and disadvantages perceived by managers? What are the main
problems faced by managers regarding CSF analysis?
In the article, principles and instruction for the critical success factor analysis,
as atool of the strategic analysis are presented. Is should help managers toconduct
this analysis properly and correctly formulate strategic recommendations. Moreover,
additional practical recommendations for managers increative industries can be
formulated. Primarily, managers have toconsider general as well as sector-specic
critical success factors. Focusing only on general or sector-specic CSF will notallow
an organisation tosucceed inthe creative industries. Focusing on the wrong critical
success factors or only on market success factors can cause acrisis and threaten the
existence of an organization. Secondly, critical success factors analysis gives managers
information about an organisation’s and competitor’s strengths and weaknesses. As
aresult, managers know what the main problems are and which areas are underde-
veloped. Managers have tofocus on factors, which allow them togain competitive
advantage. It does notmean concentrating only on weaknesses, but also on strengths.
BiltonC., Management and Creativity. From Creative Industries toCreative Manage-
ment, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Oxford, Victoria 2012.
2. CavesR. E., Creative Industries: Contract between Art and Commerce, Harvard Uni-
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Industries, AVA Publishing SA, Case Postale 2010.
Creative Economy Report 2008. e Challenge of Assessing the Creative Economy:
towards Informed Policy-making, UNDP –UNCTAD, http://unctad.org/en/docs/ditc-
Creative Industries Economic Estimates Methodology, Department for Culture,
Media & Sport, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attach-
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Implications, “Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy:
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DaviesR., SigthorssonG., Introducing the Creative Industries. From eory toPractice,
SAGE, London 2013.
8. DziurskiP., Analiza strategiczna przemysłów kreatywnych wPolsce, research report,
Kolegium Zarządzania iFinansów, Warszawa 2014.
Success in Creative Industries. A Discussion About Critical Success Factors 99
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